Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.
ABSTRACT: Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.
Project description:WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are known to influence warfarin dosage. * Recent studies among Caucasians showed that polymorphisms of CYP4F2 also play a role in warfarin pharmacogenetics. * The contribution of CYP4F2 variants to the variability inwarfarin dose requirement in Chinese subjects remains to be investigated. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * This research was to study the effect of CYP4F2 variants on warfarin requirements in the Han Chinese population. * This study developed a multiple regression model including CYP2C9, VKORC1 3673G>A, CYP4F2 genotypes and age, weight, combination use of amiodarone which could explain 56.1% of the individual variability in warfarin dose CYP4F2 could explain 4% of the variance in warfarin dose. * We found that one novel genotypic polymorphism 5417G>T for Asp36Tyr, which was identified as an important marker of warfarin resistance, was absent in the Han Chinese population in our study. AIMS The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the CYP4F2 on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR). METHODS From March 2007 to November 2008, 222 Han Chinese MHVR patients were recruited in our study. VKORC1 3673G>A, 5417G>T, CYP2C9*3 and CYP4F2 rs2108622 were genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Polymorphisms of VKORC1 9041G>A were detected by direct sequencing. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the contribution of CYP4F2. RESULTS The CYP4F2 rs2108622 CT/TT group took a significantly higher stable warfarin dose (3.2 mg day(-1)) than the CC group (2.9 mg day(-1), 95% CI 0.2, 1.0, P= 0.033). The multiple linear regression model included VKORC1 3673G>A, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 genotypes and clinical characteristics. The model could explain 56.1% of the variance in stable warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with MHVR. CYP4F2 contributed about 4% to the variance in the warfarin dose. There was no variation in the SNPs of VKORC1 5417G>T. CONCLUSION CYP4F2 is a minor significant factor of individual variability in the stable warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with MHVR. The effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on variability in the stable warfarin dose had also been confirmed.
Project description:AIM:The objective of this study was to determine the additional contribution of NQO1 and CYP4F2 genotypes to warfarin dose requirements across two racial groups after accounting for known clinical and genetic predictors. PATIENTS & METHODS:The following were assessed in a cohort of 260 African-Americans and 53 Hispanic-Americans: clinical data; NQO1 p.P187S (*1/*2); CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *8 and *11; CYP4F2 p.V433M; and VKORC1 c.-1639G>A genotypes. RESULTS:Both the CYP4F2 433M (0.23 vs 0.06; p < 0.05) and NQO1*2 (0.27 vs 0.18; p < 0.05) allele frequencies were higher in Hispanic-Americans compared with African-Americans. Multiple regression analysis in the Hispanic-American cohort revealed that each CYP4F2 433M allele was associated with a 22% increase in warfarin maintenance dose (p = 0.019). Possession of the NQO1*2 allele was associated with a 34% increase in warfarin maintenance dose (p = 0.004), while adjusting for associated genetic (CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1) and clinical factors. In this population, the inclusion of CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes improved the dose variability explained by the model from 0.58 to 0.68 (p = 0.001), a 17% relative improvement. By contrast, there was no association between CYP4F2 or NQO1*2 genotype and therapeutic warfarin dose in African-Americans after adjusting for known genetic and clinical predictors. CONCLUSION:In our cohort of inner-city Hispanic-Americans, the CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes significantly contributed to warfarin dose requirements. If our findings are confirmed, they would suggest that inclusion of the CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes in warfarin dose prediction algorithms may improve the predictive ability of such algorithms in Hispanic-Americans.
