Inhibition of Autophagy Potentiated the Antitumor Effect of Nedaplatin in Cisplatin-Resistant Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.
ABSTRACT: Nedaplatin, a cisplatin analog, was developed to reduce the toxicity of cisplatin, whereas it can be cross-resistant with cisplatin in some circumstances. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in nedaplatin induced cell death in cisplatin-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Here, we showed that HNE1/DDP and CNE2/DDP cells were resistant to nedaplatin-induced cell death with reduced apoptotic activity. Nedaplatin treatment resulted in autophagosome accumulation and increased expression of LC3-II, indicating the induction of autophagy by nedaplatin in HNE1/DDP and CNE2/DDP cells. Inhibition of autophagy by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1) and 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) remarkably enhanced the antitumor efficacy of nedaplatin in HNE1/DDP and CNE2/DDP cells, suggesting that the resistance to nedaplatin-induced cell death was caused by enhanced autophagy in nedaplatin-resistant NPC cells. Additionally, Baf A1 enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis induced by nedaplatin in HNE1/DDP cells. Mechanistically, nedaplatin treatment caused activation of ERK1/2 and suppression of Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. While inhibition of ERK1/2 by MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, could reduce the expression of LC3-II in nedaplatin-resistant NPC cells. Furthermore, suppression of ROS could inhibit nedaplatin-induced ERK activation in HNE1/DDP cells, indicating that ROS and ERK were involved in nedaplatin-induced autophagy. Together, these findings suggested that autophagy played a cytoprotective role in nedaplatin-induced cytotoxicity of HNE1/DDP and CNE2/DDP cells. Furthermore, our results highlighted a potential approach to restore the sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer cells to nedaplatin in combination with autophagy inhibitors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) on the sensitivity of drug-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma HNE1/DDP cells to cisplatin (DDP)-induced apoptosis and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS:The expression of MCT1 was analyzed in HNE1 and HNE1/DDP cells and in HNE1/DDP cells transfected with siRNA using Western blot. MTT assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of DDP alone or in combination with MCT1 siRNA on the proliferation of HNE1/DDP cells. The apoptosis of cells treated with MCT1 siRNA or/and DDP (8 µmol/L) was assessed using flow cytometry with PI staining, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected using JC-1 staining assay; the expressions of Mcl-1, Bak, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed using Western blotting. RESULTS:HNE1/DDP cells showed a high expression of MCT1, and MCT1 silencing using siRNA significantly increased the sensitivity of HNE1/DDP cells to DDP (P<0.05) and partly reversed DDP resistance of the cells. MCT1 silencing enhanced the sensitivity of HNE1/DDP cells to DDP-induced apoptosis. Treatment of HNE1/DDP cells with MCT1 siRNA combined with 8 µmol/L DDP for 24 h resulted in an apoptotic rate of (51.23?2.86)%, significantly higher than that in cells treated with MCT1 siRNA or DDP alone (P<0.05). The combined treatment also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, down-regulated the expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and up-regulated the expression of Bax in the DDP-resistant cells. CONCLUSION:MCT1 siRNA can enhance the sensitivity of HNE1/DDP cells to DDP-induced apoptosis, the mechanism of which may involve the down-regulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression.
