Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of certain commercially available mouthwashes on cariogenic bacteria and biofilms, following the acquisition of inhibition potentials of caries.Mouthwashes containing I) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG; 0.0005% w/v), II) benzethonium chloride (BTC; 0.01% w/v), III) an essential oil (Listerine), and IV) povidone-iodine (PVP-I; 0.035% w/v) were tested on planktonic cariogenic bacteria, biofilms, and an ex vivo caries model. Bacterial aliquots were inoculated with each solution separately and vortexed for 10 seconds at room temperature. Bacterial viability was subsequently investigated by fluorescence microscopy (FM) after staining with a BacLight viability kit and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) was counted. Similarly, mouthwash solutions were applied to artificial cariogenic biofilms, and bacterial viability of the biofilms was investigated as stated above. Inhibition potentials of two selected mouthwashes of carious lesions were investigated using biofilm-induced caries and a secondary caries model. In all steps, a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution was included as a control.Planktonic cariogenic bacteria and bacteria embedded in biofilms were killed in remarkably large numbers with Listerine and PVP-I treatment compared to PBS and other gargles. CFU counts also showed significant reduction after treatment with Listerine and PVP-I compared to other solutions (P<0.05). Listerine also displayed significant (P<0.05) inhibition effects in preventing the progression of demineralization.Bactericidal potencies of the mouthwashes varied significantly, suggesting that mouthwashes like Listerine can be useful for the prevention of caries and secondary caries.
Project description:Background: The oropharynx plays a major role in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men who have sex with men. Trials are currently assessing the efficacy of bactericidal mouthwashes as possible therapeutic or preventive options against these pharyngeal gonococcal infections. Controlled clinical trials require the use of a placebo mouthwash without anti-gonococcal activity. So far, no such mouthwash has been described. We describe the development of a mouthwash for this purpose. Methods: The in vitro anti-gonococcal activity of Corsodyl®, Listerine Cool Mint®, Biotene®, phosphate buffered saline and six in-house placebo mouthwashes was evaluated. Three gonococcal isolates from patients with pharyngeal infection were exposed to the mouthwashes for a duration ranging from 30 seconds to 60 minutes. Isolates were then plated onto blood agar (5% horse blood) and incubated for 24 hours (5-7% CO 2, 35 ± 2°C). Growth of N. gonorrhoeae was scored on a five-point scale (0 to 4). All experiments were conducted in duplicate. Results: Corsodyl® and Listerine Cool Mint® were bactericidal to all isolates. For the other mouthwashes, the median growth score after 60 minutes of exposure was 4 (interquartile range 4-4) for phosphate buffered saline; 1 (interquartile range 1-3) for Biotene®; and ranged between 0 and 2 for the in-house composed mouthwashes. An in-house composed mouthwash (Placebo 6) performed best, with a growth score of 2 (interquartile range 2-3). Conclusions: All of the evaluated potential placebo mouthwashes were bacteriostatic after gonococcal exposure of 30 to 60 minutes. In-house composed Placebo 6 showed less inhibition on gonococcal growth than Biotene® and the other in-house placebos and demonstrates, in our opinion, a good trade-off between anti-gonococcal properties and taste.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This systematic review of randomized clinical trials aimed to evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy of propolis-based mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched up to November 2019. Clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of propolis mouthwashes compared with chlorhexidine (CHX) were included. The primary outcomes comprised dental plaque and/or gingival inflammation. Two authors assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool. Due to marked heterogeneity of the available data, studies were assessed qualitatively, and no metaanalysis was performed. RESULTS:Nine clinical trials, comprising 333 subjects, fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of the included studies showed high risk of bias. Overall, propolis mouthwashes showed good efficacy on plaque and gingivitis in all of the included studies. Out of the eight studies that reported on plaque index, 5 studies found equal efficacy of propolis and CHX in reducing plaque, two studies found superior efficacy in favor of CHX, while one study found superior efficacy in favor of propolis. Six studies assessed gingival inflammation outcome, four of which reported better results with propolis, while two studies reported comparable results. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that propolis-based mouthwashes have potential benefits in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation. However, methodological limitations along with small sample sizes in some of the included studies weaken the strength of the evidence. Therefore, further well-designed clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow-up period are recommended to discern the efficacy of propolis mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in saliva has alerted health professionals to the possibility of contamination by aerosols generated in a number of procedures. The indication of preoperative mouthwash containing 1% hydrogen peroxide for reducing the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva prior to oral procedures has been significantly disseminated through several citations and influenced various dental associations in the elaboration of dental care protocols during this pandemic period, including patients admitted to hospital wards and intensive care units.<h4>Aim</h4>To Our aim was to perform a systematic review to answer the following question: does hydrogen peroxide mouthwash (at any concentration) have a virucidal effect?<h4>Methods</h4>The Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched by using the following key-words: 'hydrogen peroxide', 'mouthwash', 'mouth rinse', 'rinse', 'oral rinse', 'mouth bath', 'mouth wash', and 'mouth washes'. Reviews, letters to the editor, personal opinions, book chapters, case reports, congress abstracts, studies with animals and studies on mouthwash containing other compounds other than hydrogen peroxide were excluded.<h4>Findings</h4>During the initial search 1342 articles were identified on the five electronic databases. After excluding some duplicates, 976 articles remained. Only studies assessing the virucidal effect of hydrogen peroxide mouthwash were selected, regardless of publication date.<h4>Conclusion</h4>After reading titles and abstracts, no article met the eligibility criteria. In conclusion, there is no scientific evidence supporting the indication of hydrogen peroxide mouthwash for control of the viral load regarding SARS-CoV-2 or any other viruses in saliva.
