Abnormal Expression of Prostaglandins E2 and F2? Receptors and Transporters in Patients with Endometriosis.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the level of expression of prostaglandin receptivity and uptake factors in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis.Prospective study.Human reproduction research laboratory.Seventy-eight patients with endometriosis and thirty healthy control subjects.Endometrial and endometriotic tissue samples were obtained during laparoscopic surgery.Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mRNA encoding prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4), prostaglandin F2? receptor (FP), prostaglandin transporter (PGT), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4); immunohistochemical localization of expressed proteins.Marked increases in receptors EP3, EP4, and FP and transporters PGT and MRP4 in ectopic endometrial tissue were noted, without noticeable change associated with disease stage. An increase in EP3 expression and decreases in FP and PGT were observed in the eutopic endometrium of endometriosis patients in conjunction with the phases of the menstrual cycle.This study is the first to demonstrate a possible relationship between endometriosis and enhanced prostaglandin activity. In view of the wide range of prostaglandin functions, increasing cell receptivity and facilitating uptake in endometrial tissue could contribute to the initial steps of overgrowth and have an important role to play in the pathogenesis and symptoms of this disease.
Project description:The eutopic endometrium in women with endometriosis demonstrates diminished endometrial receptivity and altered gene expression. It is unknown if the endometrium being defective gives rise to a predisposition toward endometriosis and infertility or, alternatively, if endometriosis causes the altered endometrial receptivity. Here we created experimental endometriosis in mice and examined the expression of several markers of endometrial receptivity in the eutopic endometrium. Methylation of Hoxa10 was also evaluated as a potential mechanism responsible for altered gene expression. Expression of each gene was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR at 14 wk after induction of endometriosis. Expression of Hoxa10 and Hoxa11, which are necessary for endometrial receptivity, were decreased in the endometriosis group. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1) mRNA was decreased in the endometriosis group. However, there was no change in Integrin beta3 (Itgb3) mRNA expression. Total progesterone receptor (Pgr-AB) was increased in the endometriosis group and the ratio of Pgr-B to Pgr-AB was increased, indicating a shift from Pgr-A to Pgr-B expression. Basic transcription element-binding protein-1 (Bteb1), official symbol and name Klf9, Kruppel-like factor 9, which functionally interacts with Pgr in endometrium, was also decreased in the endometriosis group. In addition, hypermethylation of Hoxa10 in the endometriosis group was shown by methylation-specific PCR and confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. These findings demonstrate that normal endometrium, when placed in an ectopic location to create experimental endometriosis, led to characteristic changes in gene expression in eutopic endometrium. These data suggest the existence of a signal conduction pathway from endometriosis that alters endometrial gene expression through altered Pgr signaling and epigenetic programming.
Project description:Prostaglandins are important for female reproduction. Prostaglandin-E2 acts via four different receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 whereas prostaglandin-F2alpha acts through FP. The functions of prostaglandins depend on the expression of their receptors in different uterine cell types. Our aim was to investigate the expression of EPs and FP in rat uterus and to identify the regulation by estradiol, progesterone and estrogen receptor (ER) selective agonists.We performed four different rat experiments involving treatments with estradiol, progesterone and ER agonists. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate receptor expression.Our results showed that all mRNAs and proteins of EPs and FP are expressed in the rat uterus. The expression pattern and intensity of immunostaining vary between different cell types and treatments. The mRNA expression of all EPs and FP are downregulated by estradiol and the ERalpha specific agonist PPT, whereas the ERbeta specific agonist DPN downregulates only EP2 and EP4. The protein expression however, showed an increase in EP2 and EP3 after estradiol treatment. When treated with estradiol and progesterone in combination, the expressions of EP1 and EP3 are upregulated.Regulation of EPs and FP expression by estradiol appears to be mainly modulated via ERalpha for EP1, EP3 and FP, while EP2 and EP4 also are affected by the ERbeta selective ligand. Our immunohistochemical data shows a cell specific regulation of prostaglandin receptors under the influence of ovarian steroids, where EP2 is estrogen regulated in all uterine tissues examined. EP1 and EP3 are upregulated by the combination of estradiol and progesterone. Thus, our observations indicate that estradiol and progesterone regulate the mRNA and protein expression of EPs and FP in a receptor and tissue specific way.