Project description:Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, drug resistance emergences after treatment. Long non-coding RNA microvascular invasion in hepatic cancer (MVIH) plays an important role in drug resistance in a variety of cancers. This study investigates the role of nedaplatin on multidrug resistance in NSCLC and its relationship with MVIH. Lung cancer A549 and H1650 cells were treated with cisplatin to obtain multidrug-resistant A549/DDP and H1650/ DDP cells. A549/DDP and H1650/ DDP cells were treated with nedaplatin, MVIH siRNA and siRNA NC. It was found that both MVIH siRNA and nedaplatin significantly reduce the mRNA expression of MVIH in A549/DDP and H1650/ DDP cells. MTT assay showed that the proliferation of MDR cells was significantly higher than that of other cells. Nedaplatin and MVIH siRNA significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 and H1650 cells. The results of colony formation assay were consistence with MTT results. Nedaplatin and MVIH siRNA significantly reduced colony formation in MDR cells. Flow cytometry showed that NDP and MVIH siRNA significantly decrease the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and increase the proportion of cells in S phase compared with untreated and MDR cells. The apoptotic rate of MDR cells was significantly lower than that of other cells, while the apoptosis rate of cells in NDP and MVIH siRNA group was significantly higher than that of the other three groups of cells. Wound healing assay and Transwell chamber experiments confirmed that both NDP and MVIH siRNA significantly reduced the migration and invasion abilities of MDR cells. The expression of E-cadherin in MDR cells was significantly lower than that in untreated cells, and the expression of N-cad, ?-SMA and Vimentin significantly increased in the MDR cells. NPD and MVIH siRNA reverse the EMT process. In conclusion, LncRNA MVIH is upregulated in drug resistant NSCLC cells. Nedaplatin can reduce the expression of MVIH and reverse EMT process, thus reversing the drug resistance of cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Project description:This study was conducted to explore the role of autophagy in cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma. Cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma cell line (MG63/DDP) was obtained from parental MG63 by treating cisplatin with an intermittent stepwise selection protocol. The autophagy in MG63/DDP and MG63 was fully analyzed by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Meanwhile, the autophagy and the sensitivity to cisplatin for MG63/DDP and MG63 after inhibition of beclin1 were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Increased autophagy was observed in cisplatin resistant MG63/DDP cells and in the cisplatin-treated MG63 and MG63/DDP cells. Meanwhile, inhibition the beclin1 significantly inhibited the formation of autophagosome and resulted in the increase in the sensitivity to cisplatin for both MG63 and MG63/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, autophagy is implicated in the cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma, and inhibition of beclin1 could be a target for improving osteosarcoma therapy.
Project description:Cisplatin resistance is the main cause of treatment failure in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Autophagy is a key mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy. Given that tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins are involved in the regulation of autophagy and chemoresistance, we aimed to study the functions of TRIM protein members in autophagy-mediated chemoresistance of NSCLC. We found that TRIM65 was significantly increased in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cell line (A549/DDP) as compared to the parental cell line (A549). Knockdown of TRIM65 can enhance cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibit autophagy in A549/DDP cells, as indicated by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase3 activity test, and LC3-II immunofluorescence staining. Additionally, knockdown of TRIM65 significantly decreased the expression of an important autophagy mediator, ATG7, which was a potential target of miR-138-5p. miR-138-5p inhibitor significantly abolished the effects of TRIM65 knockdown on autophagy and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TRIM65 induced the ubiquitination and degradation of TNRC6A, resulting in the suppressed expression of miR-138-5p. TRIM65 knockdown inhibited the growth of tumors derived from A549/DDP cells. Furthermore, cisplatin-resistant NSCLC tissues displayed higher expression of TRIM65 mRNA and lower expression of miR-138-5p as compared to cisplatin non-resistant ones. miR-138-5p expression was negatively correlated with TRIM65 mRNA in NSCLC tissues. Collectively, the present study indicates that TRIM65 knockdown attenuates autophagy and cisplatin resistance in A549/DDP cells via regulating miR-138-5p.
