Activation of Dopamine D2 Receptor Suppresses Neuroinflammation Through ?B-Crystalline by Inhibition of NF-?B Nuclear Translocation in Experimental ICH Mice Model.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. Recently, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is identified as an important component controlling innate immunity and inflammatory response in central nervous system, and ?B-crystallin (CRYAB) is a potent negative regulator on inflammatory pathways. Here, we sought to investigate the role of DRD2 on neuroinflammation after experimental ICH and the potential mechanism mediated by CRYAB.Two hundred and twenty-four (224) male CD-1 mice were subjected to intrastriatal infusion of bacterial collagenase or autologous blood. Two DRD2 agonists quinpirole and ropinirole were administrated by daily intraperitoneal injection starting at 1 hour after ICH. DRD2 and CRYAB in vivo knockdown was performed 48 hours before ICH insult. Behavioral deficits and brain water content, Western blots, immunofluorescence staining, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay, and proteome cytokine array were evaluated.Endogenous DRD2 and CRYAB expressions were increased after ICH. DRD2 knockdown aggravated the neurobehavioral deficits and the pronounced cytokine expressions. DRD2 activation by quinpirole and ropinirole ameliorated neurological outcome, brain edema, interleukin-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, as well as microglia/macrophages activation, in the perihematomal region. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with CRYAB siRNAs. Quinpirole enhanced cytoplasmic binding activity between CRYAB and NF-?B and decreased nuclear NF-?B expression. Similar therapeutic benefits were observed using autologous blood injection model and intranasal delivery of quinpirole.DRD2 may have anti-inflammatory effects after ICH. DRD2 agonists inhibited neuroinflammation and attenuated brain injury after ICH, which is probably mediated by CRYAB and enhanced cytoplasmic binding activity with NF-?B.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation is a hallmark in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) that induces secondary brain injury, leading to neuronal cell death. ER stress-triggered apoptosis and proteostasis disruption caused neuroinflammation to play an important role in various neurological disorders. The consequences of ER stress and proteostasis disruption have rarely been studied during the course of ICH development. METHODS:ICH was induced by collagenase VII-S intrastriatal infusion. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 3, 6, 24, and 72 h post-ICH. Rats were determined for body weight changes, hematoma volume, and neurological deficits. Brain tissues were harvested for molecular signaling analysis either for ELISA, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-qPCR, protein aggregation, or for histological examination. A non-selective proteasome inhibitor, MG132, was administered into the right striatum three hours prior to ICH induction. RESULTS:ICH-induced acute proteasome over-activation caused the early degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78 and I?B protein. These exacerbations were accompanied by the elevation of pro-apoptotic CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression via nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signal activation. Pre-treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG132 significantly ameliorated the ICH-induced ER stress/proteostasis disruption, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuronal cells apoptosis, and neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS:ICH induced rapid proteasome over-activation, leading to an exaggeration of the ER stress/proteostasis disruption, and neuroinflammation might be a critical event in acute ICH pathology.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is a crucial factor contributing to neurological injuries after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), an agonist of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), has recently been shown to reduce inflammatory responses in systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of CTRP9 against neuroinflammation after ICH in a mouse model and to explore the contribution of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) pathway in AdipoR1-mediated protection.Adult male CD1 mice (n?=?218) were randomly assigned to different groups for the study. ICH was induced via intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase. Recombinant CTRP9 (rCTRP9) was administered intranasally at 1 h after ICH. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, AdipoR1 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and selective phosphorylated AMPK inhibitor Dorsomorphin were administered prior to rCTRP9 treatment. Brain edema, short- and long-term neurobehavior evaluation, blood glucose level, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed.Endogenous CTRP9 and AdipoR1 expression was increased and peaked at 24 h after ICH. AdipoR1 was expressed by microglia, neurons, and astrocytes. Administration of rCTRP9 reduced brain edema, improved short- and long-term neurological function, enhanced the expression of AdipoR1 and p-AMPK, and decreased the expression of phosphorylated NF?B and inflammatory cytokines after ICH. The protective effects of rCTRP9 were abolished by administration of AdipoR1 siRNA and Dorsomorphin.Our findings demonstrated that administration of rCTRP9 attenuated neuroinflammation through AdipoR1/AMPK/NF?B signaling pathway after ICH in mice, thereby reducing brain edema and improving neurological function after experimental ICH in mice. Therefore, CTRP9 may provide a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate neuroinflammation in ICH patients.
