Chakyunglupulins A and B, two novel 4,8,8-trimethylcyclooct-2-enone derivatives from Barleria lupulina.
ABSTRACT: Two novel 4,8,8-trimethylcyclooct-2-enone derivatives, chakyunglupulins A and B, together with six known lignans were isolated from the aerial part of Barleria lupulina. The structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic data and HR-MS, and their absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NOE experiment and application of the modified Mosher's method.
Project description:Plant-microbe interactions, including those of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), have been investigated for a wide spectrum of model plants. The present study focuses on an analysis of gene expression that encodes phosphate and sugar transporters and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in a new model plant, the highly mycotrophic Medicago lupulina MLS-1 line under conditions of phosphorus deficiency and inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis. Expression profiles were detected by RT-PCR at six plant stages of development (second leaf, third leaf, shooting, axillary shoot branching initiation, axillary shoot branching, flowering initiation). In comparison to control (without AM), the variant with AM inoculation exhibited a significant elevation of transcription levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (MlSUS, MlHXK1) and sucrose transporters (MlSUC4) in M. lupulina leaves at the shooting stage. We suggest that this leads to a significant increase in the frequency of AM infection, an abundance of mycelium in roots and an increase in AM efficiency (which is calculated by the fresh weight of aerial parts and roots at the axillary shoot branching initiation stage). In roots, the specificity of MlPT4 and MlATP1 gene expressions were revealed for effective AM symbiosis. The level of MlPT4 transcripts in AM roots increased more than tenfold in comparison to that of non-specific MlPT1 and MlPT2. For the first time, MlPT1 expression was shown to increase sharply against MlPT2 in M. lupulina roots without AM at the shooting initiation stage. A significant increase in MlRUB expression was revealed at late stages in the host plant's development, during axillary shoot branching and flowering initiation. The opposite changes characterized MlHXK1 expression. Alteration in MlHXK1 gene transcription was the same, but was more pronounced in roots. The obtained results indicate the importance of genes that encode phosphate transporters and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism for effective AM development at the shooting stage in the host plant.
Project description:The reaction of appropriately functionalized sucrose phosphonate with sucrose aldehyde afforded a dimer composed of two sucrose units connected via their C6-positions ('the glucose ends'). The carbonyl group in this product (enone) was stereoselectively reduced with zinc borohydride and the double bond (after protection of the allylic alcohol formed after reduction) was oxidized with osmium tetroxide to a diol. Absolute configurations of the allylic alcohol as well as the diol were determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy using the in situ dimolybdenum methodology.
Project description:Local adaptation is a common but not ubiquitous feature of species interactions, and understanding the circumstances under which it evolves illuminates the factors that influence adaptive population divergence. Antagonistic species interactions dominate the local adaptation literature relative to mutualistic ones, preventing an overall assessment of adaptation within interspecific interactions. Here, we tested whether the legume Medicago lupulina is adapted to the locally abundant species of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that vary in frequency across its eastern North American range. We reciprocally inoculated northern and southern M. lupulina genotypes with the northern (Ensifer medicae) or southern bacterium (E. meliloti) in a greenhouse experiment. Despite producing different numbers of root nodules (the structures in which the plants house the bacteria), neither northern nor southern plants produced more seeds, flowered earlier, or were more likely to flower when inoculated with their local rhizobia. We then used a pre-existing dataset to perform a genome scan for loci that showed elevated differentiation between field-collected plants that hosted different bacteria. None of the loci we identified belonged to the well-characterized suite of legume-rhizobia symbiosis genes, suggesting that the rhizobia do not drive genetic divergence between M. lupulina populations. Our results demonstrate that symbiont local adaptation has not evolved in this mutualism despite large-scale geographic variation in the identity of the interacting species.
