Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player.
ABSTRACT: In the absence of obvious trauma, diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh can easily be delayed, as disproportional pain is not always present. We present a case of ACS of the anterior right thigh compartment in a healthy, semiprofessional rugby player with normal coagulation, who sustained a seemingly innocuous blow during a rugby match. Following early surgical fasciotomy, he returned to his preinjury playing standards within 12 months. Our literature review suggests that high muscle mass, young, athletic males participating in a contact sport are mostly at risk of developing ACS of the thigh.
Project description:We reported a rare case of thigh compartment syndrome (TCS) complicated by sciatic nerve palsy, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure in an alcoholic patient. Intensive care measures and immediate posteromedial decompressive fasciotomy were performed. These timely interventions resulted in improvement of the nerve injury and restoration of the kidney function.
Project description:Using a prospective cohort study design, to establish the incidence and nature of time-loss injuries in English community rugby and to assess the differences between different playing levels.English community rugby clubs.Injury information for 4635 matches was collected during seasons 2009/2010 (46 clubs), 2010/2011(67 clubs) and 2011/2012 (76 clubs). Clubs were subdivided into groups A (semiprofessional), B (amateur) and C (recreational) for analysis.Any injury resulting in 8 days or greater absence from match play was reported by injury management staff at the clubs. The primary outcome measure was injury incidence (per 1000 player match-hours) and the secondary outcome measure was severity (ie, days absence).Overall match injury incidence was 16.9 injuries per 1000 player match-hours. Incidence was higher for group A (21.7; 95% CI 19.8 to 23.6) compared with group B (16.6; 95% CI 15.2 to 17.9) and C (14.2; 95% CI 13.0 to 15.5, both p<0.001). The mean time-loss was 7.6 weeks absence, with knee and shoulder injuries the most severe with mean absences of 11.6 and 9.3 weeks, respectively. Half of all injuries occurred to the lower limb, with knee and ankle joint/ligament injuries the most common diagnoses. Shoulder joint/ligament injuries were the most common and severe upper limb injuries. Contact events accounted for 80% of all injuries and tackles accounted for 50%. Running was the most common non-contact injury event, of which 56% were hamstring injuries.More time-loss injuries occur at higher levels of community rugby. Injury prevention strategies should focus on good technique in the tackle and conditioning exercises for the knee, ankle, hamstrings and shoulder.
Project description:SUMMARY: Proximal, posterior thigh wounds from oncologic or traumatic defects can be difficult wounds to reconstruct if local flap options have been sacrificed during the trauma or oncologic resection. Free flap options to cover these defects are also difficult because of the lack of convenient recipient vessels in the region. The authors present 2 cases (oncologic and traumatic) wherein a myocutaneous anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was harvested and tunneled from the anterior muscle compartment to the posterior muscle compartment of the thigh through a medially based transmuscular tunnel, decreasing the required pedicle distance to the wound. This technique of transmuscular tunneling of the ALT flap expands the indications and utility of the ALT flap to cover posterior thigh wounds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as a clinical entity originated from trauma or other conditions, and remains challenging to diagnose and treat effectively. The review was aim to present the controversy in diagnosing, treating ACS. It was found that there was no criterion about the ACS, and result unnecessary osteotomy. The presence of clinical assessment (5P) always means the necrosis of muscles and was the most serious or irreversible stage of ACS. Besides pressure methods, the threshold of pressure identifying ACS was also controversial. METHODS:Immediate surgical fasciotomy was important to prevent severe suquelae of the ACS. However, there was still controversy about the right time that fasciotomy should be done to avoid irreversible ischemic changes. The most important thing to treat ACS was comprehension to the true injury mechanism, but a systemic classification about traumatic mechanism in most literature was not clear. RESULTS:After observations to fracture patients with blister, we recommended that surgeons dealing with such emergencies should be vigilant, and the indication for fasciotomy should be strictly controlled following with injury mechanism especially for patients without severe soft tissue injury. CONCLUSION:For those crushing and soft tissue injuries, the current evidence based strategies for managing patients was useful, but for those fracture related injury, more examination was necessary to avoid overtreatment especially for those patients with blister observed. In facing patients, medical history, injured mechanism should be paid special attention, and rigorous classification about traumatic etiology was the key for the treatment of these patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Despite increasing rugby popularity among schoolboys' worldwide, specific factors influencing their motivation to participate in rugby remain unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted in two parts with a dual purpose of exploring perceptions of rugby coaches on (i) factors motivating schoolboys to engage in competitive rugby, and (ii) criteria for selecting schoolboy rugby players for possible inclusion in school rugby teams. RESULTS:A qualitative study targeting Zimbabwean high school-based rugby coaches purposively-recruited during the 2017 Dairiboard Zimbabwe Rugby School Festival was conducted. Using the conventional approach to content analysis, the 22 recruited male coaches (median age = 45.5 years) felt that playing rugby is a choice largely influenced by either intrinsic or extrinsic motives for schoolboys. Additionally, coaches considered players' characteristics (performance during training, attitude, physical qualities and skills) and match-related factors when selecting schoolboys for possible inclusion in school rugby teams. To effectively promote competitive rugby participation among schoolboys and promote sustainable and effective talent identification programmes in Zimbabwe, more recognition should be paid to factors motivating schoolboys to participate in rugby and also on the factors coaches consider when assembling school rugby teams which indirectly informs on what coaches think should be trained among schoolboy rugby players.
Project description:Objectives:The purpose of this review was to synthesise both injury prevention and performance tackle-related research to provide rugby stakeholders with information on tackle injury epidemiology, including tackle injury risk factors and performance determinants, and to discuss potential preventative measures. Design:Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Data sources:PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria:Limited to peer-reviewed English-only publications between January 1995 and October 2018. Results:A total of 317 studies were identified, with 177 in rugby union and 13 were in rugby sevens. The tackle accounted for more than 50% of all injuries in rugby union and rugby sevens, both at the professional level and at the lower levels, with the rate of tackle injuries higher at the professional level (mean 32/1000 player-hours) compared with the lower levels (mean 17/1000 player-hours). A player's tackle actions and technical ability were identified as major risk factors for injury and a key determinant of performance. Summary/conclusion:Evidence-based education, progressive tackle technique training with a high potential to transfer and law changes have been proposed as key modifiers of player tackle actions and technical ability. Conceivably, all three modifiers working in unison (as opposed to separately) will have a higher potential at reducing tackle injury risk while enhancing performance. With the guidance of tackle injury and performance studies, as well as stakeholder engagement, experiential and explorative tackle research has the potential to inspire innovative injury prevention and performance strategies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Although schoolboy rugby is growing in popularity and played at different competitive levels in Zimbabwe, the influence of playing standard on qualities or skills of older male adolescent rugby players is unknown. Utilising a cross-sectional design, this study determined anthropometric, physiological characteristics and rugby-specific game skills defining elite under 19 (U19) schoolboy rugby players. Following development and subsequent assessment of test-retest reliability of School Clinical Rugby Measure (SCRuM) test battery, this study compared performance outcomes of elite rugby players (n?=?41), sub-elite rugby players (n?=?46) and non-rugby athletes (n?=?26) to identify qualities or skills discriminating (i) elite from sub-elite and non-rugby players, and concomitantly (ii) sub-elite from non-rugby players. RESULTS:40 m speed test (p?<?0.001, ES?=?1.78) and 2 kg Medicine Ball Chest Throw test (p?<?0.001, ES?=?1.69) significantly discriminated elite U19 from sub-elite and non-rugby players. These tests further differentiated sub-elite from non-rugby athletes. Additionally, 1RM back squat (p?=?0.009, ES?=?0.57), 1RM bench press (p?=?0.005, ES?=?0.61), repeated high-intensity exercise test (p?<?0.001, ES?=?0.88) and passing ability test (p?<?0.001, ES?=?0.99) discriminated elite from sub-elite counterparts. These findings highlight important attributes linked to elite U19 schoolboy rugby in Zimbabwe. However, no significant differences were observed for sum of seven skinfold (p?=?0.28), tackling (p?=?0.08) and catching ability (p?=?0.05).
Project description:Background: To investigate the relationship between fat content and the cross-sectional area of psoas and thigh muscles, and clinical severity in patients with Parkinson's disease. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. All subjects underwent MRI study to determine the fat content of the bilateral psoas and thigh muscles. Muscle quality was measured by grasp, walking speed, and cross-sectional area. All patients underwent clinical surveys to evaluate disease severity and frailty, and analyses of the correlations between muscle quality and disease severity were performed. Results: Compared with the controls, patients exhibited higher fatty content in the measured muscles. The higher fat infiltration of measured muscles was significantly correlated with increased disease severity and frailty in patients. The fat fraction of the bilateral medial compartment of the thigh was correlated with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-I results and the fat fraction of the bilateral anterior compartment of the thigh was correlated with weakness and exhaustion in patients. Conclusions: Decreased quality in psoas and thigh muscles is prominent in Parkinson's disease which is further associated with disease severity and frailty. Awareness of the risk of sarcopenia and associated sequelae might improve patient care and outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic data in professional sport is becoming an increasingly valuable tool in identifying frequently occurring injuries and developing strategies to reduce their occurrence. Currently, there is a paucity of literature on the epidemiology of knee injuries in professional male rugby league players. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed medical records from a single male professional rugby league team (Newcastle Knights), competing in Australia, and evaluated knee injuries and time to return to play. RESULTS:In total, 89 knee injuries occurred, with an injury incidence of 616.7 injuries per 1000 players. The most frequently occurring knee injuries were medial collateral ligament (416.7 injuries per 1000 players) and chondral/meniscal injuries (416.7 injuries per 1000 players). For all injury types, being tackled was the most common mechanism of injury, and the median time to return to play was 1 day. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries accounted for the longest time to return to play (median 236.0 days). CONCLUSION:Medial collateral ligament and chondral/meniscal injury types were the most frequent injuries; however, anterior cruciate ligament injuries accounted for the most time missed from sport despite being less common. Professional male rugby league players incur similar knee injury types compared to rugby union based upon our study and other similar studies.
Project description:Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions.Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk.Cross-sectional analysis.Level 3.An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management.In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion.Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured."Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.