Project description:Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver condition characterized by a significant accumulation of lipids in the liver without excessive alcohol consumption. Accumulating evidence suggests a significantly increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in NAFLD patients. However, it remains poorly understood whether and how NAFLD affects the outcome of hemorrhagic brain injury. Here, we examined the effects of diet-induce NAFLD on ICH injury and neuroinflammation in mice. Methods: NAFLD was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding with a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. Collagenase and autologous blood models were used to evaluate the effects of NAFLD on ICH injury and neuroinflammation. Results: MCD diet for 4 weeks induces NAFLD and hyperlipidemia in mice. Mice receiving the MCD diet have aggravated neurological deficits and brain edema after ICH. The augmentation of ICH injury was accompanied by brain infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes and increased production of pro-inflammatory factors. Before ICH, MCD diet-induced mobilization of neutrophils and monocytes in the periphery. Notably, the detrimental effects of NAFLD on ICH injury was ablated in mice receiving antibody depletion of neutrophils and monocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that NAFLD exacerbates neuroinflammation and ICH injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption are two vital mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) activation by Nle4-D-Phe7-α-MSH (NDP-MSH) was shown to play a neuroprotective role in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. This study aimed to investigate whether NDP-MSH could alleviate neuroinflammation and BBB disruption after experimental ICH, as well as the potential mechanisms of its neuroprotective roles. METHODS:Two hundred and eighteen male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to autologous blood-injection ICH model. NDP-MSH, an agonist of Mc1r, was administered intraperitoneally injected at 1 h after ICH insult. To further explore the related protective mechanisms, Mc1r small interfering RNA (Mc1r siRNA) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (Nr4a1) siRNA were administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection before ICH induction. Neurological test, BBB permeability, brain water content, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot analysis were implemented. RESULTS:The Expression of Mc1r was significantly increased after ICH. Mc1r was mainly expressed in microglia, astrocytes, and endothelial cells following ICH. Treatment with NDP-MSH remarkably improved neurological function and reduced BBB disruption, brain water content, and the number of microglia in the peri-hematoma tissue after ICH. Meanwhile, the administration of NDP-MSH significantly reduced the expression of p-NF-κB p65, IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-9 and increased the expression of p-CREB, Nr4a1, ZO-1, occludin, and Lama5. Inversely, the knockdown of Mc1r or Nr4a1 abolished the neuroprotective effects of NDP-MSH. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, NDP-MSH binding Mc1r attenuated neuroinflammation and BBB disruption and improved neurological deficits, at least in part through CREB/Nr4a1/NF-κB pathway after ICH.
Project description:Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a cross-species measure of sensorimotor gating. PPI deficits are observed in humans and rats upon acute treatment with dopamine D?-like receptor agonists and in patients with schizophrenia. Repeated treatment with a D?-like agonist, however, reverses PPI deficits and increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This study examined the short- and long-term effects on PPI of treatment with quinpirole and ropinirole, dopamine D?/D? receptor agonists, and the molecular mechanism by which they occur.PPI was assessed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats following acute and chronic treatment with quinpirole or ropinirole and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after termination of repeated ropinirole treatment. Finally, the effect of dominant negative mutant cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) overexpression in the NAc on PPI following chronic quinpirole treatment was assessed.Acute quinpirole produced dose-dependent PPI deficits, whereas ropinirole caused consistent PPI reduction at all but the highest dose. Repeated ropinirole treatment significantly increased PPI compared with acute treatment, and increased CREB phosphorylation in NAc neurons. Subsequent ropinirole challenge had no effect as long as 28 days later, at which time NAc CREB phosphorylation had normalized. Overexpression of dominant negative mutant CREB prevented PPI recovery induced by chronic quinpirole treatment.Chronic quinpirole or ropinirole treatment produces sustained PPI recovery; CREB activity in the NAc is required to induce PPI recovery but not to maintain it. The results suggest that transcriptional regulation by CREB mediates long-lasting changes occurring within NAc circuits to promote recovery of sensorimotor gating.
Project description:Inflammatory responses significantly contribute to neuronal damage and poor functional outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to induce neuroinflammatory responses via degradation of anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET), and sEH is upregulated in response to brain injury. The present study investigated the involvement of sEH in ICH-induced neuroinflammation, brain damage, and functional deficits using a mouse ICH model and microglial cultures.ICH was induced by injecting collagenase in both wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and sEH knockout (KO) mice. WT mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), a selective sEH inhibitor, 30 min before ICH. Expression of sEH in the hemorrhagic hemisphere was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. The effects of genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of sEH by AUDA on neuroinflammatory responses, EET degradation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, histological damage, and functional deficits were evaluated. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of sEH inactivation was investigated in thrombin- or hemin-stimulated cultured microglia.ICH induced an increase in sEH protein levels in the hemorrhagic hemisphere from 3 h to 4 days. sEH was expressed in microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells in the perihematomal region. Genetic deletion of sEH significantly attenuated microglia/macrophage activation and expression of inflammatory mediators and reduced EET degradation at 1 and 4 days post-ICH. Deletion of sEH also reduced BBB permeability, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity, neutrophil infiltration, and neuronal damage at 1 and 4 days. Likewise, administration of AUDA attenuated proinflammatory microglia/macrophage activation and EET degradation at 1 day post-ICH. These findings were associated with a reduction in functional deficits and brain damage for up to 28 days. AUDA also ameliorated neuronal death, BBB disruption, MMP-9 activity, and neutrophil infiltration at 1 day. However, neither gene deletion nor pharmacological inhibition of sEH altered the hemorrhage volume following ICH. In primary microglial cultures, genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of sEH by AUDA reduced thrombin- and hemin-induced microglial activation. Furthermore, AUDA reduced thrombin- and hemin-induced P38 MAPK and NF-?B activation in BV2 microglia cultures. Ultimately, AUDA attenuated N2A neuronal death that was induced by BV2 microglial conditioned media.Our results suggest that inhibition of sEH may provide a potential therapy for ICH by suppressing microglia/macrophage-mediated neuroinflammation.
