Effect of glucocorticoids on lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of the bone microcirculatory endothelial cells from femur head of Homo sapiens.
ABSTRACT: Appropriate gene expression patterns form the basis for bone microvascular endothelial cells' function in femoral head. Although previous studies have elucidated the impact of glucocorticoids on these cells' specific gene expression the exact differential transcriptomes and comprehensive gene expression profiles remain unknown. Using microarray-based platforms we investigated the transcriptome patterns before and after hydrocortisone administration of bone microvascular endothelial cells from human femoral head. Our results highlight the involvement of development differentiation and apoptosis in the bone microvascular endothelial cells. Elucidation of differential gene expression before and after hydrocortisone administration emphasizes the importance of regulatory networks to gene co-expression within biological processes induced by glucocorticoids. With Benjamini-Hochberg characterization we identified 73 up-regulated and 166 down-regulated long noncoding RNAs the expression of 107 of which significantly correlated with 172 mRNAs after administration of hydrocortisone. Transcriptome analysis of bone microvascular endothelial cells from human femoral head samples is highly informative because it is deduced from data comprised of large number of genes expressed above background. The data have been submitted to the repository of Gene Expression Omnibus (Series GSE60332).
Project description:Appropriate expression and regulation of the transcriptome, which mainly comprise of mRNAs and lncRNAs, are important for all biological and cellular processes including the physiological activities of bone microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Through an intricate intracellular signaling systems, the transcriptome regulates the pharmacological response of the cells. Although studies have elucidated the impact of glucocorticoids (GCs) cell-specific gene expression signatures, it remains necessary to comprehensively characterize the impact of lncRNAs to transcriptional changes.BMECs were divided into two groups. One was treated with GCs and the other left untreated as a paired control. Differential expression was analyzed with GeneSpring software V12.0 (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and hierarchical clustering was conducted using Cluster 3.0 software. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was performed with Molecular Annotation System provided by CapitalBio Corporation.Our results highlight the involvement of genes implicated in development, differentiation and apoptosis following GC stimulation. Elucidation of differential gene expression emphasizes the importance of regulatory gene networks induced by GCs. We identified 73 up-regulated and 166 down-regulated long noncoding RNAs, the expression of 107 of which significantly correlated with 172 mRNAs induced by hydrocortisone.Transcriptome analysis of BMECs from human samples was performed to identify specific gene networks induced by GCs. Our results identified complex RNA crosstalk underlying the pathogenesis of steroid-induced necrosis of femoral head.
Project description:Appropriate gene expression patterns form the basis for bone microcirculatory endothelial cells’ function and bone morphology. Although previous studies have elucidated the impact of hydrocortisone on bone microcirculatory endothelial cells’ specific gene expression, the exact differential transcriptomes and comprehensive gene expression profiles remain unknown. We have investigated the mRNA and lncRNA expression patterns before and after hydrocortisone administration of bone microcirculatory endothelial cells. At mRNAs level totally 518 differentially expressed genes were identified. Furthermore, we identified 73 upregulated and 166 downregulated long non-coding RNAs after administration of hydrocortisone. These RNAs appeared to be highly important to gene co-expression network. Transcriptomic analysis of bone microcirculatory endothelial cells from human samples is highly informative due to their relevance to the large number of expressed genes. Our study provides a very valuable basis for investigation of genes, regulation and their co-expression network contributing to hydrocortisone induced disorders. Two-condition experiment, hydrocortisone treated vs. untreated bone microcirculatory endothelial cells. Biological replicates: 8 control replicates, 8 treated replicates.