Project description:This document is an update to the 2011 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and warfarin dosing. Evidence from the published literature is presented for CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and rs12777823 genotype-guided warfarin dosing to achieve a target international normalized ratio of 2-3 when clinical genotype results are available. In addition, this updated guideline incorporates recommendations for adult and pediatric patients that are specific to continental ancestry.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of non-genetic and genetic factors on the variability of stable warfarin doses in Thai patients.A total of 250 Thai patients with stable warfarin doses were enrolled in the study. Demographics and clinical data, e.g., age, body mass index, indications for warfarin and concomitant medications, were documented. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622, and UGT1A1 rs887829 genes were detected from gDNA using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays.The patients with variant genotypes of VKORC1 - 1639G > A required significantly lower warfarin stable weekly doses (SWDs) than those with wild-type genotype (p < 0.001). Similarly, the patients with CYP2C9*3 variant allele required significantly lower warfarin SWDs than those with homozygous wild-type (p = 0.006). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the SWDs between the patients who carried variant alleles of CYP4F2 rs2108622 and UGT1A1 rs887829 as compared to wild-type allele carriers. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that CYP4F2 rs2108622 TT genotype accounted for a modest part of warfarin dose variability (1.2%). In contrast, VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622 genotypes and non-genetic factors accounted for 51.3% of dose variability.VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 rs2108622 polymorphisms together with age, body mass index, antiplatelet drug use, amiodarone use, and current smoker status explained 51.3% of individual variability in stable warfarin doses. In contrast, the UGT1A1 rs887829 polymorphism did not contribute to dose variability.
Project description:Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African-Americans compared with European-Americans. This has lead investigators to hypothesize that assessment of VKORC1 haplotypes may help capture a greater proportion of the variability in dose for this under-represented group. However, the inadequate representation of African-Americans and the assessment of a few VKORC1 polymorphisms have hindered this effort.To determine if VKORC1 haplotypes or haplotype groups explain a higher variability in warfarin dose, we comprehensively assessed VKORC1 polymorphisms in 273 African-Americans and 302 European-Americans. The influence of VKORC1 polymorphisms, race-specific haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose was evaluated in race-stratified multivariable analyses after accounting for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *5, *6 and *11) and clinical covariates.VKORC1 explained 18% (30% with CYP2C9) variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 5% (8% with CYP2C9) among African-Americans. Four common haplotypes in European-Americans and twelve in African-Americans were identified. In each race VKORC1 haplotypes emerged into two groups: low-dose (Group A) and high-dose (Group B). African-Americans had a lower frequency of Group A haplotype (10.6%) compared with European-Americans (35%, p < 0.0001).The variability in dose explained by VKORC1 haplotype or haplotype groups was similar to that of a single informative polymorphism.Our findings support the use of CYP2C9, VKORC1 polymorphisms (rs9934438 or rs9923231) and clinical covariates to predict warfarin dose in both African- and European-Americans. A uniform set of common polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1, and limited clinical covariates can be used to improve warfarin dose prediction for a racially diverse population.
Project description:Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n?=?551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n?=?236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r?=?0.609, P<0.001). Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients.
Project description:Recent clinical trial data cast doubt on the utility of genotype-guided warfarin dosing, specifically showing worse dosing with a pharmacogenetic versus clinical dosing algorithm in African Americans. However, many genotypes important in African Americans were not accounted for. We aimed to determine whether omission of the CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 alleles and rs12777823 G > A genotype affects performance of dosing algorithms in African Americans.In a cohort of 274 warfarin-treated African Americans, we examined the association between the CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 alleles and rs12777823 G > A genotype and warfarin dose prediction error with pharmacogenetic algorithms used in clinical trials.The http://www.warfarindosing.org algorithm overestimated doses by a median (interquartile range) of 1.2 (0.02-2.6) mg/day in rs12777823 heterozygotes (P<0.001 for predicted vs. observed dose), 2.0 (0.6-2.8) mg/day in rs12777823 variant homozygotes (P = 0.004), and 2.2 (0.5-2.9) mg/day in carriers of a CYP2C9 variant (P < 0.001). The International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm underdosed warfarin by 0.8 (-2.3 to 0.4) mg/day for patients with the rs12777823 GG genotype (P < 0.001) and overdosed warfarin by 0.7 (-0.4 to 1.9) mg/day in carriers of a variant CYP2C9 allele (P = 0.04). Modifying the http://www.warfarindosing.org algorithm to adjust for variants important in African Americans led to better dose prediction than either the original http://www.warfarindosing.org (P < 0.01) or IWPC (P < 0.01) algorithm.These data suggest that, when providing genotype-guided warfarin dosing, failure to account for variants important in African Americans leads to significant dosing error in this population.
