Association of two polymorphisms in the FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster and the risk of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the association of the FADS1/FADS2 SNPs and serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in the Chinese southern population. The present study aimed to determine such association in the Chinese southern population. A total of 1,669 unrelated subjects (CAD, 534; IS, 553; and healthy controls, 582) were recruited in the study. Genotypes of the FADS1 rs174546 SNP and the FADS2 rs174601 SNP were determined by the SNaPshot Multiplex Kit. The T allele and TT genotype frequencies of the two SNPs were predominant in our study population. The T alleles were associated with increased risk of CAD and IS. Correspondingly, the C alleles were associated with reduced risk of CAD and IS. Haplotype analyses showed that the haplotype of T-T (rs174546-rs174601) was associated with an increased risk for IS, and the haplotype of C-C (rs174546-rs174601) was associated with a reduced risk for CAD and IS. The two SNPs were likely to influence serum lipid levels. The T allele carriers of the two SNPs and rs174601 TT genotype were associated with decreased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the patient groups and with an increased risk of CAD and IS. The present study suggests that the FADS1 rs174546 SNP and the FADS2 rs174601 SNP are associated with the risk of CAD and IS, and are likely to influence serum lipid levels. However, further functional studies are needed to clarify how the two SNPs actually affect serum lipid levels and the risk of CAD and IS.
Project description:Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean +/- SD age: 14.7 +/- 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18 <or= P <or= 6.1E-5), lower C20:4n-6 levels (7.1E-69 <or= P <or= 1.2E-12), and lower D5D activity (7.2E-44 <or= P <or= 4.4E-5). All haplotypes carrying the rs174546 minor allele were associated with lower D5D activity, suggesting that this SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with a functional SNP within FADS1. In contrast, only the rs968567 minor allele was associated with higher D6D activity (P = 1.5E-6). This finding agrees with an earlier in vitro study showing that the minor allele of rs968567 is associated with a higher FADS2 promoter activity. These results suggest that rare alleles of several SNPs in the FADS gene cluster are associated with higher D6D activity and lower D5D activity in European adolescents.
Project description:The fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1 and FADS2) code for enzymes required for synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) important in the central nervous system, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular health. SNPs in these genes are associated with numerous health outcomes, but it is unclear how genetic variation affects enzyme function. Here, lymphoblasts obtained from Japanese participants in the International HapMap Project were evaluated for association of expression microarray results with SNPs in the FADS gene cluster. Six SNPs in the first intron of the FADS2 gene were associated with FADS1 expression. A 10-SNP haplotype in FADS2 (rs2727270 to rs2851682) present in 24% of the population was associated with lower expression of FADS1. A highly conserved region coinciding with the most significant SNPs contained predicted binding sites for SREBP and PPAR?. Lymphoblasts homozygous for either the major or minor haplotype were treated with agonists for these transcription factors and expression of FADS1 and FADS2 determined. Simvastatin and the LXR agonist GW3965 both upregulated expression of FADS1 and FADS2; no response was found for PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone. The minor haplotype homozygotes had 20-40% higher induction of FADS1 and FADS2 after simvastatin or GW3965 treatment. A 22 bp polymorphic insertion-deletion (INDEL) was found 137 bp downstream from the putative sterol response element, as well as a 3 or 1 bp INDEL 81-83 bp downstream. All carriers of the minor haplotype had deletions while all carriers of the major haplotype had insertions. Individuals carrying the minor haplotype may be vulnerable to alterations in diet that reduce LCPUFA intake, and especially responsive to statin or marine oil therapy.