Project description:Appropriate gene expression patterns form the basis for bone microcirculatory endothelial cells’ function and bone morphology. Although previous studies have elucidated the impact of hydrocortisone on bone microcirculatory endothelial cells’ specific gene expression, the exact differential transcriptomes and comprehensive gene expression profiles remain unknown. We have investigated the microRNA expression patterns before and after hydrocortisone administration of bone microcirculatory endothelial cells. Only 5 microRNAs were Benjamini-Hochberg characterized over 368 microRNAs candidates. Transcriptomic analysis of bone microcirculatory endothelial cells from human samples is highly informative due to their relevance to the large number of expressed genes. Our study provides a very valuable basis for investigation of genes, regulation and their co-expression network contributing to hydrocortisone induced disorders. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, hydrocortisone treated vs. untreated bone microcirculatory endothelial cells. Biological replicates: 8 control replicates, 8 treated replicates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To investigate the efficacy of the sole core decompression surgery for the treatment of steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis. METHODS: The model was established by administration of steroids in combination with horse serum. The rabbits with bilateral femoral head osteonecrosis were randomly selected to do the one side of core decompression. The other side was used as the sham. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot techniques were used to measure the local expression of BMP-2 and PPAR-?. Bone tissues from control and operation groups were histologically analyzed by H&E staining. The comparisons of the local expression of BMP-2 and PPAR-? and the bone regeneration were further analyzed between different groups at each time point. RESULTS: The expression of BMP-2 in the osteonecrosis femoral head with or without decompression was significantly lower than that in normal animals. BMP-2 expression both showed the decreasing trend with the increased post-operation time. No significant difference of BMP-2 expression occurred between femoral head osteonecrosis with and without decompression. The PPAR-? expression in the femoral head osteonecrosis with and without core decompression both was significantly higher than that in control. Its expression pattern showed a significantly increased trend with increased the post-operation time. However, there was no significant difference of PPAR-? expression between the femoral head osteonecrosis with and without decompression at each time point. Histopathological analysis revealed that new trabecular bone and a large number of osteoblasts were observed in the steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis with lateral decompression at 8?weeks after surgery, but there still existed trabecular bone fractures and bone necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although decompression takes partial effect in promoting bone regeneration in the early treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis, such an effect does not significantly improve or reverse the pathological changes of femoral head necrosis. Thus, the long-term effect of core decompression in the treatment of steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis is not satisfactory.
Project description:Diabetic complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Elevated blood glucose contributes to the development of endothelial and vascular dysfunction, and, consequently, to diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications, because it increases the mitochondrial proton gradient and mitochondrial oxidant production. Therapeutic approaches designed to counteract glucose-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the vasculature are expected to show efficacy against all diabetic complications, but direct pharmacological targeting (scavenging) of mitochondrial oxidants remains challenging due to the high reactivity of some of these oxidant species. In a recent study, we have conducted a medium-throughput cell-based screening of a focused library of well-annotated pharmacologically active compounds and identified glucocorticoids as inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide production in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to elevated extracellular glucose. The goal of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of glucocorticoids' action. Our findings show that glucocorticoids induce the expression of the mitochondrial UCP2 protein and decrease the mitochondrial potential. UCP2 silencing prevents the protective effect of the glucocorticoids on ROS production. UCP2 induction also increases the oxygen consumption and the "proton leak" in microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation augments the effect of glucocorticoids via further enhancing the expression of UCP2 at the translational level. We conclude that UCP2 induction represents a novel experimental therapeutic intervention in diabetic vascular complications. While direct repurposing of glucocorticoids may not be possible for the therapy of diabetic complications due to their significant side effects that develop during chronic administration, the UCP2 pathway may be therapeutically targetable by other, glucocorticoid-independent pharmacological means.
Project description:The endothelial cell-derived peptide endothelin 1 (ET1) stimulates cell proliferation and differentiated functions of human osteoblastic cells (HOC), and HOC constitutively express the endothelin A receptor (ETRA). Therefore, ET1 may play an important role in the regulation of bone cell metabolism. As glucocorticoids (GC) exert a profound influence on bone metabolism and increase the effects of ET1 on bone cell metabolism in vitro, the effects of GC on ETRA expression in HOC were investigated. Dexamethasone (DEX) increased ETRA mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The effects of dexamethasone, prednisolone, and deflazacort on the increase of ETRA mRNA levels correlate positively with their binding affinity to the GC receptor. Scatchard analysis of ET1 binding data to HOC revealed that DEX increased the binding capacity for ET1 from 25,300 to 62,800 binding sites per osteoblastic cell, leading to an enhanced mitogenic effect of ET1 on HOC after preincubation with DEX. Transiently transfected primary HOC with a reporter gene construct, containing the 5'-flanking region of the ETRA gene fused to luciferase gene, showed a promoter-dependent expression of the reporter gene and the induction of reporter gene expression by DEX treatment. Total RNA extracts of femoral head biopsies with osteonecrotic lesions from GC-treated patients showed threefold higher ETRA mRNA levels compared with extracts of bone biopsies from patients with traumatically induced osteonecrosis and coxarthrosis. Furthermore, GC treatment increased plasma ET1 levels by 50% compared with pretreatment values. These findings suggest that GC induced upregulation of ETRA, and ET1 plasma levels enhance ET1's anabolic action on bone cell metabolism. Increased ET1 concentrations may also impair bone perfusion by vasoconstriction in a metabolically activated skeletal region.