Project description:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke that results from the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, leading to a mass of blood within the brain parenchyma. The injury causes a rapid inflammatory reaction that includes activation of the tissue-resident microglia and recruitment of blood-derived macrophages and other leukocytes. In this work, we investigated the specific responses of microglia following ICH with the aim of identifying pathways that may aid in recovery after brain injury. We used longitudinal transcriptional profiling of microglia in a murine model to determine the phenotype of microglia during the acute and resolution phases of ICH in vivo and found increases in TGF-?1 pathway activation during the resolution phase. We then confirmed that TGF-?1 treatment modulated inflammatory profiles of microglia in vitro. Moreover, TGF-?1 treatment following ICH decreased microglial Il6 gene expression in vivo and improved functional outcomes in the murine model. Finally, we observed that patients with early increases in plasma TGF-?1 concentrations had better outcomes 90 days after ICH, confirming the role of TGF-?1 in functional recovery from ICH. Taken together, our data show that TGF-?1 modulates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation after ICH and promotes functional recovery, suggesting that TGF-?1 may be a therapeutic target for acute brain injury.
Project description:Neuroinflammation plays a key role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury, but the specific roles of peripheral inflammatory cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and the cytokines they secrete as potential targets for treating secondary brain injury after ICH.Our results showed that peripheral macrophages and T lymphocytes successively infiltrated the brain, with macrophage counts peaking 1 day after ICH and T-lymphocyte counts peaking after 4 days. These peaks in cellular infiltration corresponded to increases in interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-17 expression, respectively. We found that hemoglobin from the hematoma activated IL-23 secretion by infiltrating macrophages by inducing the formation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 heterodimer. This increased IL-23 expression stimulated ??T-cell production of IL-17, which increased brain edema and neurologic deficits in the model mice as a proinflammatory factor. Finally, we found that sparstolonin B (SsnB) could ameliorate brain edema and neurologic deficits in ICH model mice via inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 heterodimer formation, and notably, SsnB interacted with myeloid differentiation factor 88 Arg196.Together, our results reveal the importance of the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory axis in secondary brain injury after ICH and thus provide a new therapeutic target for ICH treatment.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) progression, but no drug is currently available to reduce this response and protect against ICH-induced injury. Recently, the natural product pinocembrin has been shown to ameliorate neuroinflammation and is undergoing a phase II clinical trial for ischemic stroke treatment. In this study, we examined the efficacy of pinocembrin in an ICH model, and further examined its effect on microglial activation and polarization. In vivo, pinocembrin dose-dependently reduced lesion volume by ?47.5% and reduced neurologic deficits of mice at 72h after collagenase-induced ICH. The optimal dose of pinocembrin (5mg/kg) suppressed microglial activation as evidenced by decreases in CD68-positive microglia and reduced proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6. Pinocembrin also reduced the number of classically activated M1-like microglia without affecting M2-like microglia in the perilesional region. Additionally, pinocembrin decreased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and its downstream target proteins TRIF and MyD88. The protection by pinocembrin was lost in microglia-depleted mice and in TLR4lps-del mice, and pinocembrin failed to decrease the number of M1-like microglia in TLR4lps-del mice. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 cells or primary microglia, pinocembrin decreased M1-related cytokines and markers (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS), NF-?B activation, and TLR4 expression, but it did not interfere with TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF interactions or affect microglial phagocytosis of red blood cells. Inhibition of the TLR4 signaling pathway and reduction in M1-like microglial polarization might be the major mechanism by which pinocembrin protects hemorrhagic brain. With anti-inflammatory properties, pinocembrin could be a promising new drug candidate for treating ICH and other acute brain injuries.
Project description:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is swiftly followed by an inflammatory response. A key component of this response is the recruitment of leukocytes into the brain, which promotes neurological injury in rodent models. However, the mechanisms by which leukocytes transmigrate across the endothelium into the injured brain are unclear. The present study examines leukocyte adhesion molecules (?4 integrin, L-selectin, and ?L?2 integrin) on 4 leukocyte subtypes to determine which are important for leukocyte recruitment after ICH.We used the blood injection mouse model of ICH, whereby 25 ?L of blood was injected into the striatum. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations and adhesion molecule expression in brain and blood. An ?4 integrin-blocking antibody was administered to evaluate the contribution of ?4 integrin in leukocyte migration and neurological injury.?4 integrin was elevated on all leukocyte populations in brain after ICH, whereas L-selectin was unchanged and ?L?2 was increased only on T cells. Antagonism of ?4 resulted in decreased leukocyte transmigration and lessened neurobehavioral disability.?4 integrin is an important cell adhesion molecule involved in neuroinflammation after ICH.