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) and elongase (ELOVL) enzymes affect long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) production. We aimed to determine if these SNPs are associated with body mass index (BMI) or affect fatty acids (FAs) in pregnant women. Participants (n = 180) from the PREOBE cohort were grouped according to pre-pregnancy BMI: normal-weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9, n = 88) and overweight/obese (BMI?25, n = 92). Plasma samples were analyzed at 24 weeks of gestation to measure FA levels in the phospholipid fraction. Selected SNPs were genotyped (7 in FADS1, 5 in FADS2, 3 in ELOVL2 and 2 in ELOVL5). Minor allele carriers of rs174545, rs174546, rs174548 and rs174553 (FADS1), and rs1535 and rs174583 (FADS2) were nominally associated with an increased risk of having a BMI?25. Only for the normal-weight group, minor allele carriers of rs174537, rs174545, rs174546, and rs174553 (FADS1) were negatively associated with AA:DGLA index. Normal-weight women who were minor allele carriers of FADS SNPs had lower levels of AA, AA:DGLA and AA:LA indexes, and higher levels of DGLA, compared to major homozygotes. Among minor allele carriers of FADS2 and ELOVL2 SNPs, overweight/obese women showed higher DHA:EPA index than the normal-weight group; however, they did not present higher DHA concentrations than the normal-weight women. In conclusion, minor allele carriers of FADS SNPs have an increased risk of obesity. Maternal weight changes the effect of genotype on FA levels. Only in the normal-weight group, minor allele carriers of FADS SNPs displayed reduced enzymatic activity and FA levels. This suggests that women with a BMI?25 are less affected by FADS genetic variants in this regard. In the presence of FADS2 and ELOVL2 SNPs, overweight/obese women showed higher n-3 LC-PUFA production indexes than women with normal weight, but this was not enough to obtain a higher n-3 LC-PUFA concentration.
Project description:Many early studies presented beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular risk factors and disease. However, results from recent meta-analyses indicate that this effect would be very low or nil. One of the factors that may contribute to the inconsistency of the results is that, in most studies, genetic factors have not been taken into consideration. It is known that fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster in chromosome 11 is a very important determinant of plasma PUFA, and that the prevalence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varies greatly between populations and may constitute a bias in meta-analyses. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out in other populations and none of them have investigated sex and Mediterranean dietary pattern interactions at the genome-wide level. Our aims were to undertake a GWAS to discover the genes most associated with serum PUFA concentrations (omega-3, omega-6, and some fatty acids) in a scarcely studied Mediterranean population with metabolic syndrome, and to explore sex and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interactions at the genome-wide level. Serum PUFA were determined by NMR spectroscopy. We found strong robust associations between various SNPs in the FADS cluster and omega-3 concentrations (top-ranked in the adjusted model: FADS1-rs174547, p = 3.34 × 10-14; FADS1-rs174550, p = 5.35 × 10-14; FADS2-rs1535, p = 5.85 × 10-14; FADS1-rs174546, p = 6.72 × 10-14; FADS2-rs174546, p = 9.75 × 10-14; FADS2- rs174576, p = 1.17 × 10-13; FADS2-rs174577, p = 1.12 × 10-12, among others). We also detected a genome-wide significant association with other genes in chromosome 11: MYRF (myelin regulatory factor)-rs174535, p = 1.49 × 10-12; TMEM258 (transmembrane protein 258)-rs102275, p = 2.43 × 10-12; FEN1 (flap structure-specific endonuclease 1)-rs174538, p = 1.96 × 10-11). Similar genome-wide statistically significant results were found for docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA). However, no such associations were detected for omega-6 PUFAs or linoleic acid (LA). For total PUFA, we observed a consistent gene*sex interaction with the DNTTIP2 (deoxynucleotidyl transferase terminal interacting protein 2)-rs3747965 p = 1.36 × 10-8. For adherence to MedDiet, we obtained a relevant interaction with the ME1 (malic enzyme 1) gene (a gene strongly regulated by fat) in determining serum omega-3. The top-ranked SNP for this interaction was ME1-rs3798890 (p = 2.15 × 10-7). In the regional-wide association study, specifically focused on the FADS1/FASD2/FADS3 and ELOVL (fatty acid elongase) 2/ELOVL 5 regions, we detected several statistically significant associations at p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results confirm a robust role of the FADS cluster on serum PUFA in this population, but the associations vary depending on the PUFA. Moreover, the detection of some sex and diet interactions underlines the need for these associations/interactions to be studied in all specific populations so as to better understand the complex metabolism of PUFA.