Project description:Autophagy serves as a stress response and may contribute to the pathogenesis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head induced by steroids. Statins promote angiogenesis and ameliorate endothelial functions through apoptosis inhibition and necrosis of endothelial progenitor cells, however the process used by statins to modulate autophagy in avascular necrosis of the femoral head remains unclear. This manuscript determines whether pravastatin protects against dexamethasone-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head by activating endothelial progenitor cell autophagy. Pravastatin was observed to enhance the autophagy activity in endothelial progenitor cells, specifically by upregulating LC3-II/Beclin-1 (autophagy related proteins), and autophagosome formation in vivo and in vitro. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, reduced pravastatin protection in endothelial progenitor cells exposed to dexamethasone by attenuating pravastatin-induced autophagy. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key autophagy regulator by sensing cellular energy changes, and indirectly suppressing activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We found that phosphorylation of AMPK was upregulated however phosphorylation of mTOR was downregulated in pravastatin-treated endothelial progenitor cells, which was attenuated by AMPK inhibitor compound C. Furthermore, liver kinase B1 (a phosphorylase of AMPK) knockdown eliminated pravastatin regulated autophagy protein LC3-II in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. We therefore demonstrated pravastatin rescued endothelial progenitor cells from dexamethasone-induced autophagy dysfunction through the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway in a liver kinase B1-dependent manner. Our results provide useful information for the development of novel therapeutics for management of glucocorticoids-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits a highly selective permeability to support the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The tight junctions in the BBB microvascular endothelial cells seal the paracellular space to prevent diffusion. Thus, disruption of tight junctions results in harmful effects in CNS diseases and injuries. It has recently been demonstrated that glucocorticoids have beneficial effects on maintaining tight junctions in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. In the present study, we found that dexamethasone suppresses the expression of JMJD3, a histone H3K27 demethylase, via the recruitment of glucocorticoid receptor ? (GR?) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) to the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE) in the upstream region of JMJD3 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNF? treatment. The decreased JMJD3 gene expression resulted in the suppression of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 gene activation. Dexamethasone also activated the expression of the claudin 5 and occludin genes. Collectively, dexamethasone attenuated the disruption of the tight junctions in the brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNF? treatment. Therefore, glucocorticoids may help to preserve the integrity of the tight junctions in the BBB via transcriptional and post-translational regulation following CNS diseases and injuries.
Project description:Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an epithelial blistering disease caused by autoantibodies to the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (DSG3). Glucocorticoids improve disease within days by increasing DSG3 gene transcription, although the mechanism for this observation remains unknown. Here, we show that DSG3 transcription in keratinocytes is regulated by Stat3. Treatment of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) with hydrocortisone or rapamycin, but not the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190, significantly increases DSG3 mRNA and protein expression and correspondingly reduces phospho-S727 Stat3. Stat3 inhibition or shRNA-knockdown also significantly increases DSG3 mRNA and protein levels. Hydrocortisone- or rapamycin-treated PHKs demonstrate increased number and length of desmosomes by electron microscopy and are resistant to PV IgG-induced loss of cell adhesion, whereas constitutive activation of Stat3 in PHKs abrogates DSG3 upregulation and inhibits hydrocortisone and rapamycin's therapeutic effects. Topical hydrocortisone, rapamycin, or Stat3 inhibitor XVIII prevents autoantibody-induced blistering in the PV passive transfer mouse model, correlating with increased epidermal DSG3 expression and decreased phospho-S727 Stat3. Our data indicate that glucocorticoids and rapamycin upregulate DSG3 transcription through inhibition of Stat3. These studies explain how glucocorticoids rapidly improve pemphigus and may also offer novel insights into the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of desmosomal cadherin expression in normal epidermis and epithelial carcinomas.
Project description:The main pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) includes decreased osteogenic capacity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and damaged blood supply to the femoral head. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play prominent roles in SONFH development. However, there is no report that a specific miRNA targeting two genes in two different pathogenic pathways has been applied to this disease. The present study investigated the effects of transplantation of miR-137-3p-silenced BMSCs on the prevention and early treatment of SONFH. First, western blotting and dual luciferase assays were employed to verify that miR-137-3p directly targets Runx2 and CXCL12. Then, silencing of miR-137-3p was found to facilitate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which was confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red staining and qRT-PCR. Silencing of miR-137-3p also promoted angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence or absence of glucocorticoids. Thereafter, overexpression of Runx2 and CXCL12 without the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) partially rescued the effects of miR-137-3p on osteogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. This finding further supported the hypothesis that miR-137-3p exerts its functions partly by regulating the genes, Runx2 and CXCL12. We also demonstrated that SONFH was partially prevented by transplantation of miR-137-3p-silenced BMSCs into a rat model. Micro-CT and histology showed that the transplantation of miR-137-3p-silenced BMSCs significantly improved bone regeneration. Additionally, the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and flow cytometry suggested that stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participated in the process of vascular repair. Taken together, these findings show that silencing of miR-137-3p directly targets the genes, Runx2 and CXCL12, which can play critical roles in SONFH repair by facilitating osteogenic differentiation and mobilizing EPCs.