Effects of Resistance Training on Measures of Muscular Strength in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the overall effect of resistance training (RT) on measures of muscular strength in people with Parkinson's disease (PD).Controlled trials with parallel-group-design were identified from computerized literature searching and citation tracking performed until August 2014. Two reviewers independently screened for eligibility and assessed the quality of the studies using the Cochrane risk-of-bias-tool. For each study, mean differences (MD) or standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for continuous outcomes based on between-group comparisons using post-intervention data. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on differences in study design.Nine studies met the inclusion criteria; all had a moderate to high risk of bias. Pooled data showed that knee extension, knee flexion and leg press strength were significantly greater in PD patients who undertook RT compared to control groups with or without interventions. Subgroups were: RT vs. control-without-intervention, RT vs. control-with-intervention, RT-with-other-form-of-exercise vs. control-without-intervention, RT-with-other-form-of-exercise vs. control-with-intervention. Pooled subgroup analysis showed that RT combined with aerobic/balance/stretching exercise resulted in significantly greater knee extension, knee flexion and leg press strength compared with no-intervention. Compared to treadmill or balance exercise it resulted in greater knee flexion, but not knee extension or leg press strength. RT alone resulted in greater knee extension and flexion strength compared to stretching, but not in greater leg press strength compared to no-intervention.Overall, the current evidence suggests that exercise interventions that contain RT may be effective in improving muscular strength in people with PD compared with no exercise. However, depending on muscle group and/or training dose, RT may not be superior to other exercise types. Interventions which combine RT with other exercise may be most effective. Findings should be interpreted with caution due to the relatively high risk of bias of most studies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study aimed to compare the efficacy of eccentrically focused resistance exercise (ECC RT) to concentrically focused resistance exercise (CNC RT) on knee osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms and strength. METHODS:Ninety participants consented. Participants were randomized to CNC RT, ECC RT, or a wait-list, no-exercise control group. Four months of supervised exercise training was completed using traditional weight machines (CNC RT) or modified-matched machines that overloaded the eccentric action (ECC RT). Main outcomes included one-repetition maximal strength (knee extension, leg flexion, and leg press), weekly rate of strength gain, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score and subscores. RESULTS:Fifty-four participants (60-85 yr, 61% women) completed the study. Both CNC RT and ECC RT groups showed 16%-28% improvement relative to the wait-list, no-exercise control group (P = 0.003-0.005) for all leg strength measures. The rate of weekly strength gain was greater for CNC RT than for ECC RT for leg press and knee flexion (by 2.9%-4.8%; both, P < 0.05) but not knee extension (0.7%; P = 0.38). There were no significant differences in WOMAC total and subscores across groups over time. Leg press strength change was the greatest contributor to change in WOMAC total scores (R = 0.223). The change in knee flexion strength from baseline to month 4 was a significant predictor of the change in WOMAC pain subscore (F ratio = 4.84, df = 45, P = 0.032). Both modes of strength training were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS:Both resistance training types effectively increased leg strength. Knee flexion and knee extension muscle strength can modify function and pain symptoms irrespective of muscle contraction type. Which mode to pick could be determined by preference, goals, tolerance to the contraction type, and equipment availability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A classic consequence of short-term bed rest in older adults is the significant loss in skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength that underlies the accelerated physical performance deficits. Structured exercise programmes applied during acute hospitalization can prevent muscle function deterioration. METHODS:A single-blind randomized clinical trial conducted in an acute care for elders unit in a tertiary public hospital in Navarre (Spain). Three hundred seventy hospitalized patients [56.5% female patients; mean age (standard deviation) 87.3 (4.9) years] were randomly allocated to an exercise intervention (n = 185) or a control (n = 185) group (usual care). The intervention consisted of a multicomponent exercise training programme performed during 5-7 consecutive days (2 sessions/day). The usual-care group received habitual hospital care, which included physical rehabilitation when needed. The main endpoints were change in maximal dynamic strength (i.e. leg-press, chest-press, and knee extension exercises) and maximal isometric knee extensors and hip flexors strength from baseline to discharge. Changes in muscle power output at submaximal and maximal loads were also measured after the intervention. RESULTS:The physical exercise programme provided significant benefits over usual care. At discharge, the exercise group showed a mean increase of 19.6 kg [95% confidence interval (CI), 16.0, 23.2; P < 0.001] on the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the leg-press exercise, 5.7 kg (95% CI, 4.7, 6.8; P < 0.001) on the 1RM in the chest-press exercise, and 9.4 kg (95% CI, 7.3, 11.5; P < 0.001) on the 1RM in the knee extension exercise over usual-care group. There were improvements in the intervention group also in the isometric maximal knee extension strength [14.8 Newtons (N); 95% CI, 11.2, 18.5 vs. -7.8 N; 95% CI, -11.0, -3.5 in the control group; P < 0.001] and the hip flexion strength (13.6 N; 95% CI, 10.7, 16.5 vs. -7.2 N; 95% CI, -10.1, -4.3; P < 0.001). Significant benefits were also observed in the exercise group for the muscle power output at submaximal loads (i.e. 30% 1RM, 45% 1RM, 60% 1RM, and 75% 1RM; all P < 0.001) over usual-care group. CONCLUSIONS:An individualized, multicomponent exercise training programme, with special emphasis on muscle power training, proved to be an effective therapy for improving muscle power output of lower limbs at submaximal loads and maximal muscle strength in older patients during acute hospitalization.
