Phase 2 trial of ixazomib in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma not refractory to bortezomib.
ABSTRACT: This phase 2 trial was designed to evaluate ixazomib, an orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor, in patients with myeloma who have limited prior exposure to bortezomib. Thirty-three patients with relapsed multiple myeloma were enrolled. Ixazomib was given at 5.5?mg weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. Dexamethasone was added for lack of a minor response (MR) by end of cycle 2 or lack of a partial response (PR) by end of cycle 4 or for disease progression at any time. Median age was 69 years; patients had a median of two prior therapies (range 1-7). A grade 3 or 4 adverse event considered at least possibly related to drug was seen in 19 (59%) and 6 (19%) patients, respectively. The most common adverse events were thrombocytopenia, fatigue, nausea and diarrhea. Dexamethasone was initiated in 22 (67%) patients, 17 for not reaching the desired response and 5 for progression. Response (?PR) to single agent was seen in five patients within four cycles of therapy including three patients with PR, one patient with complete response (CR) and one patient with stringent CR. Six additional patients with either an MR (2) or SD (4) achieved a PR after addition of dexamethasone, translating to an overall response rate of 34%.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ixazomib-revlimid-dexamethason showed significant activity in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Here, we evaluate ixazomib in combination with thalidomide and dexamethasone for induction treatment followed by ixazomib maintenance therapy in RRMM patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Ninety patients have been included. Ixazomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (4 mg, day 1, 8, 15; 100 mg daily; and 40 mg weekly) was scheduled for eight cycles followed by maintenance with ixazomib for one year.<h4>Results</h4>The overall response rate was 51.1%, 23.3% achieved CR or VGPR and 10% MR resulting in a clinical benefit rate of 61.1%. In patients completing ≥2 cycles, the rates were 60.5%, 27.6% and 68.4%, respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.5 months in all, and 9.4 months in those completing ≥2 cycles. Response rates, PFS and overall survival (OS) were similar in patients with and without t(4;14) and/or del(17p), but PFS and OS was significantly shorter in patients with gain of 1q21. Multivariate regression analysis revealed gain of 1q21 as the most important factor associated with OS. Ixazomib maintenance resulted in an upgrade in the depth of response in 12.4% of patients. Grade 3/4 toxicities were relatively rare.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Ixazomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone followed by ixazomib maintenance therapy is active and well tolerated in patients with RRMM.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT02410694.
Project description:Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to be approved, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. Approval was on the basis of results from the phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM1 study, which demonstrated a 35% improvement in progression-free survival with the all-oral combination of ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone versus lenalidomide-dexamethasone alone (median: 20.6 vs 14.7 months; hazard ratio: 0.74, p=0.012; median follow-up 14.7 months). The addition of ixazomib to the lenalidomide-dexamethasone regimen was associated with limited additional toxicity and had no adverse impact on patient-reported quality of life. Common grade ?3 adverse events with ixazomib include gastrointestinal adverse events, rash, and thrombocytopenia. Here, we review the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and patient-reported quality of life data seen with ixazomib, and discuss the role of this oral agent in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, including in patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities and those with multiple prior therapies.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors have become an integral part of myeloma therapy. Considerable efforts have gone into optimizing this therapeutic approach to obtain maximal proteasome inhibition with least toxicity. Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to enter the clinic and has been studied as a single agent as well as in various combinations. The current trial was designed to examine the efficacy and toxicity of combining 2 different doses of ixazomib (4 mg and 5.5 mg given weekly for 3 of 4 weeks) with 40 mg weekly of dexamethasone, in relapsed myeloma. Seventy patients were enrolled, 35 patients randomly assigned to each ixazomib dose. Overall, 30 (43%; 95% confidence interval, 31-55) of the patients achieved a confirmed partial response or better, with 31% achieving a response with 4 mg and 54% with 5.5 mg of ixazomib. The median event-free survival (EFS) for the entire study population was 8.4 months; 1-year overall survival was 96%. The EFS was 5.7 months for patients with prior bortezomib exposure and 11.0 months for bortezomib-naïve patients. A grade 3 or 4 adverse event considered at least possibly related to treatment was seen in 11 (32%) patients at 4 mg and in 21 (60%) at 5.5 mg. Dose reductions were more frequent with 5.5 mg dose. Overall, the ixazomib with dexamethasone has good efficacy in relapsed myeloma, is well-tolerated and with higher response rate at 5.5 mg, albeit with more toxicity. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01415882.