Project description:Endometriosis is a debilitating, estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory gynecological disease of reproductive age women. Two major clinical symptoms of endometriosis are chronic intolerable pelvic pain and subfertility or infertility, which profoundly affect the quality of life in women. Current hormonal therapies to induce a hypoestrogenic state are unsuccessful because of undesirable side effects, reproductive health concerns, and failure to prevent recurrence of disease. There is a fundamental need to identify nonestrogen or nonsteroidal targets for the treatment of endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are higher in women with endometriosis, and this increased PGE2 plays important role in survival and growth of endometriosis lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, on molecular and cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and associated clinical symptoms. Using human fluorescent endometriotic cell lines and chimeric mouse model as preclinical testing platform, our results, to our knowledge for the first time, indicate that selective inhibition of EP2/EP4: (i) decreases growth and survival of endometriosis lesions; (ii) decreases angiogenesis and innervation of endometriosis lesions; (iii) suppresses proinflammatory state of dorsal root ganglia neurons to decrease pelvic pain; (iv) decreases proinflammatory, estrogen-dominant, and progesterone-resistant molecular environment of the endometrium and endometriosis lesions; and (v) restores endometrial functional receptivity through multiple mechanisms. Our novel findings provide a molecular and preclinical basis to formulate long-term nonestrogen or nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endometriosis is a common condition associated with growth of endometrial-like tissue beyond the uterine cavity. Previous reports have suggested a role for uNK cells in the pathogenesis of endometriosis postulating that survival and accumulation of menstrual endometrial tissue in the peritoneal cavity may relate to a reduction in the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood NK cells. We aimed to assess the differences in percentage of uNK cells and their phenotypical characterization in eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples from women with and without endometriosis and baboons with induced endometriosis. METHODS:Eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples from 82 women across the menstrual cycle with/without endometriosis and from 8 baboons before and after induction of endometriosis were examined for CD56 and NKp30 expression with immunohistochemistry, quantified using computer assisted image analysis. Curated secretory phase endometrial microarray datasets were interrogated for NK cell receptors and their ligands. In silico data was validated by examining the secretory phase eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis (n?=?8/group) for the immuno-expression of BAG6 protein. RESULTS:The percentage of uNK cells increased progressively from the proliferative phase with the highest levels in the late secretory phase in the eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis. The percentage of uNK cells in ectopic lesions remained significantly low throughout the cycle. In baboons, induction of endometriosis increased the percentage of uNK in the ectopic lesions but not NKp30. Published eutopic endometrial microarray datasets demonstrated significant upregulation of NKp30 and its ligand BAG6 in women with endometriosis compared with controls. Immunohistochemical staining scores for BAG6 was also significantly higher in secretory phase eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis compared with the endometrium of healthy women (n?=?8/group). CONCLUSIONS:The dynamic increase in the percentage of uNK cells in the secretory phase is preserved in the endometrium of women with endometriosis. The low number of uNK cells in human and baboon ectopic lesions may be due to their exaggerated reduction in hormonal responsiveness (progesterone resistance).
Project description:Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside the uterus and causes chronic pelvic pain and infertility. However, the exact mechanisms of the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated infertility are unknown. Epigenetic dysregulation has recently been implicated in infertility. Here, we report a reduction of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) protein amounts in eutopic endometrium of infertile women with endometriosis compared to a control group. To investigate the effect of HDAC3 loss in the uterus, we generated mice with conditional ablation of Hdac3 in progesterone receptor (PGR)-positive cells (Pgrcre/+Hdac3f/f ; Hdac3d/d ). Loss of Hdac3 in the uterus of mice results in infertility due to implantation failure and decidualization defect. Expression microarray and ChIP-seq analyses identified COL1A1 and COL1A2 as direct targets of HDAC3 in both mice and humans. Reduction of HDAC3 abrogated decidualization in a primary culture of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) similar to that observed in infertile patients with endometriosis. Whereas attenuation of HDAC3 resulted in p300 recruitment to Col1a1 and Col1a2 genes in the uterus of mice as well as hESCs, inhibition of p300 permitted hESCs to undergo decidualization. Collectively, we found attenuation of HDAC3 and overexpression of collagen type I in the eutopic endometrium of infertile patients with endometriosis. HDAC3 loss caused a defect of decidualization through the aberrant transcriptional activation of Col1a1 and Col1a2 genes in mice and COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in humans. Our results suggest that HDAC3 is critical for endometrial receptivity and decidualization.
Project description:Endometriosis affects approximately 15% of reproductive aged women and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. However, the molecular mechanisms by which endometriosis impacts fertility are poorly understood. The developmentally regulated, imprinted H19 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) functions to reduce the bioavailability of microRNA let-7 by acting as a molecular sponge. Here we report that H19 expression is significantly decreased in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis as compared to normal controls. We show that decreased H19 increases let-7 activity, which in turn inhibits Igf1r expression at the post-transcriptional level, thereby contributing to reduced proliferation of endometrial stromal cells. We propose that perturbation of this newly identified H19/Let-7/IGF1R regulatory pathway may contribute to impaired endometrial preparation and receptivity for pregnancy in women with endometriosis. Our finding represents the first example of a lncRNA-based mechanism in endometriosis and its associated infertility, thus holding potential in the development of novel therapeutics for women with endometriosis and infertility.
Project description:Endometriosis is an inflammatory condition that is associated with progesterone resistance and cell proliferation, resulting in pain, infertility and pregnancy loss. We previously demonstrated phosphorylation of STAT3 in eutopic endometrium of infertile women with this disorder leading to over-expression of the oncogene BCL6 and stabilization of hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?). Here we report coordinated activation of KRAS and over-expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase and gene silencer, in the eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis throughout the menstrual cycle. The mice with conditional activation of KRAS in the PGR positive cells reveal an increase of SIRT1 expression in the endometrium compared to control mice. The expression of progesterone receptor target genes including the Indian Hedgehog pathway genes are significantly down-regulated in the mutant mice. SIRT1 co-localizes with BCL6 in the nuclei of affected individuals and both proteins bind to and suppress the promoter of GLI1, a critical mediator of progesterone action in the Indian Hedgehog pathway, by ChIP analysis. In eutopic endometrium, GLI1 expression is reduced in women with endometriosis. Together, these data suggest that KRAS, SIRT1 and BCL6 are coordinately over-expressed in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and likely participate in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Project description:In response to cytosolic DNA, stimulator of interferon gene (STING) initiates and orchestrates host's innate immunity by inducing type I interferon. Since endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, we sought to determine whether STING pathway is activated in ectopic endometrium in comparison to eutopic endometrium. Immunohistochemistry was employed in evaluating the expression levels of STING in normal endometrium, endometriosis, and adenomyosis. The density of CD45+ intraepithelial lymphocytes was correlated with STING expression levels. A total of 39 cases of endometriosis and/or adenomyosis with normal endometrium were analyzed. Among them, 32 had adenomyosis, 26 had endometriosis, and 19 have both lesions. STING protein expression is mainly evident in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells but much less in stromal cells. Based on H-score, we found that the STING expression levels were significantly higher in the epithelial cells of adenomyosis and endometriosis than in eutopic endometrium (132.7?±?12.20, 119.6?±?12.57 vs. 19.74?±?5.96, p <?0.0001). There was no significant difference in STING expression level between endometriosis and adenomyosis. More intraepithelial lymphocytes were detected in endometriosis and adenomyosis lesions than endometrium (5.60?±?0.70%, 4.95?±?0.54% vs. 1.25?±?0.12%, p <?0.0001). A positive correlation between STING expression and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate was observed (p <?0.0001). In summary, STING was upregulated in the epithelium of ectopic endometrium as compared to eutopic endometrium. Its expression levels correlate with the degree of intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, suggesting a role in promoting chronic inflammation of ectopic endometrium.
Project description:Endometriosis is a chronic benign hormone-dependent condition when the endometrial tissue, identical with the endometrium by its morphological and functional properties, grows outside the borders of the uterine mucous membrane. Recent studies have pointed to the possible role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We suggested a hypothesis that increased expression of MMPs activity in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis might correlate with the presence of endometriotic lesions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the ectopic endometrium of women with visible endometriotic lesions and eutopic endometrium in patients with no signs of endometriosis. The study was conducted on 43 patients. They were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 31 patients with peritoneal/ovarian endometriosis who had undergone laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. Group 2 consisted of 12 patients with leiomyoma, endometrial polyps or relatively healthy patients who had undergone hysterectomy or polypectomy and endometrial curettage. This study showed statistically higher expression of MMP-2 (1.7783 ± 0.22 immunohistochemistry (IHC) optical density score compared to the control group - 1.41± 0.34, p = 0.0017) and MMP-9 (1.352 ± 0.067 versus 1.85 ± 0.26 in the control group, p = 0.001) in ectopic and eutopic endometrium samples from patients with endometriosis compared to samples taken from patients without endometriosis. A strong correlation between expression of the above-mentioned MMPs (r=0.74 for MMP-2 and r=0.88 for MMP-9) in ectopic and eutopic endometrium might be of promising diagnostic value.
Project description:CD74 is the primary receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Although expression of MIF has been described in endometriotic lesions, the cellular localization and function of the MIF receptor, CD74, are poorly understood. To further explore the role of CD74 in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, we utilized specimens from women with diagnostically confirmed endometriosis, women with no signs or symptoms of endometriosis (controls), and 8 baboons with experimentally induced endometriosis. Compared to eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis, CD74 transcript expression was significantly increased in endometriotic lesion tissue. Similarly, cellular expression of CD74 was significantly greater in ectopic lesion tissue compared to paired eutopic endometrium, which both expressed greater CD74 expression compared to eutopic endometrium from control patients. Localization of CD74 was predominant to epithelial cells of ectopic and matched eutopic endometrium and was not influenced by the stage of the menstrual cycle. Eutopic endometrium from control patients did not express detectable levels of CD74 protein by immunohistochemistry. This pattern of expression and CD74 protein localization could be recapitulated in endometriotic lesion tissue from baboons with experimentally induced disease. Transfection of the endometriotic epithelial cell lines, 12Z with CD74 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), resulted in a significant decrease in CD74 protein expression, which was associated with a significant reduction in cellular proliferation as well as the expression of the prosurvival cytokine interleukin 8. Together, these data support the hypothesis that CD74 is elevated in endometriotic lesion tissue and may contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis by promoting cell survival.