Probing the Biology of Giardia intestinalis Mitosomes Using In Vivo Enzymatic Tagging.
ABSTRACT: Giardia intestinalis parasites contain mitosomes, one of the simplest mitochondrion-related organelles. Strategies to identify the functions of mitosomes have been limited mainly to homology detection, which is not suitable for identifying species-specific proteins and their functions. An in vivo enzymatic tagging technique based on the Escherichia coli biotin ligase (BirA) has been introduced to G. intestinalis; this method allows for the compartment-specific biotinylation of a protein of interest. Known proteins involved in the mitosomal protein import were in vivo tagged, cross-linked, and used to copurify complexes from the outer and inner mitosomal membranes in a single step. New proteins were then identified by mass spectrometry. This approach enabled the identification of highly diverged mitosomal Tim44 (GiTim44), the first known component of the mitosomal inner membrane translocase (TIM). In addition, our subsequent bioinformatics searches returned novel diverged Tim44 paralogs, which mediate the translation and mitosomal insertion of mitochondrially encoded proteins in other eukaryotes. However, most of the identified proteins are specific to G. intestinalis and even absent from the related diplomonad parasite Spironucleus salmonicida, thus reflecting the unique character of the mitosomal metabolism. The in vivo enzymatic tagging also showed that proteins enter the mitosome posttranslationally in an unfolded state and without vesicular transport.
Project description:Mitochondria have evolved diverse forms across eukaryotic diversity in adaptation to anoxia. Mitosomes are the simplest and the least well-studied type of anaerobic mitochondria. Transport of proteins via TIM complexes, composed of three proteins of the Tim17 protein family (Tim17/22/23), is one of the key unifying aspects of mitochondria and mitochondria-derived organelles. However, multiple experimental and bioinformatic attempts have so far failed to identify the nature of TIM in mitosomes of the anaerobic metamonad protist, Giardia intestinalis, one of the few experimental models for mitosome biology. Here, we present the identification of a single G. intestinalis Tim17 protein (GiTim17), made possible only by the implementation of a metamonad-specific hidden Markov model. While very divergent in primary sequence and in predicted membrane topology, experimental data suggest that GiTim17 is an inner membrane mitosomal protein, forming a disulphide-linked dimer. We suggest that the peculiar GiTim17 sequence reflects adaptation to the unusual, detergent resistant, inner mitosomal membrane. Specific pull-down experiments indicate interaction of GiTim17 with mitosomal Tim44, the tethering component of the import motor complex. Analysis of TIM complexes across eukaryote diversity suggests that a "single Tim" translocase is a convergent adaptation of mitosomes in anaerobic protists, with Tim22 and Tim17 (but not Tim23), providing the protein backbone.
Project description:Mitochondria of opisthokonts undergo permanent fission and fusion throughout the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the mitosomes, the simplest forms of mitochondria, in the anaerobic protist parasite Giardia intestinalis, a member of the Excavata supergroup of eukaryotes. The mitosomes have abandoned typical mitochondrial traits such as the mitochondrial genome and aerobic respiration and their single role known to date is the formation of iron-sulfur clusters.In live experiments, no fusion events were observed between the mitosomes in G. intestinalis. Moreover, the organelles were highly prone to becoming heterogeneous. This suggests that fusion is either much less frequent or even absent in mitosome dynamics. Unlike in mitochondria, division of the mitosomes was absolutely synchronized and limited to mitosis. The association of the nuclear and the mitosomal division persisted during the encystation of the parasite. During the segregation of the divided mitosomes, the subset of the organelles between two G. intestinalis nuclei had a prominent role. Surprisingly, the sole dynamin-related protein of the parasite seemed not to be involved in mitosomal division. However, throughout the cell cycle, mitosomes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although none of the known ER-tethering complexes was present. Instead, the ER-mitosome interface was occupied by the lipid metabolism enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4.This study provides the first report on the dynamics of mitosomes. We show that together with the loss of metabolic complexity of mitochondria, mitosomes of G. intestinalis have uniquely streamlined their dynamics by harmonizing their division with mitosis. We propose that this might be a strategy of G. intestinalis to maintain a stable number of organelles during cell propagation. The lack of mitosomal fusion may also be related to the secondary reduction of the organelles. However, as there are currently no reports on mitochondrial fusion in the whole Excavata supergroup, it is possible that the absence of mitochondrial fusion is an ancestral trait common to all excavates.
Project description:The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on isobaric tagging of peptides with iTRAQ and tandem mass spectrometry. Altogether, 638 proteins were identified in mitosome-enriched fractions. Of these, 139 proteins had iTRAQ ratio similar to that of the six known mitosomal markers. Proteins were selected for expression in Giardia to verify their cellular localizations and the mitosomal localization of 20 proteins was confirmed. These proteins include nine components of the FeS cluster assembly machinery, a novel diflavo-protein with NADPH reductase activity, a novel VAMP-associated protein, and a key component of the outer membrane protein translocase. None of the novel mitosomal proteins was predicted by previous genome analyses. The small proteome of the Giardia mitosome reflects the reduction in mitochondrial metabolism, which is limited to the FeS cluster assembly pathway, and a simplicity in the protein import pathway required for organelle biogenesis.
Project description:Mitochondria are archetypal organelles of endosymbiotic origin in eukaryotic cells. Some unicellular eukaryotes (protists) were considered to be primarily amitochondrial organisms that diverged from the eukaryotic lineage before the acquisition of the premitochondrial endosymbiont, but their amitochondrial status was recently challenged by the discovery of mitochondria-like double membrane-bound organelles called mitosomes. Here, we report that proteins targeted into mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis have targeting signals necessary and sufficient to be recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery. Expression of these mitosomal proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis results in targeting to hydrogenosomes, a hydrogen-producing form of mitochondria. We identify, in Giardia and Trichomonas, proteins related to the component of the translocase in the inner membrane from mitochondria and the processing peptidase. A shared mode of protein targeting supports the hypothesis that mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, and mitochondria represent different forms of the same fundamental organelle having evolved under distinct selection pressures.
Project description:The highly reduced mitochondria (mitosomes) of Giardia intestinalis are recently discovered organelles for which, it was suggested, iron-sulfur cluster assembly was their only conserved function. However, only an incomplete set of the components required for FeS cluster biogenesis was localized to the mitosomes. Via proteomic analysis of a mitosome-rich cellular fraction together with immunofluorescence microscopy, we identified a novel mitosomal protein homologous to monothiol glutaredoxins containing a CGFS motif at the active site. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of long nonconserved N-terminal extension of 77 amino acids, which was absent in the mature protein. Expression of the complete and N-terminally truncated forms of the glutaredoxin indicated that the extension is involved in glutaredoxin import into mitosomes. However, the mechanism of preprotein processing is unclear, as the mitosomal processing peptidase is unable to cleave this type of extension. The recombinant mature protein was shown to form a homodimeric structure, which binds a labile FeS cluster. The cluster is stabilized by glutathione and dithiothreitol. Phylogenetic analysis showed that giardial glutaredoxin is related to the mitochondrial monothiol glutaredoxins involved in FeS cluster assembly. The identification of a mitochondrial-type monothiol glutaredoxin in the mitosomes of G. intestinalis thus completes the mitosomal FeS cluster biosynthetic pathway and provides further evidence for the mitochondrial origin of these organelles.
Project description:The aerobic mitochondrion had undergone evolutionary diversification, most notable among lineages of anaerobic protists. Entamoeba is one of the genera of parasitic protozoans that lack canonical mitochondria, and instead possess mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), specifically mitosomes. Entamoeba mitosomes exhibit functional reduction and divergence, most exemplified by the organelle's inability to produce ATP and synthesize iron-sulfur cluster. Instead, this organelle is capable of sulfate activation, which has been linked to amoebic stage conversion. In order to understand other unique features and components of this MRO, we utilized an in silico prediction tool to screen transmembrane domain containing proteins in the mitosome proteome. Here, we characterize a novel lineage-specific mitosomal membrane protein, named Entamoeba transmembrane mitosomal protein of 30 kDa (ETMP30; EHI_172170), predicted to contain five transmembrane domains. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated colocalization of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged ETMP30 with the mitosomal marker, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase. Mitosomal membrane localization was indicated by immunoelectron microscopy analysis, which was supported by carbonate fractionation assay. Transcriptional gene silencing successfully repressed RNA expression by 60%, and led to a defect in growth and partial elongation of mitosomes. Immunoprecipitation of ETMP30 from ETMP30-HA-expressing transformant using anti-HA antibody pulled down one interacting protein of 126 kDa. Protein sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed this protein as a cation-transporting P-type ATPase, previously reported to localize to vacuolar compartments/Golgi-like structures, hinting at a possible mitosome-vacuole/Golgi contact site.
Project description:Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes with highly reduced and divergent functions. The full diversity of their content and function, however, has not been fully determined. To understand the central role of mitosomes in Entamoeba histolytica, a parasitic protozoon that causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscesses, we examined the proteomic profile of purified mitosomes. Using 2 discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation and MS analysis, we identified 95 putative mitosomal proteins. Immunofluorescence assay showed that 3 proteins involved in sulfate activation, ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase, and inorganic pyrophosphatase, as well as sodium/sulfate symporter, involved in sulfate uptake, were compartmentalized to mitosomes. We have also provided biochemical evidence that activated sulfate derivatives, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, were produced in mitosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the aforementioned proteins and chaperones have distinct origins, suggesting the mosaic character of mitosomes in E. histolytica consisting of proteins derived from alpha-proteobacterial, delta-proteobacterial, and ancestral eukaryotic origins. These results suggest that sulfate activation is the major function of mitosomes in E. histolytica and that E. histolytica mitosomes represent a unique mitochondrion-related organelle with remarkable diversity.
Project description:Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis. Live cell imaging revealed a highly immobilized array of 30-40 physically distinct mitosome organelles in trophozoites. We provide direct evidence for the single giardial dynamin-related protein as a contributor to mitosomal morphogenesis and homeostasis. To overcome inherent limitations that have hitherto severely hampered the characterization of these unique organelles we applied a novel interaction-based proteome discovery strategy using forward and reverse protein co-immunoprecipitation. This allowed generation of organelle proteome data strictly in a protein-protein interaction context. We built an initial Tom40-centered outer membrane interactome by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, identifying small GTPases, factors with dual mitosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distribution, as well as novel matrix proteins. Through iterative expansion of this protein-protein interaction network, we were able to i) significantly extend this interaction-based mitosomal proteome to include other membrane-associated proteins with possible roles in mitosome morphogenesis and connection to other subcellular compartments, and ii) identify novel matrix proteins which may shed light on mitosome-associated metabolic functions other than Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Functional analysis also revealed conceptual conservation of protein translocation despite the massive divergence and reduction of protein import machinery in Giardia mitosomes.
Project description:Entamoeba possesses a highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelle known as the mitosome. Here, we report the discovery of a novel protein in Entamoeba, which we name Mitosomal ?-barrel Outer Membrane Protein of 30?kDa (MBOMP30). Initially identified through in silico analysis, we experimentally confirmed that MBOMP30 is indeed a ?-barrel protein. Circular dichroism analysis showed MBOMP30 has a predominant ?-sheet structure. Localization to Entamoeba histolytica mitosomes was observed through Percoll-gradient fractionation and immunofluorescence assay. Mitosomal membrane integration was demonstrated by carbonate fractionation, proteinase K digestion, and immunoelectron microscopy. Interestingly, the deletion of the putative ?-signal, a sequence believed to guide ?-barrel outer membrane protein (BOMP) assembly, did not affect membrane integration, but abolished the formation of a ~240?kDa complex. MBOMP30 represents only the seventh subclass of eukaryotic BOMPs discovered to date and lacks detectable homologs outside Entamoeba, suggesting that it may be unique to Entamoeba mitosomes.
Project description:Mitochondrial matrix proteins synthesized in the cytosol often contain amino (N)-terminal targeting sequences (NTSs), or alternately internal targeting sequences (ITSs), which enable them to be properly translocated to the organelle. Such sequences are also required for proteins targeted to mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that are present in a few species of anaerobic eukaryotes. Similar to other MROs, the mitosomes of the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica are highly degenerate, because a majority of the components involved in various processes occurring in the canonical mitochondria are either missing or modified. As of yet, sulfate activation continues to be the only identified role of the relic mitochondria of Entamoeba. Mitosomes influence the parasitic nature of E. histolytica, as the downstream cytosolic products of sulfate activation have been reported to be essential in proliferation and encystation. Here, we investigated the position of the targeting sequence of one of the mitosomal matrix enzymes involved in the sulfate activation pathway, ATP sulfurylase (AS). We confirmed by immunofluorescence assay and subcellular fractionation that hemagluttinin (HA)-tagged EhAS was targeted to mitosomes. However, its ortholog in the ?-proteobacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris, expressed as DvAS-HA in amoebic trophozoites, indicated cytosolic localization, suggesting a lack of recognizable mitosome targeting sequence in this protein. By expressing chimeric proteins containing swapped sequences between EhAS and DvAS in amoebic cells, we identified the ITSs responsible for mitosome targeting of EhAS. This observation is similar to other parasitic protozoans that harbor MROs, suggesting a convergent feature among various MROs in favoring ITS for the recognition and translocation of targeted proteins.