Project description:Triplet combinations containing a proteasome inhibitor are a standard of care in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). We examined the long-term efficacy and safety of the all-oral combination of weekly ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd), followed by single-agent ixazomib maintenance in NDMM patients. Of 65 enrolled patients, 53 received ixazomib 4?mg (days 1, 8, and 15) plus lenalidomide 25?mg (days 1-21) and dexamethasone 40?mg (days 1, 8, 15, and 22) for up to twelve 28-day induction cycles. Twenty-three patients discontinued induction for stem cell transplantation (SCT). In the remaining 42 patients, overall response rate was 80%, including 63% ?very good partial response (VGPR) and 32% complete responses. At a median follow-up of 56 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 35.4 months in the total population. Twenty-five patients received ixazomib maintenance; eight deepened their response (76% ?VGPR), and median PFS was 37.2 months in this subgroup. Nine of 42 patients who did not proceed to SCT (14% of total population) had an adverse event requiring discontinuation. Ixazomib (median???96%) and lenalidomide (median 88-94%) relative dose intensities were maintained throughout treatment. Weekly IRd, followed by ixazomib maintenance, was highly active with acceptable toxicity, enabling long-term administration with no evidence of cumulative toxicities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>TOURMALINE-MM1 was a global study that demonstrated a significant improvement in progression-free survival with ixazomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone compared with placebo plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone, in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. The current study was conducted to evaluate further the efficacy and safety of ixazomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in Japanese patients.<h4>Methods</h4>This phase 2, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study enrolled patients aged ≥ 20 years with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma at 16 sites in Japan. Patients refractory to lenalidomide or proteasome inhibitor-based therapy at any line were excluded. The primary endpoint was the rate of very good partial response or better in the response-evaluable analysis set. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall response rate, duration of response, time to progression, overall survival and safety.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 34 patients were enrolled. The rate of very good partial response or better was 50.0% (95% confidence interval 31.9-68.1) and the overall response rate was 84.4% (95% confidence interval 67.2-94.7). Median progression-free survival was 22.0 months (95% confidence interval 17.3-not evaluable) and median overall survival was not estimable. The safety profile of ixazomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in this study was similar to that in the TOURMALINE-MM1 study.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The efficacy and safety of ixazomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in Japanese patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma are comparable with reported TOURMALINE-MM1 study results. CLINICALTRIALS.<h4>Gov identifier</h4>NCT02917941; date of registration September 28, 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib is under phase 3 clinical investigation in multiple myeloma (MM) in combination with lenalidomide-dexamethasone. This study was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ixazomib, administered with lenalidomide-dexamethasone, in East Asian patients with relapsed/refractory MM. METHODS:Adult patients with measurable disease who had received 1-3 prior lines of therapy received oral ixazomib on days 1, 8, and 15, lenalidomide (25 mg) on days 1-21, and dexamethasone (40 mg) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22, in 28-day cycles. Primary objectives were to characterize ixazomib plasma pharmacokinetics, determine the recommended phase 2/3 dose, and evaluate safety and tolerability. RESULTS:Forty-three patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported for the first six patients receiving ixazomib (4.0 mg), confirming this as the recommended phase 2/3 dose. Ixazomib was rapidly absorbed with a median T max of 1.5 h on day 1 and 2.0 h on day 15 of cycle 1 and had a geometric mean terminal half-life of 6.1 days. Twenty-one (49%) patients had at least one drug-related grade ?3 adverse event (AE); the most common were neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (14%), and thrombocytopenia (12%). Twenty-eight of 43 (65%) response-evaluable patients had at least a partial response. The recommended phase 2/3 dose for ixazomib was determined to be 4.0 mg. CONCLUSIONS:The all-oral combination of ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone appeared active and well tolerated at 4.0 mg. Consequently, East Asian patients enrolled in phase 3 studies are receiving the same ixazomib dose as patients in other regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at NCT01645930.
Project description:Weekly ixazomib with lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) is feasible and has shown activity in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. This phase 1/2 study (NCT01383928) evaluated the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of twice-weekly ixazomib plus Rd in NDMM; 64 patients were enrolled across both phases. Patients received twice-weekly oral ixazomib 3·0 or 3·7 mg plus lenalidomide 25 mg and dexamethasone 20 mg (10 mg in cycles 9-16) for up to sixteen 21-day cycles, followed by maintenance with twice-weekly ixazomib alone. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported in cycle 1; the RP2D was 3·0 mg based on overall tolerability across multiple cycles. In 62 evaluable patients, the confirmed overall response rate was 94% (68% ?very good partial response; 24% complete response). Median progression-free survival was 24·9 months. Responses (median duration 36·9 months for patients receiving the RP2D) deepened during treatment. Grade 3 drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 64% of patients, including: rash, 13%; peripheral neuropathy, 8%; hyperglycaemia, 8%. There were no grade 4 drug-related AEs. Thirteen patients discontinued due to AEs. Twice-weekly ixazomib-Rd offers substantial activity with promising long-term outcomes in NDMM patients but may be associated with greater toxicity compared with weekly ixazomib-Rd in this setting.