Project description:The aim of this study was to analyze the literature on muscle activation measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) of the muscles recruited when performing the leg press exercise and its variants. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to report this review. The search was carried out using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases. The articles selected met the following inclusion criteria: (a) a cross-sectional or longitudinal study design; (b) neuromuscular activation assessed during the leg press exercise, or its variants; (c) muscle activation data collected using sEMG; and (d) study samples comprising healthy and trained participants. The main findings indicate that the leg press exercise elicited the greatest sEMG activity from the quadriceps muscle complex, which was shown to be greater as the knee flexion angle increased. In conclusion, (1) the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis elicited the greatest muscle activation during the leg press exercise, followed closely by the rectus femoris; (2) the biceps femoris and the gastrocnemius medialis showed greater muscular activity as the knee reached full extension, whereas the vastus lateralis and medialis, the rectus femoris, and the tibialis anterior showed a decreasing muscular activity pattern as the knee reached full extension; (3) evidence on the influence of kinematics modifications over sEMG during leg press variants is still not compelling as very few studies match their findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Resistance training (RT) can improve whole muscle strength without increasing muscle fiber size or contractility. Neural adaptations, which lead to greater neural activation of muscle, may mediate some of these improvements, particularly in older adults, where motor neuron denervation is common. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of neural adaptations, as reflected by neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression, to improvements in (1) whole muscle strength and (2) muscle fiber size following RT in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. We performed whole muscle strength measurements and immunohistochemical analysis of fiber size, type, and NCAM expression before and after a 14-week RT program. RESULTS:RT increased whole-muscle strength as measured by 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press (P?=?0.01), leg extension (P?=?0.03), and knee extensor peak torque (P?=?0.050), but did not alter NCAM expression. Greater NCAM expression in myosin heavy chain (MHC) II fibers was associated with greater whole muscle strength gains (knee extensor peak torque r?=?0.93; P?<?0.01) and greater MHC II fiber size (r?=?0.79; P?<?0.01). Our results suggest that training-induced NCAM expression, and neural adaptations more generally, may be important for RT-induced morphological and functional improvements in older adults. Trial registration NCT01190046.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. PURPOSE:To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. STUDY DESIGN:Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS:A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD0-200ms and RTD0-peak torque). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). RESULTS:Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at postrehabilitation, the peak knee flexion angle was positively associated with peak torque and RTD0-200ms, and the knee extension moment was positively associated with RTD0-200ms. At 1 year postsurgery, peak knee flexion angle and knee extension moment were both positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and RTD0-peak torque. CONCLUSION:Although the hop symmetry index could be considered satisfactory for returning to sports, asymmetries in landing mechanics still exist in the first year postmeniscectomy. Greater quadriceps strength was associated with greater single-leg hop distance and better landing mechanics at both postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery. Knee activity self-efficacy was the only psychosocial factor associated with single-leg hop performance and isolated to a positive association with single-leg hop distance at postrehabilitation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Rate of development is not typically measured in the clinic but can be an additional quadriceps measure to monitor for single-leg hop performance. Quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors appear to have separate influence on single-leg hop performance after meniscectomy, which has implications for developing appropriate interventions for optimal single-leg hop performance.
