Comprehensive molecular diagnosis of 67 Chinese Usher syndrome probands: high rate of ethnicity specific mutations in Chinese USH patients.
ABSTRACT: Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common disease causing combined deafness and blindness. It is predominantly an autosomal recessive genetic disorder with occasionally digenic cases. Molecular diagnosis of USH patients is important for disease management. Few studies have tried to find the genetic cause of USH in Chinese patients. This study was designed to determine the mutation spectrum of Chinese USH patients.We applied next generation sequencing to characterize the mutation spectrum in 67 independent Chinese families with at least one member diagnosed with USH. Blood was collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. This cohort is one of the largest USH cohorts reported. We utilized customized panel and whole exome sequencing, variant analysis, Sanger validation and segregation tests to find disease causing mutations in these families.We identified biallelic disease causing mutations in known USH genes in 70 % (49) of our patients. As has been previously reported, MYO7A is the most frequently mutated gene in our USH type I patients while USH2A is the most mutated gene in our USH type II patients. In addition, we identify mutations in CLRN1, DFNB31, GPR98 and PCDH15 for the first time in Chinese USH patients. Together, mutations in CLRN1, DNFB31, GPR98 and PCDH15 account for 11.4 % of disease in our cohort. Interestingly, although the spectrum of disease genes is quite similar between our Chinese patient cohort and other patient cohorts from different (and primarily Caucasian) ethnic backgrounds, the mutations themselves are dramatically different. In particular, 76 % (52/68) of alleles found in this study have never been previously reported. Interestingly, we observed a strong enrichment for severe protein truncating mutations expected to have severe functional consequence on the protein in USH II patients compared to the reported mutation spectrum in RP patients, who often carry partial protein truncating mutations.Our study provides the first comprehensive genetic characterization of a large collection of Chinese USH patients. Up to 90 % of USH patients have disease caused by mutations in known USH disease genes. By combining NGS-based molecular diagnosis and patient clinical information, a more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and personalized treatment of USH patients can be achieved.
Project description:Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with three distinctive clinical types (I-III) and nine Usher genes identified. This study is a comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis of 172 Usher patients and evaluates the contribution of digenic inheritance.The genes MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, USH2A, GPR98, WHRN, CLRN1 and the candidate gene SLC4A7 were sequenced in 172 UK Usher patients, regardless of clinical type.No subject had definite mutations (nonsense, frameshift or consensus splice site mutations) in two different USH genes. Novel missense variants were classified UV1-4 (unclassified variant): UV4 is 'probably pathogenic', based on control frequency <0.23%, identification in trans to a pathogenic/probably pathogenic mutation and segregation with USH in only one family; and UV3 ('likely pathogenic') as above, but no information on phase. Overall 79% of identified pathogenic/UV4/UV3 variants were truncating and 21% were missense changes. MYO7A accounted for 53.2%, and USH1C for 14.9% of USH1 families (USH1C:c.496+1G>A being the most common USH1 mutation in the cohort). USH2A was responsible for 79.3% of USH2 families and GPR98 for only 6.6%. No mutations were found in USH1G, WHRN or SLC4A7.One or two pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 86% of cases. No convincing cases of digenic inheritance were found. It is concluded that digenic inheritance does not make a significant contribution to Usher syndrome; the observation of multiple variants in different genes is likely to reflect polymorphic variation, rather than digenic effects.
Project description:Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that associates sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To date, 10 genes have been associated with the disease, making its molecular diagnosis based on Sanger sequencing, expensive and time-consuming. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to develop a molecular diagnostics method for Usher syndrome, based on targeted next generation sequencing.A custom HaloPlex panel for Illumina platforms was designed to capture all exons of the 10 known causative Usher syndrome genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, GPR98, DFNB31 and CLRN1), the two Usher syndrome-related genes (HARS and PDZD7) and the two candidate genes VEZT and MYO15A. A cohort of 44 patients suffering from Usher syndrome was selected for this study. This cohort was divided into two groups: a test group of 11 patients with known mutations and another group of 33 patients with unknown mutations.Forty USH patients were successfully sequenced, 8 USH patients from the test group and 32 patients from the group composed of USH patients without genetic diagnosis. We were able to detect biallelic mutations in one USH gene in 22 out of 32 USH patients (68.75%) and to identify 79.7% of the expected mutated alleles. Fifty-three different mutations were detected. These mutations included 21 missense, 8 nonsense, 9 frameshifts, 9 intronic mutations and 6 large rearrangements.Targeted next generation sequencing allowed us to detect both point mutations and large rearrangements in a single experiment, minimizing the economic cost of the study, increasing the detection ratio of the genetic cause of the disease and improving the genetic diagnosis of Usher syndrome patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition with ten disease-causing genes. The spectrum of genes and mutations causing USH in the Lebanese and Middle Eastern populations has not been described. Consequently, diagnostic approaches designed to screen for previously reported mutations were unlikely to identify the mutations in 11 unrelated families, eight of Lebanese and three of Middle Eastern origins. In addition, six of the ten USH genes consist of more than 20 exons, each, which made mutational analysis by Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified exons from genomic DNA tedious and costly. The study was aimed at the identification of USH causing genes and mutations in 11 unrelated families with USH type I or II.<h4>Methods</h4>Whole exome sequencing followed by expanded familial validation by Sanger sequencing.<h4>Results</h4>We identified disease-causing mutations in all the analyzed patients in four USH genes, MYO7A, USH2A, GPR98 and CDH23. Eleven of the mutations were novel and protein truncating, including a complex rearrangement in GPR98.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data highlight the genetic diversity of Usher syndrome in the Lebanese population and the time and cost-effectiveness of whole exome sequencing approach for mutation analysis of genetically heterogeneous conditions caused by large genes.