Project description:The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose, time to target International Normalized Ratio (INR), time to stabilization, and risk of over-anticoagulation (INR: > 4) was assessed after adjustment for clinical factors, intraindividual variation in environmental factors and unobserved heterogeneity.Common CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms were assessed in 302 European-Americans and 273 African-Americans receiving warfarin. Race-stratified multivariable analyses evaluated the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin response.CYP2C9 and VKORC1 accounted for up to 30% of the variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 10% among African-Americans. Neither CYP2C9 nor VKORC1 influenced the time to target INR or stabilization among patients of either race, and neither influenced the risk of over-anticoagulation among African-Americans. The risk of over-anticoagulation was higher among European-Americans with variant VKORC1 1173C/T (p < 0.01) and marginally significant among those with variant CYP2C9 (p = 0.08) genotype. Although CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping can facilitate individualized initiation of warfarin dose in African and European-Americans, the ability to predict the risk of over-anticoagulation is inconsistent across race. Identification of other factors that can predict such risk consistently in a racially diverse group will facilitate individualized maintenance of warfarin therapy.
Project description:AIMS:CYP4F2*3 (p.V433M) has been associated with higher warfarin dose requirements; however, its frequency, like other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants, has not been systematically assessed in major racial/ethnic populations. Thus, we determined the individual and combined frequencies of important CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 variants in several racial/ethnic groups. MATERIALS & METHODS:Healthy African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) blood donors were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *8, *11 and *13), VKORC1 (g.-1639G>A) and CYP4F2 (*3 [p.V433M] and rs2189784). RESULTS:The combined frequencies of variant CYP2C9 alleles were 0.133, 0.078, 0.212, 0.178 and 0.212 among African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, respectively. CYP4F2*3 frequencies were prevalent (0.233-0.342) among Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, while significantly less frequent among African-Americans (0.117; p < 0.0001). In addition, CYP4F2*3 was in linkage disequilibrium with rs2189784, an allele recently associated with time-to-therapeutic international normalized ratio, among all studied populations. Importantly, 87-95% of Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals had a variant CYP2C9, VKORC1 and/or CYP4F2*3 allele, compared with only 53% of African-Americans (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with other racial/ethnic populations studied, only approximately one in 80 African-Americans were CYP4F2*3 homozygous, indicating that this population would benefit less from dosing algorithms that include this variant. In addition, the unique allele frequency profiles identified among the different populations partly explain why genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms perform less well for African-Americans and suggest that other unidentified genetic and/or nongenetic factors that influence warfarin dosage may exist in this population.
Project description:AIM:To determine if copy number variants contribute to warfarin dose requirements, we investigated CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU for deletions and duplications in a multiethnic patient population treated with therapeutic doses of warfarin. PATIENTS & METHODS:DNA samples from 178 patients were subjected to copy number analyses by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or quantitative PCR assays. Additionally, the CYP2C9 exon 8 insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs71668942) was examined among the patient cohort and 1750 additional multiethnic healthy individuals. RESULTS:All patients carried two copies of CYP2C9 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and no exon 8 deletion carriers were detected. Similarly, quantitative PCR assays for VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU identified two copies in all populations. CONCLUSION:These data indicate that copy number variants in the principal genes involved in warfarin dose variability (CYP2C9, VKORC1), including genes with lesser effect (CYP4F2, GGCX), and those that may be more relevant among certain racial groups (CALU), are rare in multiethnic populations, including African-Americans.