Development of Diagnostic Fragment Ion Library for Glycated Peptides of Human Serum Albumin: Targeted Quantification in Prediabetic, Diabetic, and Microalbuminuria Plasma by Parallel Reaction Monitoring, SWATH, and MSE.
ABSTRACT: Human serum albumin is one of the most abundant plasma proteins that readily undergoes glycation, thus glycated albumin has been suggested as an additional marker for monitoring glycemic status. Hitherto, only Amadori-modified peptides of albumin were quantified. In this study, we report the construction of fragment ion library for Amadori-modified lysine (AML), N(?)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML)-, and N(?)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL)-modified peptides of the corresponding synthetically modified albumin using high resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HR/AM). The glycated peptides were manually inspected and validated for their modification. Further, the fragment ion library was used for quantification of glycated peptides of albumin in the context of diabetes. Targeted Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH) analysis in pooled plasma samples of control, prediabetes, diabetes, and microalbuminuria, has led to identification and quantification of 13 glycated peptides comprised of four AML, seven CML, and two CEL modifications, representing nine lysine sites of albumin. Five lysine sites namely K549, K438, K490, K88, and K375, were observed to be highly sensitive for glycation modification as their respective m/z showed maximum fold change and had both AML and CML modifications. Thus, peptides involving these lysine sites could be potential novel markers to assess the degree of glycation in diabetes.
Project description:Glycation of ?-crystallin is responsible for age- and diabetic-related cataracts, which are the main cause of blindness worldwide. We optimized the method of identification of lysine residues prone to glycation using the combination of LC-MS, isotopic labeling, and modified synthetic peptide standards with the glycated lysine derivative (Fmoc-Lys(i,i-Fru,Boc)-OH). The in vitro glycation of bovine lens ?-crystallin was conducted by optimized method with the equimolar mixture of [(12)C6]- and [(13)C6]D-glucose. The in vivo glycation was studied on human lens crystallin. The glycated protein was subjected to proteolysis and analyzed using LC-MS. The results of in vitro and in vivo glycation of ?-crystallin reveal a different distribution of the modified lysine residues. More Amadori products were detected as a result of the in vitro reaction due to forced glycation conditions. The developed method allowed us to identify the glycation sites in crystallin from eye lenses obtained from patients suffering from the cataract. We identified K166 in the A chain and K166 in the B chain of ?-crystallin as major glycation sites during the in vitro reaction. We found also two in vivo glycated lysine residues: K92 in the B chain and K166 in the A chain, which are known as locations for Amadori products. These modification sites were confirmed by the LC-MS experiment using two synthetic standards. This study demonstrates the applicability of the LC-MS methods combined with the isotopic labeling and synthetic peptide standards for analysis of post-translational modifications in the biological material.
Project description:Nonenzymatic protein glycation results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that are implicated in the pathology of diabetes, chronic inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. AGEs mediate their effects primarily through a receptor-dependent pathway in which AGEs bind to a specific cell surface associated receptor, the Receptor for AGEs (RAGE). N(?)-carboxy-methyl-lysine (CML) and N(?)-carboxy-ethyl-lysine (CEL), constitute two of the major AGE structures found in tissue and blood plasma, and are physiological ligands of RAGE. The solution structure of a CEL-containing peptide-RAGE V domain complex reveals that the carboxyethyl moiety fits inside a positively charged cavity of the V domain. Peptide backbone atoms make specific contacts with the V domain. The geometry of the bound CEL peptide is compatible with many CML (CEL)-modified sites found in plasma proteins. The structure explains how such patterned ligands as CML (CEL)-proteins bind to RAGE and contribute to RAGE signaling.
Project description:Advanced glycation end-products and glycoxidation products, such as Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and pentosidine, accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins with age and are implicated in the aging of tissue proteins and in the development of pathology in diabetes, atherosclerosis and other diseases. In this paper we describe a new advanced glycation end-product, Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), which is formed during the reaction of methylglyoxal with lysine residues in model compounds and in the proteins RNase and collagen. CEL was also detected in human lens proteins at a concentration similar to that of CML, and increased with age in parallel with the concentration of CML. Although CEL was formed in highest yields during the reaction of methylglyoxal and triose phosphates with lysine and protein, it was also formed in reactions of pentoses, ascorbate and other sugars with lysine and RNase. We propose that levels of CML and CEL and their ratio to one another in tissue proteins and in urine will provide an index of glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations in tissues, alterations in glutathione homoeostasis and dicarbonyl metabolism in disease, and sources of advanced glycation end-products in tissue proteins in aging and disease.