Project description:This study aimed to demonstrate subgingival microbial changes associated with development, prevention, and treatment of experimental gingivitis using chlorhexidine (CHX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mouthwashes. This randomized clinical trial comprised two parts: a 3-week prevention sub-study in which 30 study subjects were equally assigned to either mouthwash or placebo while developing experimental gingivitis; followed by a 2-week treatment sub-study in which 20 subjects with experimental gingivitis were assigned to either mouthwash. Subgingival samples were collected at the beginning and end of each sub-study for microbial profiling with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As expected, CHX was effective in both preventing and reversing experimental gingivitis; NAC had a modest effect. Gingivitis was associated with enrichment of TM7 HOT-346/349, Tannerella HOT-286, Cardiobacterium valvarum, Campylobacter gracilis, Porphyromonas catoniae, Leptotrichia HOT-219, and Selen o monas spp. At the phylum/genus level, TM7 showed the strongest association. Gingival health was associated with increased abundance of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Rothia spp., Streptococcus spp., and Kingella oralis. CHX demonstrated largely indiscriminate antimicrobial action, resulting in significant drop in biomass and diversity. Our results substantiate the role of specific oral bacterial species in the development of gingivitis. They also indicate that NAC is not a promising mouthwash at the concentration tested.
Project description:Objectives:Our purpose was to determine the antibacterial properties of propolis and to evaluate its use as an antibacterial mouthwash with minimal complications. Materials and Methods:In this experimental laboratory study, an alcoholic propolis extract was prepared. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated for four bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) using agar dilution. According to the MIC, a propolis antibacterial mouthwash was produced and compared to water, chlorhexidine (CHX), and Listerine using laboratory rats for clinical examination. Salivary specimens of rats were collected at 12 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks after using the mouthwash and examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measures ANOVA (?=0.05). Results:The results of agar dilution by the number of colony-forming units showed the lowest MIC for S. aureus and the highest for L. acidophilus. Our RT-PCR findings indicated that water alone had no effect on the level of oral bacteria. Propolis mouthwash showed a significant difference with CHX and Listerine (P<0.05) in terms of the number of S. mutans, E. faecalis, and L. acidophilus colonies, while CHX and Listerine were less efficient. There was no significant difference between CHX and propolis (P=0.110) regarding S. aureus colonies, but Listerine had a lower efficacy than either (P<0.05). Conclusion:According to the results, propolis mouthwash was more efficient against the studied oral bacteria compared to CHX and Listerine.