Project description:Platinum?containing doublet chemotherapy is the cornerstone of lung cancer treatment; however, cisplatin resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of lung cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this resistance has not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that serum apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) levels in patients with NSCLC are inversely associated with progression?free survival after platinum?containing doublet chemotherapy, and can serve as a biomarker for predicting disease prognosis and treatment efficacy. The present study was designed to investigate the role played by APE1 in the resistance of lung cancer to cisplatin. The levels of mitochondrial apurinic endonuclease 1 (m?APE1) and total APE1 (t?APE1) protein in a cisplatin?resistant A549 cell line (A549/DDP) and cisplatin?sensitive A549 cells were analyzed by western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by using the JC?1 staining method. The cisplatin?resistance of APE1?overexpressing A549 cells and APE1?silenced A549/DDP cells was assessed by cell apoptosis and colony formation assays. The results revealed that cisplatin?resistant A549 cells contained high levels of APE1, and exhibited elevated levels of autophagy. The levels of m?APE1 and t?APE1 protein were increased in the A549/DDP cells when compared with these levels in the A549 cells. Overexpression of APE1 and Mia40 enhanced the cisplatin resistance and autophagy of the A549 cells. APE1 knockdown restored the cisplatin sensitivity and reduced the levels of LC3II and Parkin in the A549/DDP cells, but promoted the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, Parkin silencing or treatment with 3?methyladenine (3?MA, an autophagy inhibitor) promoted the apoptosis of APE1?overexpressing A549 cells, indicating that Parkin?mediated mitophagy plays an important role in the APE1?induced cisplatin resistance of A549 cells. In conclusion, APE1 promotes the cisplatin resistance of lung cancer cells by inducing Parkin?mediated mitophagy.
Project description:Although the combination of etoposide (VP16) and cisplatin (DDP) is widely used as a first-line treatment for advanced-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), chemoresistance limits its clinical use. Abnormalities of autophagy are associated with tumor chemoresistance. The present study found that miR-24-3p, a recently discovered microRNA, is significantly downregulated in VP16-DDP-resistant SCLC cells (H446/EP) compared with VP16-DDP-sensitive parent cells (H446). Forced expression of miR-24-3p sensitized H446/EP cells to VP16-DDP treatment because of a blockade of autophagic activity. We further found that downregulated miR-24-3p enhanced autophagy activation as it directly targets and inhibits autophagy-associated gene 4A (ATG4A). Overexpression of miR-24-3p into H446/EP cells led to reduction of the ATG4A protein level, allowing SCLC cells to resensitize to VP16-DDP. We conclude that miR-24-3p regulates autophagy by targeting ATG4A. Inhibition of autophagy by increasing miR-24-3p could be the basis of a strategy to prevent and treat SCLC with combination chemotherapy, particularly in chemoresistant disease.
Project description:Cisplatin is commonly used in ovarian cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells as a result of lethal DNA damage. However, the intrinsic and acquired resistance to cisplatin in cancer cells remains a big challenge for improving overall survival. The cyto-protective functions of autophagy in cancer cells have been suggested as a potential mechanism for chemoresistance. Here, we reported MIR152 as a new autophagy-regulating miRNA that plays a role in cisplatin-resistance. We showed that MIR152 expression was dramatically downregulated in the cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP70, SKOV3/DDP compared with their respective parental cells, and in ovarian cancer tissues associated with cisplatin-resistance. Overexpression of MIR152 sensitized cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by reducing cisplatin-induced autophagy, enhancing cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. A mouse subcutaneous xenograft tumor model using A2780/CP70 cells with overexpressing MIR152 was established and displayed decreased tumor growth in response to cisplatin. We also identified that ATG14 is a functional target of MIR152 in regulating autophagy inhibition. Furthermore, we found that EGR1 (early growth response 1) regulated the MIR152 gene at the transcriptional level. Ectopic expression of EGR1 enhanced efficacy of chemotherapy in A2780/CP70 cells. More importantly, these findings were relevant to clinical cases. Both EGR1 and MIR152 expression levels were significantly lower in ovarian cancer tissues with high levels of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1), a marker for cisplatin-resistance. Collectively, these data provide insights into novel mechanisms for acquired cisplatin-resistance. Activation of EGR1 and MIR152 may be a useful therapeutic strategy to overcome cisplatin-resistance by preventing cyto-protective autophagy in ovarian cancer.