Project description:A?1-42 is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and is prone to glycation, an irreversible process where proteins accumulate advanced glycated end products (AGEs). N ?-(Carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) is a common AGE associated with AD patients and occurs at either Lys-16 or Lys-28 of A?1-42. Methyglyoxal is commonly used for the unspecific glycation of A?1-42, which results in a complex mixture of AGE-modified peptides and makes interpretation of a causative AGE at a specific amino acid residue difficult. We address this issue by chemically synthesizing defined CEL modifications on A?1-42 at Lys-16 (A?-CEL16), Lys-28 (A?-CEL28), and Lys-16 and -28 (A?-CEL16&28). We demonstrated that double-CEL glycations at Lys-16 and Lys-28 of A?1-42 had the most profound impact on the ability to form amyloid fibrils. In silico predictions indicated that A?-CEL16&28 had a substantial decrease in free energy change, which contributes to fibril destabilization, and a increased aggregation rate. Single-CEL glycations at Lys-28 of A?1-42 had the least impact on fibril formation, whereas CEL glycations at Lys-16 of A?1-42 delayed fibril formation. We also tested these peptides for neuronal toxicity and mitochondrial function on a retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line (RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y). Only A?-CEL16 and A?-CEL28 were neurotoxic, possibly through a nonmitochondrial pathway, whereas A?-CEL16&28 showed no neurotoxicity. Interestingly, A?-CEL16&28 had depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas A?-CEL16 had increased mitochondrial respiration at complex II. These results may indicate mitophagy or an alternate route of metabolism, respectively. Therefore, our results provides insight into potential therapeutic approaches against neurotoxic CEL-glycated A?1-42.
Project description:Non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) is associated with the long-term complications of diabetes. We examined the structure and location of modifications on minimally-glycated HSA and considered their possible impact on the binding of drugs to this protein.Minimally-glycated and normal HSA (used as a control) were digested with trypsin, Glu-C or Lys-C, followed by fractionation of the resulting peptides and their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to determine the structures and locations of glycation adducts.Several specific lysine and arginine residues were identified as modification sites in minimally-glycated HSA. Residues K12, K51, K199, K205, K439 and K538 were found to be modified through the formation of fructosyl-lysine, while the modification of K159 and K286 involved the formation of pyrraline or N(epsilon)-carboxymethyl-lysine, respectively. Lysine K378 was found to give N(epsilon)-carboxyethyl-lysine in some forms of glycated HSA but fructosyl-lysine in other forms. Residues R160 and R472 produced a modification based on N(epsilon)-(5-hydro-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine. Lysine R222 was modified to produce argpyrimidine, N(epsilon)-[5-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)-5-hydro-4-imidazolon-2-yl]ornithine or tetrahydropyrimidine.With the exception of K12, K199, K378, K439 and K525, all of the observed sites of modification for minimally-glycated HSA were new to this current study. The fact that many of these glycation-related modifications are located at or near known drug binding sites on HSA explains why some differences have been previously noted in the binding of certain drugs to normal vs glycated HSA.
Project description:Glycated albumin, an early-glycation Amadori-modified protein, stimulates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) expression and increases the production of the extracellular matrix proteins in mesangial cells, contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Glycated albumin has been shown to increase NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide formation in mesangial cells. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, in the present studies, we determined the mechanisms by which glycated albumin activates NADPH oxidase in primary rat mesangial cells and its contribution to glycated albumin-induced TGF-beta expression and extracellular matrix protein production. Our data showed that glycated albumin treatment stimulated NADPH oxidase activity and increased the formation of superoxide formation in rat mesangial cells. Moreover, glycated albumin treatment stimulated the expression and phosphorylation of p47phox, one of the cytosolic regulatory subunits of the NADPH oxidase. However, the levels of other NADPH oxidase subunits including Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, p22phox, and p67phox were not altered by glycated albumin. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p47phox inhibited glycated albumin-induced NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide formation. Glycated albumin-induced TGF-beta expression and extracellular matrix production (fibronectin) was also inhibited by p47phox knock down. Taken together, these data suggest that up-regulation of p47phox is involved in glycated albumin-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase, leading to glycated albumin-induced expression of TGF-beta and extracellular matrix proteins in mesangial cells and contributing to the development of diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Diabetes diagnosis and management majorly depend upon the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Various factors influence HbA1c levels such as the use of various analytical methods and the presence of various clinical conditions. Plasma albumin levels were known to be negatively associated with HbA1c. However, the precise mechanism by which they affect HbA1c is not well understood. Therefore, we have studied the influence of albumin levels and its glycation status on hemoglobin glycation using erythrocyte culture experiments. Erythrocytes maintained at low albumin concentration exhibited relatively increased albumin and hemoglobin glycation as compared to that in those maintained at higher albumin concentration. Increase in albumin glycation may decrease its ability to protect hemoglobin glycation. This was demonstrated by treatment of erythrocytes with N(?)-(carboxymethyl)lysine-modified serum albumin (CMSA), which failed to protect hemoglobin glycation; instead, it increased hemoglobin glycation. The inability of CMSA to reduce hemoglobin glycation was due to the lack of free lysine residues of albumin, which was corroborated by using N(?)-(acetyl)lysine serum albumin (AcSA) and clinical diabetic plasma. This is the first study which demonstrates that the modification of lysine residues of albumin impairs its ability to inhibit hemoglobin glycation. Furthermore, correlation studies between HbA1c and albumin levels or relative albumin fructosamine from clinical subjects supported our experimental finding that albumin abundance and its glycation status influence hemoglobin glycation. Therefore, we propose albumin level and its glycation status to be quantified in conjunction with HbA1c for better management of diabetes.