Project description:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 PUFAs are reported to have immunomodulatory effects, but few studies have examined these functions. Thus, we examined whether dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are associated with the risk of gastric cancer and further investigated whether fatty acid desaturases 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) modify this association. In a case-control study, 1,464 participants (402 cases and 1,062 controls) were enrolled. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was utilized to measure dietary PUFA intake. Genotyping was performed using the Axiom® Exome 319 Array. Multivariable logistic models were established after adjusting for confounding variables. The risk of gastric cancer was significantly decreased among participants who had the highest tertile intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 PUFA, even after adjusting for covariates [odds ratios (OR)?=?0.72, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)?=?0.53-0.99]. However, no significant interaction according to FADS1 rs174546 or FADS2 rs174583 was observed. In conclusion, we observed a significant inverse association between dietary DHA and the risk of gastric cancer but found that FADS1 rs174546 and FADS2 rs174583 did not modify the association between dietary n-3 or n-6 PUFAs and gastric cancer risk.
Project description:Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) orchestrate immunity and inflammation through their capacity to be converted to potent inflammatory mediators. We assessed associations of FADS gene cluster polymorphisms and fasting serum PUFA concentrations in a fully ascertained, geographically isolated founder population of European descent. Concentrations of 22 PUFAs were determined by gas chromatography, of which ten fatty acids and five ratios defining FADS1 and FADS2 activity were tested for genetic association against 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 224 individuals. A cluster of SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium in the FADS1 gene (rs174537, rs174545, rs174546, rs174553, rs174556, rs174561, rs174568, and rs99780) were strongly associated with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 5.8 x 10(-7) - 1.7 x 10(-8)) among other PUFAs, but the strongest associations were with the ratio measuring FADS1 activity in the omega-6 series (P = 2.11 x 10(-13) - 1.8 x 10(-20)). The minor allele across all SNPs was consistently associated with decreased omega-6 PUFAs, with the exception of dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid (DHGLA), where the minor allele was consistently associated with increased levels. Our findings in a geographically isolated population with a homogenous dietary environment suggest that variants in the Delta-5 desaturase enzymatic step likely regulate the efficiency of conversion of medium-chain PUFAs to potentially inflammatory PUFAs, such as AA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and 2 (FADS2) genes code respectively for the enzymes delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases which are rate limiting enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs). Omega-3 and-6 FAs as well as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are present in bovine milk and have demonstrated positive health effects in humans. Studies in humans have shown significant relationships between genetic variants in FADS1 and 2 genes with plasma and tissue concentrations of omega-3 and-6 FAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of sequence variations within these two genes in Canadian Holstein cows as well as the association between sequence variants and health promoting FAs in milk. RESULTS: Thirty three SNPs were detected within the studied regions of genes including a synonymous mutation (FADS1-07, rs42187261, 306Tyr > Tyr) in exon 8 of FADS1, a non-synonymous mutation (FADS2-14, rs211580559, 294Ala > Val) within FADS2 exon 7, a splice site SNP (FADS2-05, rs211263660), a 3'UTR SNP (FADS2-23, rs109772589), and another 3'UTR SNP with an effect on a microRNA binding site within FADS2 gene (FADS2-19, rs210169303). Association analyses showed significant relations between three out of seven tested SNPs and several FAs. Significant associations (FDR P < 0.05) were recorded between FADS2-23 (rs109772589) and two omega-6 FAs (dihomogamma linolenic acid [C20:3n6] and arachidonic acid [C20:4n6]), FADS1-07 (rs42187261) and one omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5n3) and tricosanoic acid (C23:0), and one intronic SNP, FADS1-01 (rs136261927) and C20:3n6. CONCLUSION: Our