Project description:Oral microbiota consists of hundreds of different species of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and archaea, important for oral health. Oral mycoses, mostly affecting mucosae, are mainly caused by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. They become relevant in denture-wearers elderly people, in diabetic patients, and in immunocompromised individuals. Differently, bacteria are responsible for other pathologies, such as dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, which affect even immune-competent individuals. An appropriate oral hygiene can avoid (or at least ameliorate) such pathologies: the regular and correct use of toothbrush, toothpaste and mouthwash helps prevent oral infections. Interestingly, little or no information is available on the effects (if any) of mouthwashes on the composition of oral microbiota in healthy individuals. Therefore, by means of in vitro models, we assessed the effects of alcohol-free commercial mouthwashes, with different composition (4 with chlorhexidine digluconate, 1 with fluoride, 1 with essential oils, 1 with cetylpyridinium chloride and 1 with triclosan), on several virulence traits of C. albicans, and a group of viridans streptococci, commonly colonizing the oral cavity. For the study here described, a reference strain of C. albicans and of streptococci isolates from pharyngeal swabs were used. Chlorhexidine digluconate- and cetylpyridinium chloride-containing mouthwashes were the most effective in impairing C. albicans capacity to adhere to both abiotic and biotic surfaces, to elicit proinflammatory cytokine secretion by oral epithelial cells and to escape intracellular killing by phagocytes. In addition, these same mouthwashes were effective in impairing biofilm formation by a group of viridans streptococci that, notoriously, cooperate with the cariogenic S. mutans, facilitating the establishment of biofilm by the latter. Differently, these mouthwashes were ineffective against other viridans streptococci that are natural competitors of S. mutans. Finally, by an in vitro model of mixed biofilm, we showed that mouthwashes-treated S. salivarius overall failed to impair C. albicans capacity to form a biofilm. In conclusion, the results described here suggest that chlorhexidine- and cetylpyridinium-containing mouthwashes may be effective in regulating microbial homeostasis of the oral cavity, by providing a positive balance for oral health. On the other side, chlorhexidine has several side effects that must be considered when prescribing mouthwashes containing this molecule.
Project description:To evaluate the influence of different whitening protocols on the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) tooth whitening and gel pH and concentration.Eighty-four enamel/dentin discs from bovine incisors were used. The baseline color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Two sessions of in-office whitening with 35% HP were performed under different protocols: G1: 3 applications of HP (10 min each) per session; G2: 1 application of 30 min per session; G3: 1 application of 40 min per session, with no gel replenishment within session for groups 2 and 3. HP titration and pH evaluation at baseline, after 10, 30, and 40 min were also performed. The final color was measured 24 h after the 1st and 2nd whitening sessions. Data were submitted to Repeated Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test.For color evaluation, no differences were observed among groups after two sessions. HP titration showed no drop on concentration after 10, 30, or 40 min. The pH was 5.54 at baseline and 5.41 after 40 min.Replenishment or extended application time of in-office whitening gel does not affect gel pH and concentration, a fact that supports the similar effectiveness of whitening observed among the tested protocols.
Project description:Background/purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a naturally derived biomaterial, was suitable as an alternative antibacterial mouthwash in the absence of alcohol. Materials and methods:Three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were used for testing the antibacterial activity of mouthwashes. In addition, cell viability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity experiments were conducted for testing the toxicity of mouthwashes. Results:We demonstrated that 10000 ppm of γ-PGA without alcohol could efficiently inhibit 99% of bacterial growth. In addition, γ-PGA did not cause any cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. Conclusion:10000 ppm of γ-PGA in an alcohol-free mouthwash is an alternative biomaterial for mouthwashes.
Project description:In order to investigate the effects of mouthwashes on oral biofilms with probiotics, we compared in biofilms the susceptibility to mouthwashes of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Candida albicans. We also evaluated these pathogens' susceptibility to the mouthwashes and their recovery after mouthwash-rinsing in biofilms with/without LGG. First, 1-day-/3-day-old LGG-integrated multi-species biofilms were exposed for 1 min to mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine, essential oils, or amine fluoride/stannous fluoride. Cells were plate-counted and relative survival rates (RSRs) of LGG and pathogens calculated. Second, 1-day-/3-day-old multispecies biofilms with and without LGG were exposed for 1 min to mouthwashes; cells were plate-counted and the pathogens' RSRs were calculated. Third, 1-day-old biofilms were treated for 1 min with mouthwashes. Cells were plate-counted immediately and after 2-day cultivation. Recovery rates of pathogens were calculated and compared between biofilms with/without LGG. Live/Dead® staining served for structural analyses. Our results showed that RSRs of LGG were insignificantly smaller than those of pathogens in both 1-day and 3-day biofilms. No significant differences appeared in pathogens' RSRs and recovery rates after treatment between biofilms with/without LGG. To conclude, biofilm LGG was susceptible to the mouthwashes; but biofilm LGG altered neither the mouthwash effects on oral pathogens nor affected their recovery.