Project description:Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) are toxins that are involved in structural and functional alterations of several organs and tissues, resulting in various pathologies. Several types of AGEs have been described but carboxymethyllysine (CML) is the major antigenic AGE compound. In this study, three different immunogenic carrier proteins (KLH, keyhole limpet hemocyanin; BSA, bovine serum albumin; and HSA, human serum albumin) were modified by glycation. The glycated molecules were used to produce epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies able to recognize the CML domain and to detect uremic toxins in the serum of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A competitive ELISA was standardized in order to quantify CML in the sera of CKD patients. An increase in uremic toxins can compromise the clinical condition of these patients, thus, the detection and quantification of these toxins should contribute to a better management and understanding of this disease.
Project description:One of the long term complications of diabetes is the non-enzymatic addition of glucose to proteins in blood, such as human serum albumin (HSA), which leads to the formation of an Amadori product and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study uses (16)O/(18)O-labeling and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to provide quantitative data on the extent of modification that occurs in the presence of glucose at various regions in the structure of minimally glycated HSA.Normal HSA, with no significant levels of glycation, was digested by various proteolytic enzymes in the presence of water, while a similar sample containing in vitro glycated HSA was digested in (18)O-enriched water. These samples were then mixed and the (16)O/(18)O ratios were measured for peptides in each digest. The values obtained for the (16)O/(18)O ratios of the detected peptides for the mixed sample were used to determine the degree of modification that occurred in various regions of glycated HSA.Peptides containing arginines 114, 81, or 218 and lysines 413, 432, 159, 212, or 323 were found to have (16)O/(18)O ratios greater than a cut off value of 2.0 (i.e., a cut off value based on results noted when using only normal HSA as a reference). A qualitative comparison of the (16)O- and (18)O-labeled digests indicated that lysines 525 and 439 also had significant degrees of modification. The modifications that occurred at these sites were variations of fructosyl-lysine and AGEs which included 1-alkyl-2-formyl-3,4-glycoyl-pyrole and pyrraline.Peptides containing arginine 218 and lysines 212, 413, 432, and 439 contained high levels of modification and are also present near the major drug binding sites on HSA. This result is clinically relevant because it suggests the glycation of HSA may alter its ability to bind various drugs and small solutes in blood.
Project description:Non-enzymatic glycation of tissue proteins has important implications in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has been shown to outperform collision-induced dissociation (CID) in sequencing glycated peptides by tandem mass spectrometry, ETD instrumentation is not yet widely available and often suffers from significantly lower sensitivity than CID. In this study, we evaluated different advanced CID techniques (i.e., neutral-loss-triggered MS(3) and multi-stage activation) during liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometric (LC/MS(n)) analyses of Amadori-modified peptides enriched from human serum glycated in vitro. During neutral-loss-triggered MS(3) experiments, MS(3) scans triggered by neutral losses of 3 H(2)O or 3 H(2)O + HCHO produced similar results in terms of glycated peptide identifications. However, neutral losses of 3 H(2)O resulted in significantly more glycated peptide identifications during multi-stage activation experiments. Overall, the multi-stage activation approach produced more glycated peptide identifications, while the neutral-loss-triggered MS(3) approach resulted in much higher specificity. Both techniques are viable alternatives to ETD for identifying glycated peptides.