Project description:Eleven new lignans and neolignans, named acortatarinowins G-N (1-8), including three pairs of enantiomers (1a/1b-3a/3b) and five optically pure lignans and neolignans (4-8), along with five known analogs (9-14), were isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott. Compounds 1-3 were successfully separated by chiral HPLC to afford 1a/1b-3a/3b. The planar structures of 1-8 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS and NMR. Their absolute configurations were determined by analyses of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and a modified Mosher's method, assisted by experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1a and 1b were rare 7,8'-epoxy-8,7'-oxyneolignane. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reducing antioxidant power assay. Compound 6, exhibiting strong DPPH radical scavenging capacity with IC50 value of 16.4?±?0.22??g/mL, could interpret the herbal traditional usage.
Project description:Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020, isolated from root nodules of Medicago lupulina growing in gold mine tailings in the northwest of China, displayed multiple heavy metal resistance and growth promotion of M. lupulina. In our previous work, the expression level of dmeR and dmeF genes were induced by Cu2+ through comparative transcriptome approach. Based on protein analysis, the dmeF encoded for a protein which showed a 37% similarity to the cation transporter DmeF of Cupriavidus metallidurans, whereas dmeR encoded transcriptional regulator which was highly homologous with DmeR belonging to RcnR/CsoR family metal-responsive transcriptional regulator. In addition to copper, quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that dmeR and dmeF were also induced by nickel and cobalt. To investigate the functions of dmeR and dmeF in S. meliloti CCNWSX0020, the dmeR and dmeF deletion mutants were constructed. The dmeF mutant was more sensitive to Co2 + and Ni2 + than the wild type strain. Pot experiments were carried out to determine whether the growth of M. lupulina was affected when the dmeF gene was knocked out in the presence of nickel or cobalt. Results indicated that the nodule number of the host plant inoculated with the dmeF deletion mutant was significantly less than the S. meliloti CCNWSX0020 wild-type in the presence of Co2 + or Ni2 +. However, when standardized by nodule fresh weight, the nitrogenase activities of nodules infected by the dmeF deletion mutant was similar to nitrogenase activity of the wild type nodule.
Project description:The present study is aimed at disclosing metabolic profile alterations in the leaves of the <i>Medicago lupulina</i> MlS-1 line that result from high-efficiency arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis formed with <i>Rhizophagus irregularis</i> under condition of a low phosphorus level in the substrate. A highly effective AM symbiosis was established in the period from the stooling to the shoot branching initiation stage (the efficiency in stem height exceeded 200%). Mycorrhization led to a more intensive accumulation of phosphates (glycerophosphoglycerol and inorganic phosphate) in <i>M. lupulina</i> leaves. Metabolic spectra were detected with GS-MS analysis. The application of complex mathematical analyses made it possible to identify the clustering of various groups of 320 metabolites and thus demonstrate the central importance of the carbohydrate and carboxylate-amino acid clusters. The results obtained indicate a delay in the metabolic development of mycorrhized plants. Thus, AM not only accelerates the transition between plant developmental stages but delays biochemical "maturation" mainly in the form of a lag of sugar accumulation in comparison with non-mycorrhized plants. Several methods of statistical modeling proved that, at least with respect to determining the metabolic status of host-plant leaves, stages of phenological development have priority over calendar age.
Project description:A tenuivirus, referred to here as JKI 29327, was isolated from a black medic (Medicago lupulina) plant collected in Austria. The virus was mechanically transmitted to Nicotiana benthamiana, M. lupulina, M. sativa, Pisum sativum and Vicia faba. The complete genome was determined by high throughput sequencing. The genome of JKI 29327 consists of eight RNA segments closely related to those of melon chlorotic spot virus (MeCSV) isolate E11-018 from France. Since segments RNA 7 and 8 of JKI 29327 are shorter, its genome is slightly smaller (by 247 nts) than that of E11-018. Pairwise comparisons between the predicted virus proteins of JKI 29327 and their homologues in E11-018 showed aa identities ranging from 80.6 to 97.2%. Plants infected with E11-081 gave intermediate DAS-ELISA reactions with polyclonal antibodies to JKI 29327. Since JKI 29327 and E11-018 appear to be closely related both serologically and genetically, we propose to regard JKI 29327 as the black medic strain of MeCSV. To our knowledge, JKI 29327 represents the second tenuivirus identified from a dicotyledonous plant. Serological and molecular diagnostic methods were developed for future detection.