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in drug resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aims of this study were to explore the potential role of miR-206 in governing cisplatin resistance and EMT in lung cancer cells. We found that both lung adenocarcinoma A549 cisplatin-resistant cells (A549/DDP) and H1299 cisplatin-resistant cells (H1299/DDP) acquired mesenchymal features and were along with low expression of miR-206 and high migration and invasion abilities. Ectopic expression of miR-206 mimics inhibited cisplatin resistance, reversed the EMT phenotype, decreased the migration and invasion in these DDP-resistant cells. In contrast, miR-206 inhibitors increased cisplatin resistance, EMT, cell migration and invasion in non-DDP-resistant cells. Furthermore, we found that MET is the direct target of miR-206 in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of MET exhibited an EMT and DDP resistant inhibitory effect on DDP-resistant cells. Conversely, overexpression of MET in non-DDP- resistant cells produced a promoting effect on cell EMT and DDP resistance. In lung adenocarcinoma tissues, we demonstrated that low expression of miR-206 were also correlated with increased cisplatin resistance and MET expression. In addition, we revealed that miR-206 overexpression reduced cisplatin resistance and EMT in DDP-resistant cells, partly due to inactivation of MET/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and subsequent downregulation of MDR1, ZEB1 and Snail expression. Finally, we found that miR-206 could also sensitize A549/DDP cells to cisplatin in mice model. Taken together, our study implied that activation of miR-206 or inactivation of its target gene pathway could serve as a novel approach to reverse cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinomas cells.
Project description:Cisplatin, as the first-line anti-tumor agent, is widely used for treatment of a variety of malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the acquired resistance has been a major obstacle for the clinical application. Scutellarin is a active flavone extracted from Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz that has been shown to exhibit anticancer activities on various types of tumors. Here, we reported that scutellarin was capable of sensitizing A549/DDP cells to cisplatin by enhancing apoptosis and autophagy. Mechanistic analyses indicated that cisplatin-induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis was elevated in the presence of scutellarin through activating extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)-mediated p53 pathway. Furthermore, scutellarin also promoted cisplatin-induced cytotoxic autophagy, downregulated expression of p-AKT and c-met. Deficiency of c-met reduced p-AKT level, and inhibition of p-AKT or c-met improved autophagy in A549/DDP cells. Interestingly, loss of autophagy attenuated the synergism of this combination. In vivo, the co-treatment of cisplatin and scutellarin notably reduced the tumor size when compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Notably, scutellarin significantly reduced the toxicity generated by cisplatin in tumor-bearing mice. This study identifies the unique role of scutellarin in reversing cisplatin resistance through apoptosis and autophagy, and suggests that combined cisplatin and scutellarin might be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with NSCLC.
Project description:Background:Cisplatin (DDP) is the first-line chemotherapy agent for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The emergence of DDP resistance leads to diminished drug efficacy and survival benefit. lncRNA MALAT1 has been considered as one of the most important factors in OSCC. It has also been reported to enhance chemo-resistance in other kinds of carcinomas. However, little is known about the role of lncRNA MALAT1 in DDP resistance of OSCC. Materials and Methods:Two kinds of human DDP-resistant cell lines (CAL-27R and SCC-9R) were developed from cisplatin-naïve cell lines (CAL-27 and SCC-9, respectively) as in vitro cell models. Cell transfection was performed to overexpress or knockdown MALAT1 in these cells. Mouse xenograft models were also established. The following measurements were performed: cell proliferation, colony formation, wound healing, transwell, and TUNEL assays, as well as Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Results:DDP-resistant cells showed higher expression level of MALAT1 compared to cisplatin-naïve cells. The overexpression of MALAT1 in cisplatin-naïve cells enhanced DDP resistance and suppressed apoptosis in OSCC cells. However, the knockdown of MALAT1 in DDP-resistance cells induced apoptotic cell death and restored the sensitivity to DDP. Further analyses suggested that MALAT1 might promote DDP resistance via regulating P-glycoprotein expression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition process, and the activation of PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling pathway. Conclusion:MALAT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of DDP-resistant OSCC.