Project description:Proteasome inhibition represents one of the more important therapeutic targets in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), since by suppressing nuclear factor-?B activity, which promotes myelomagenesis, it makes plasma cells susceptible to proapoptotic signals. Bortezomib, the first proteasome inhibitor approved for MM therapy, has been shown to increase response rate and improve outcome in patients with relapsed/refractory disease and in the frontline setting, particularly when combined with immunomodulatory drugs and alkylating agents. Among second-generation proteasome inhibitors, ixazomib (MLN9708) is the first oral compound to be evaluated for the treatment of MM. Ixazomib has shown improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters compared with bortezomib, in addition to similar efficacy in the control of myeloma growth and prevention of bone loss. Ixazomib was found to overcome bortezomib resistance and to trigger synergistic antimyeloma activity with dexamethasone, lenalidomide, and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Phase I/II studies using ixazomib weekly or twice weekly in relapsed/refractory MM patients suggested antitumor activity of the single agent, but more promising results have been obtained with the combination of ixazomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed MM. Ixazomib has also been used in systemic amyloidosis as a single agent, showing important activity in this difficult-to-treat plasma-cell dyscrasia. More frequent side effects observed during administration of ixazomib were thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and rash, whereas severe peripheral neuropathy was rare. Here, we review the chemical characteristics of ixazomib, as well as its mechanism of action and results from preclinical and clinical trials.
Project description:Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to enter the clinic. Given the efficacy of bortezomib in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, we studied the combination of ixazomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (ICd) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and patients with measurable disease, irrespective of transplant eligibility, were enrolled. The phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cyclophosphamide in the combination. Patients received ixazomib 4?mg (days 1, 8, 15), dexamethasone 40?mg (days 1, 8, 15, 22), and cyclophosphamide 300 or 400?mg/m2 days 1, 8, 15, 22; cycles were 28 days. We enrolled 51 patients, 10 in phase 1 and 41 patients in phase 2. The median age was 64.5 years (range: 41-88); 29% had high or intermediate risk FISH. The MTD was 400?mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide weekly. The best confirmed response in all 48 patients included???partial response in 77%, including???VGPR in 35%; 3 patients had a sCR. The response rate for all 48 evaluable patients at 4-cycles was 71%; the median time to response was 1.9 months. Common adverse events included cytopenias, fatigue and GI intolerance. ICd is a convenient, all oral combination that is well tolerated and effective in NDMM.
Project description:Continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd)-based regimens are among the standards of care in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. The oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib is suitable for continuous dosing, with predictable, manageable toxicities. In the double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM2 trial, transplant-ineligible NDMM patients were randomized to ixazomib 4 mg (n = 351) or placebo (n = 354) plus Rd. After 18 cycles, dexamethasone was discontinued and treatment was continued using reduced-dose ixazomib (3 mg) and lenalidomide (10 mg) until progression/toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Median PFS was 35.3 vs 21.8 months with ixazomib-Rd vs placebo-Rd, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.830; 95% confidence interval, 0.676-1.018; P = .073; median follow-up, 53.3 and 55.8 months). Complete (26% vs 14%; odds ratio [OR], 2.10; P < .001) and ≥ very good partial response (63% vs 48%; OR, 1.87; P < .001) rates were higher with ixazomib-Rd vs placebo-Rd. In a prespecified high-risk cytogenetics subgroup, median PFS was 23.8 vs 18.0 months (HR, 0.690; P = .019). Overall, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were mostly grade 1/2. With ixazomib-Rd vs placebo-Rd, 88% vs 81% of patients experienced grade ≥3 TEAEs, 66% vs 62% serious TEAEs, and 35% vs 27% TEAEs resulting in regimen discontinuation; 8% vs 6% died on study. Addition of ixazomib to Rd was tolerable with no new safety signals and led to a clinically meaningful PFS benefit of 13.5 months. Ixazomib-Rd is a feasible option for certain patients who can benefit from an all-oral triplet combination. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01850524.