Project description:The prevalence of obesity in older adults is increasing but concerns exist about the effect of weight loss on muscle function. Demonstrating that muscle strength and power are not adversely affected during "intentional" weight loss in older adults is important given the wide-ranging negative health effects of excess adiposity.Participants (N = 88; age = 70.6 ± 3.6 years; body mass index = 32.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups: pioglitazone or placebo and resistance training (RT) or no RT, while undergoing intentional weight loss via a hypocaloric diet. Outcomes were leg press power and isometric knee extensor strength. Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline values, compared follow-up means of power and strength according to randomized groups.Participants lost an average of 6.6% of initial body mass, and significant declines were observed in fat mass, lean body mass, and appendicular lean body mass. Compared with women not randomized to RT, women randomized to RT had significant improvements in leg press power (p < .001) but not in knee extensor strength (p = 0.12). No significant differences between groups in change in power or strength from baseline were detected in men (both p > .25). A significant pioglitazone-by-RT interaction for leg press power was detected in women (p = .006) but not in men (p = .88).In older overweight and obese adults, a hypocaloric weight loss intervention led to significant declines in lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass. However, in women assigned to RT, leg power significantly improved following the intervention, and muscle strength or power was not adversely effected in the other groups. Pioglitazone potentiated the effect of RT on muscle power in women but not in men; mechanisms underlying this sex effect remain to be determined.
Project description:Muscle loss and fat gain contribute to the disability, pain, and morbidity associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and thigh muscle weakness is an independent and modifiable risk factor for it. However, while all published treatment guidelines recommend muscle strengthening exercise to combat loss of muscle mass and strength in knee OA patients, previous strength training studies either used intensities or loads below recommended levels for healthy adults or were generally short, lasting only 6 to 24 weeks. The efficacy of high-intensity strength training in improving OA symptoms, slowing progression, and affecting the underlying mechanisms has not been examined due to the unsubstantiated belief that it might exacerbate symptoms. We hypothesize that in addition to short-term clinical benefits, combining greater duration with high-intensity strength training will alter thigh composition sufficiently to attain long-term reductions in knee-joint forces, lower pain levels, decrease inflammatory cytokines, and slow OA progression.This is an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial. The study population consists of 372 older (age ? 55 yrs) ambulatory, community-dwelling persons with: (1) mild-to-moderate medial tibiofemoral OA (Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) = 2 or 3); (2) knee neutral or varus aligned knee ( -2° valgus ? angle ? 10° varus); (3) 20 kg.m-2 ? BMI ? 45 kg.m-2; and (3) no participation in a formal strength-training program for more than 30 minutes per week within the past 6 months. Participants are randomized to one of 3 groups: high-intensity strength training (75-90% 1Repetition Maximum (1RM)); low-intensity strength training (30-40%1RM); or healthy living education. The primary clinical aim is to compare the interventions' effects on knee pain, and the primary mechanistic aim is to compare their effects on knee-joint compressive forces during walking, a mechanism that affects the OA disease pathway. Secondary aims will compare the interventions' effects on additional clinical measures of disease severity (e.g., function, mobility); disease progression measured by x-ray; thigh muscle and fat volume, measured by computed tomography (CT); components of thigh muscle function, including hip abductor strength and quadriceps strength, and power; additional measures of knee-joint loading; inflammatory and OA biomarkers; and health-related quality of life.Test-retest reliability for the thigh CT scan was: total thigh volume, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)?=?0.99; total fat volume, ICC?=?0.99, and total muscle volume, ICC?=?0.99. ICC for both isokinetic concentric knee flexion and extension strength was 0.93, and for hip-abductor concentric strength was 0.99. The reliability of our 1RM testing was: leg press, ICC?=?0.95; leg curl, ICC?=?0.99; and leg extension, ICC?=?0.98. Results of this trial will provide critically needed guidance for clinicians in a variety of health professions who prescribe and oversee treatment and prevention of OA-related complications. Given the prevalence and impact of OA and the widespread availability of this intervention, assessing the efficacy of optimal strength training has the potential for immediate and vital clinical impact.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01489462.
Project description:For efficient prevention of falls among older adults, individuals at a high risk of falling need to be identified. In this study, we searched for muscle strength measures that best identified those individuals who would fall after a gait perturbation and those who recovered their balance. Seventeen healthy older adults performed a range of muscle strength tests. We measured maximum and rate of development of ankle plantar flexion moment, knee extension moment and whole leg push-off force, as well as maximum jump height and hand grip strength. Subsequently, their capacity to regain balance after tripping over an obstacle was determined experimentally. Seven of the participants were classified as fallers based on the tripping outcome. Maximum isometric push-off force in a leg press apparatus was the best measure to identify the fallers, as cross-validation of a discriminant model with this variable resulted in the best classification (86% sensitivity and 90% specificity). Jump height and hand grip strength were strongly correlated to leg press force (r = 0.82 and 0.59, respectively) and can also be used to identify fallers, although with slightly lower specificity. These results indicate that whole leg extension strength is associated with the ability to prevent a fall after a gait perturbation and might be used to identify the elderly at risk of falling.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> There is growing evidence to support the use of low-load blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) exercise in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. <b>Purpose:</b> The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of low-load blood flow restricted (LL-BFR) training versus conventional high mechanical load resistance training (RT) on the clinical outcomes of patient's undergoing inpatient multidisciplinary team (MDT) rehabilitation. <b>Study design:</b> A single-blind randomized controlled study. <b>Methods:</b> Twenty-eight lower-limb injured adults completed a 3-week intensive MDT rehabilitation program. Participants were randomly allocated into a conventional RT (3-days/week) or twice-daily LL-BFR training group. Outcome measurements were taken at baseline and 3-weeks and included quadriceps and total thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume, muscle strength [five repetition maximum (RM) leg press and knee extension test, isometric hip extension], pain and physical function measures (Y-balance test, multistage locomotion test-MSLT). <b>Results:</b> A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between groups for any outcome measure post-intervention (<i>p</i> > 0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in mean scores for muscle CSA/volume, 5-RM leg press, and 5-RM knee extension (<i>p</i> < 0.01) after treatment. LL-BFR group participants also demonstrated significant improvements in MSLT and Y-balance scores (<i>p</i> < 0.01). The Pain scores during training reduced significantly over time in the LL-BFR group (<i>p</i> = 0.024), with no adverse events reported during the study. <b>Conclusion:</b> Comparable improvements in muscle strength and hypertrophy were shown in LL-BFR and conventional training groups following in-patient rehabilitation. The LL-BFR group also achieved significant improvements in functional capacity. LL-BFR training is a rehabilitation tool that has the potential to induce positive adaptations in the absence of high mechanical loads and therefore could be considered a treatment option for patients suffering significant functional deficits for whom conventional loaded RT is contraindicated. <b>Trial Registration:</b> ISRCTN Reference: ISRCTN63585315, dated 25 April 2017.
Project description:To determine whether a platform exercise program with vibration is more effective than platform exercise alone for improving lower limb muscle strength and power in women ages 45 to 60 with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA).Randomized, controlled study.Academic center.A total of 48 women ages 45-60 years with risk factors for knee OA (a history of knee injury or surgery or body mass index ?25 kg/m(2)).Subjects were randomly assigned to a twice-weekly lower limb exercise program (quarter squat, posterolateral leg lifts, calf raises, step-ups, and lunges) on either a vertically vibrating platform (35 Hz, 2 mm) or a nonvibrating platform.Change in isokinetic quadriceps strength, leg press power, and stair climb power by 12 weeks.A total of 39 of 48 enrolled participants completed the study (26 vibration and 13 control exercise). Nine participants discontinued the study after randomization mainly because of a lack of time. No intergroup differences in age, body mass index, or activity level existed. Isokinetic knee extensor strength did not significantly improve in either group. Leg press power improved by 92.0 ± 69.7 W in the vibration group (P < .0001) and 58.2 ± 96.2 W in the control group (P = .0499) but did not differ between groups (P = .2262). Stair climb power improved by 53.4 ± 64.7 W in the vibration group (P = .0004) and 55.7 ± 83.3 W in the control group (P = .0329) but did not differ between groups (P = .9272).Whole body vibration platforms have been marketed for increasing strength and power. In this group of asymptomatic middle-aged women with risk factors for knee OA, the addition of vibration to a 12-week exercise program did not result in significantly greater improvement in lower limb strength or power than did participation in the exercise program without vibration.