study has demonstrated positive associations between three SNPs within FADS1 and FADS2 genes (a SNP within the 3'UTR, a synonymous SNP and an intronic SNP), with three milk PUFAs of Canadian Holstein cows thus suggesting possible involvement of synonymous and non-coding region variants in FA synthesis. These SNPs may serve as potential genetic markers in breeding programs to increase milk FAs that are of benefit to human health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene (HNF1A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with serum lipid traits in several previous genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about such associations in the Chinese populations. The present study aimed to determine the association of the HNF1A rs1169288, rs2259820, rs2464196 and rs2650000 SNPs and serum lipid traits, the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). METHODS:The genotypes of the four SNPs in 562 CAD and 521 IS patients, as well as 594 healthy controls, were detected using the Snapshot technology. RESULTS:The genotype and allele distribution of the four SNPs was not different between controls and CAD or IS patients (p > 0.05 for all). rs1169288, rs2259820 and rs2464196 SNPs were significantly associated with serum lipid levels in both controls and CAD patients (p < 0.004-0.009). rs2259820 and rs2464196 SNPs were significantly associated with a lower risk of CAD [odds ratio (OR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-0.91, p = 0.015 and OR =0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.89, p = 0.010, respectively]. Significant linkage disequilibrium was noted among the four SNPs (r2 > 0.5, D' > 0.8). The haplotype of rs1169288A-rs2259820C-rs2464196G-rs2650000A was associated with an increased risk of CAD (OR =1.95, 95% CI: 1.13-3.37, p = 0.015). Interactions of SNP-SNP (rs1169288-rs2464196-rs2650000) and haplotype-environment on the risk of CAD (A-C-G-A-smoking) or IS (A-C-G-A-sex and A-T-A-C-alcohol consumption) were also observed among these SNPs. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the HNF1A polymorphisms may be the genetic risk factors for CAD and IS.
Project description:Little is known about the association of the dedicator of cytokinesis 7 (DOCK7 rs1748195) and angiopoietin like 3 (ANGPTL3 rs12563308) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in the Chinese populations. This study aimed to detect such association in a Southern Chinese Han population.This study included 1728 subjects (CAD, 568; IS, 539; and controls, 621). Genotypes of the two SNPs were determined by the Snapshot technology.The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs1748195 SNP were different between CAD patients and controls (P < 0.05 for each), the rs1748195G allele frequency was higher in CAD patients than in controls (27.6% vs. 23.6%, P = 0.024). The genotypic frequencies of the rs12563308 SNP were also different between CAD patients and controls (P = 0.021). The rs1748195 SNP was associated with an increased risk of CAD after controlling for potential confounders and Bonferroni correction (P < 0.025 considered statistically significant; Recessive: OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.04-3.06, P = 0.017; Log-additive: OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.02-1.57, P = 0.014), whereas the rs12563308 SNP was associated with a decreased risk of CAD (Dominant: OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.45-0.94, P = 0.011; Log-additive: OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.49-0.89, P = 0.009). The rs1748195 SNP was also associated with an increased risk of severity to coronary artery atherosclerosis (Dominant: OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.07-2.11, P = 0.017; Log-additive: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.09-1.82, P = 0.013). The interactions of SNP-environment on serum lipid levels and the risk of severity to coronary artery atherosclerosis, CAD and IS were noted. The rs1748195G-rs12563308T haplotype was associated with an increased angiographic severity to coronary artery atherosclerosis (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.03), and the risk of CAD (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.08-1.74). The interactions of haplotype-hypertension on the risk of CAD and haplotype-drinking on the risk of CAD/IS were observed.These results suggest that the DOCK-ANGPTL3 SNPs and their haplotypes were associated with the angiographic severity to coronary artery atherosclerosis and the risk of CAD and IS in the Southern Chinese Han population.
Project description:Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA.