Ganoderma species, including new taxa associated with root rot of the iconic Jacaranda mimosifolia in Pretoria, South Africa.
ABSTRACT: Jacaranda mimosifolia trees have been progressively dying due to Ganoderma root and butt rot disease in Pretoria (the "City of Jacarandas") for many years. Ganoderma austroafricanum was described from these trees previously but this was based on a single collection. This study treats a substantially expanded collection of isolates of Ganoderma made from all dying trees where basidiomes were present in a Pretoria suburb. DNA sequences were obtained from the ITS and LSU region for the isolates and compared against sequences on GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses were used to compare sequences with those for other Ganoderma species. Based on sequence comparisons and morphological characters, two new Ganoderma species were discovered and these are described here as G. enigmaticum and G. destructans spp. nov. Interestingly, the previously described G. austroafricanum was not found, G. enigmaticum was found on only one Ceratonia siliqua tree and G. destructans was found on all other trees sampled. The latter species appears to be the primary cause of root rot of J. mimosifolia in the area sampled.
Project description:Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungal pathogen of maize, causing stalk rot and severely affecting crop production. The aim of this study was to characterize the protective effects of formulations based on Jacaranda mimosifolia leaf extracts against F. verticillioides in maize. We compared different seed treatments comprising J. mimosifolia extracts, chemical fungicide (mefenoxam) and salicylic acid to modulate the defense system of maize host plants. Both aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of J. mimosifolia (1.2% w/v) resulted in 96-97% inhibition of mycelial growth of F. verticillioides. While a full-dose (1.2%) extract of J. mimosifolia provided significant protective effects on maize plants compared to the inoculated control, a half-dose (0.6% w/v) application of J. mimosifolia in combination with half-strength mefenoxam was the most effective treatment in reducing stalk rot disease in pot and field experiments. The same seed treatment significantly upregulated the expression of genes in the leaves encoding chitinase, glucanase, lipid transfer protein, and pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1, PR-5 and PR-10, 72 h after inoculation. This treatment also induced the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protease, acid invertase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. We conclude that seed pre-treatment with J. mimosifolia extract with half-strength chemical mefenoxam is a promising approach for the management of stalk rot in maize.
Project description:Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Alanphillipsia aloeicola from Aloe sp., Arxiella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Ganoderma austroafricanum from Jacaranda mimosifolia, Phacidiella podocarpi and Phaeosphaeria podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Phyllosticta mimusopisicola from Mimusops zeyheri and Sphaerulina pelargonii from Pelargonium sp. Furthermore, Barssia maroccana is described from Cedrus atlantica (Morocco), Codinaea pini from Pinus patula (Uganda), Crucellisporiopsis marquesiae from Marquesia acuminata (Zambia), Dinemasporium ipomoeae from Ipomoea pes-caprae (Vietnam), Diaporthe phragmitis from Phragmites australis (China), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Melanconium hedericola from Hedera helix (Spain), Pluteus albotomentosus and Pluteus extremiorientalis from a mixed forest (Russia), Rachicladosporium eucalypti from Eucalyptus globulus (Ethiopia), Sistotrema epiphyllum from dead leaves of Fagus sylvatica in a forest (The Netherlands), Stagonospora chrysopyla from Scirpus microcarpus (USA) and Trichomerium dioscoreae from Dioscorea sp. (Japan). Novel species from Australia include: Corynespora endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Gonatophragmium triuniae from Triunia youngiana, Penicillium coccotrypicola from Archontophoenix cunninghamiana and Phytophthora moyootj from soil. Novelties from Iran include Neocamarosporium chichastianum from soil and Seimatosporium pistaciae from Pistacia vera. Xenosonderhenia eucalypti and Zasmidium eucalyptigenum are newly described from Eucalyptus urophylla in Indonesia. Diaporthe acaciarum and Roussoella acacia are newly described from Acacia tortilis in Tanzania. New species from Italy include Comoclathris spartii from Spartium junceum and Phoma tamaricicola from Tamarix gallica. Novel genera include (Ascomycetes): Acremoniopsis from forest soil and Collarina from water sediments (Spain), Phellinocrescentia from a Phellinus sp. (French Guiana), Neobambusicola from Strelitzia nicolai (South Africa), Neocladophialophora from Quercus robur (Germany), Neophysalospora from Corymbia henryi (Mozambique) and Xenophaeosphaeria from Grewia sp. (Tanzania). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Project description:Two experiments (pot and field experiments) were conducted in two consecutive years to evaluate the protective effects of botanical-chemical formulations on physiological, biochemical performance and grain yield of wheat inoculated with Bipolaris sorokiniana. We compared different formulations comprising Calotropis procera, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Thevetia peruviana extracts, chemical fungicide (mefenoxam) and salicylic acid to modulate the defense system of wheat host plants. Among the selected plant species J. mimosifolia aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts (1.2% w/v) resulted in 96 to 97% inhibition against B. sorokiniana. Both in pot and field experiments, among all the formulations of selected plant extracts the combined formulation of JAF2 (J. mimosifolia 0.6%)+MFF2 (mefenoxam 0.1%) lowered the dose of chemical fungicide required to reduce the leaf spot blotch disease. The same formulation induced resistance in wheat apparently through the accumulation of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protease, acid invertase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. This formulation also stimulated the defense-related gene expression of PR-proteins. The same treatment gave even more increase (48%, 12% and 22%) in no. of grains/spike, grains weight and grain yield, than the MFF1 (mefenoxam 0.2%). We conclude that foliar application of J. mimosifolia leaf extract with very low dose of chemical fungicide (J. mimosifolia 0.6%+mefenoxam 0.1%) is a promising approach for the management of leaf blight and spot blotch in wheat.
Project description:Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease.
Project description:Ganoderma is a cosmopolitan white rot fungal genus, famous for its medicinal properties. In the present study, two new Ganoderma species were collected from south-eastern China and described on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the translation elongation factor 1-? gene (EF1-?) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). Specimens of both species were found on living trees of Casuarina equisetifolia. Ganoderma angustisporumsp. nov. is characterised by its sessile basidiomata and almond-shaped, slightly truncate, narrow basidiospores (9-11.3 × 4-5.2 µm). Ganoderma casuarinicolasp. nov. is characterised by its strongly laccate reddish-brown pileal surface, luminous yellow to yellowish-brown cutis and ellipsoid, truncate basidiospores (9-10.2 × 5-6 µm). The two new species are compared with their related taxa. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that G. angustisporum and G. casuarinicola are distinct species within Ganoderma.
Project description:Objective. A pilot study to compare the rates of antenatal healthcare use in Birmingham, UK and Pretoria, South Africa, and identify differences in knowledge and perception of antenatal healthcare. Subjects. 62 women, 31 at each location <24 hours after delivery. Results. Women from Birmingham use healthcare services earlier (P ? .0001) and more often during pregnancy (P ? .0001). Women from Birmingham identified more conditions that may affect pregnancy (median 6 versus 3 reasons) and were less aware of HIV. In addition they perceived antenatal healthcare as relatively more important for advice and reassurance about pregnancy, whilst women from Pretoria had more problems with transport and clinic overcrowding. Conclusions. Increasing education on the importance of antenatal healthcare and medical problems during pregnancy may help improve antenatal healthcare use in Pretoria. Improving transport links and overcrowding in clinics in Pretoria may also help increase use. Measuring maternal outcomes and confirming these findings in a larger population are important for future studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin.<h4>Methods</h4>Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 microg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 microg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 microg/ml) were used as positive controls.<h4>Results</h4>The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8 g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 microg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 microg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 microg/ml).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of the selected plants used in folkloric medicine. All these plants were effective against three or more of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, they were ineffective against Streptococcus beta hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended. This study also showed that Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a highly valued medicinal plant. Cylindrocarpon destructans is a destructive pathogen that causes root rot and significantly reduces the quality and yield of P. ginseng. However, an efficient method to control root rot remains unavailable because of insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying C. destructans-P. ginseng interaction. In this study, C. destructans-induced transcriptomes at different time points were investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). De novo assembly produced 73,335 unigenes for the P. ginseng transcriptome after C. destructans infection, in which 3,839 unigenes were up-regulated. Notably, the abundance of the up-regulated unigenes sharply increased at 0.5 d postinoculation to provide effector-triggered immunity. In total, 24 of 26 randomly selected unigenes can be validated using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these unigenes showed that "defense response to fungus", "defense response" and "response to stress" were enriched. In addition, differentially expressed transcription factors involved in the hormone signaling pathways after C. destructans infection were identified. Finally, differentially expressed unigenes involved in reactive oxygen species and ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway during C. destructans infection were indentified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the dynamic transcriptome triggered by C. destructans. These results improve our understanding of disease resistance in P. ginseng and provide a useful resource for quick detection of induced markers in P. ginseng before the comprehensive outbreak of this disease caused by C. destructans.
Project description:A white-rot basidiomycete Ganoderma spp. has long been used as a medicinal mushroom in Asia, and it has an array of pharmacological properties for immunomodulatory activity. There have been many reports about the bioactive components and their pharmacological properties. In order to analyze the current status of Ganoderma products, the detailed process of cultivation of Ganoderma spp. and development of their products are restated in this review article. These include the breeding, cultivating, extracting bioactive component, and processing Ganoderma products, etc. This article will expand people's common knowledge on Ganoderma, and provide a beneficial reference for research and industrial production.