Project description:Background:Usher syndrome (USH) is a recessive inherited disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. Although the molecular epidemiology of Usher syndrome has been well studied in Europe and United States, there is a lack of studies in other regions like Africa or Central and South America. Methods:We designed a NGS panel that included the 10 USH causative genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, ADGRV1, WHRN, and CLRN1), four USH associated genes (HARS, PDZD7, CEP250, and C2orf71), and the region comprising the deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation in USH2A. Results:NGS sequencing was performed in 11 USH patients from Cuba. All the cases were solved. We found the responsible mutations in the USH2A, ADGRV1, CDH23, PCDH15, and CLRN1 genes. Four mutations have not been previously reported. Two mutations are recurrent in this study: c.619C>T (p.Arg207?) in CLRN1, previously reported in two unrelated Spanish families of Basque origin, and c.4488G>C (p.Gln1496His) in CDH23, first described in a large Cuban family. Additionally, c.4488G>C has been reported two more times in the literature in two unrelated families of Spanish origin. Conclusion:Although the sample size is very small, it is tempting to speculate that the gene frequencies in Cuba are distinct from other populations mainly due to an "island effect" and genetic drift. The two recurrent mutations appear to be of Spanish origin. Further studies with a larger cohort are needed to elucidate the real genetic landscape of Usher syndrome in the Cuban population.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To identify the genetic defect in Spanish families with Usher syndrome (USH) and probable involvement of the CLRN1 gene.<h4>Methods</h4>DNA samples of the affected members of our cohort of USH families were tested using an USH genotyping array, and/or genotyped with polymorphic markers specific for the USH3A locus. Based on these previous analyses and clinical findings, CLRN1 was directly sequenced in 17 patients susceptible to carrying mutations in this gene.<h4>Results</h4>Microarray analysis revealed the previously reported mutation p.Y63X in two unrelated patients, one of them homozygous for the mutation. After CLRN1 sequencing, we found two novel mutations, p.R207X and p.I168N. Both novel mutations segregated with the phenotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>To date, 18 mutations in CLRN1 have been reported. In this work, we report two novel mutations and a third one previously identified in the Spanish USH sample. The prevalence of CLRN1 among our patients with USH is low.
Project description:Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic condition responsible for combined loss of hearing and vision. Balance disorders and bilateral vestibular areflexia are also observed in some cases. The syndrome was first described by Albrecht von Graefe in 1858, but later named by Charles Usher, who presented a large number of cases with hearing loss and retinopathy in 1914. USH has been grouped into three main clinical types: 1, 2, and 3, which are caused by mutations in different genes and are further divided into different subtypes. To date, nine causative genes have been identified and confirmed as responsible for the syndrome when mutated: <i>MYO7A</i>, <i>USH1C</i>, <i>CDH23</i>, <i>PCDH15</i>, and <i>USH1G (SANS)</i> for Usher type 1; <i>USH2A</i>, <i>ADGRV1</i>, and <i>WHRN</i> for Usher type 2; <i>CLRN1</i> for Usher type 3. USH is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Digenic, bi-allelic, and polygenic forms have also been reported, in addition to dominant or nonsyndromic forms of genetic mutations. This narrative review reports the causative forms, diagnosis, prognosis, epidemiology, rehabilitation, research, and new treatments of USH.
Project description:PURPOSE: Mutations of clarin 1 (CLRN1) cause Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3). To determine the effects of USH3 mutations on CLRN1 function, we examined the cellular distribution and stability of both normal and mutant CLRN1 in vitro. We also searched for novel disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 59 unrelated Canadian and Finnish USH patients. METHODS: Mutation screening was performed by DNA sequencing. For the functional studies, wild-type (WT) and mutant CLRN1 genes were expressed as hemagglutinin (HA) tagged fusion proteins by transient transfection of BHK-21 cells. Subcellular localization of CLRN1-HA was examined by confocal microscopy. The N-glycosylation status of CLRN1 was studied by using the N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) enzyme and western blotting. Cycloheximide treatment was used to assess the stability of CLRN1 protein. RESULTS: We found three previously reported pathogenic mutations, p.A123D, p.N48K, and p.Y176X, and a novel sequence variant, p.L54P, from the studied USH patients. The WT HA-tagged CLRN1 was correctly trafficked to the plasma membrane, whereas mutant CLRN1-HA proteins were mislocalized and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. PNGase F treatment of CLRN1-HA resulted in an electrophoretic mobility shift consistent with sugar residue cleavage in WT and in all CLRN1 mutants except in p.N48K mutated CLRN1, in which the mutation abolishes the glycosylation site. Inhibition of protein expression with cycloheximide indicated that WT CLRN1-HA remained stable. In contrast, the CLRN1 mutants showed reduced stability. CONCLUSIONS: WT CLRN1 is a glycoprotein localized to the plasma membrane in transfected BHK-21 cells. Mutant CLRN1 proteins are mislocalized. We suggest that part of the pathogenesis of USH3 may be associated with defective intracellular trafficking as well as decreased stability of mutant CLRN1 proteins.
Project description:Usher syndrome is a rare disorder causing retinitis pigmentosa, together with sensorineural hearing loss. Due to the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of this disease, the best method to screen the causative mutations is by high-throughput sequencing. In this study, we tested a semiconductor chip based sequencing approach with 77 unrelated patients, as a molecular diagnosis routine. In addition, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization techniques were applied to detect large rearrangements, and minigene assays were performed to confirm the mRNA processing aberrations caused by splice-site mutations. The designed panel included all the USH causative genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, ADGRV1, WHRN and CLRN1) as well as four uncertainly associated genes (HARS, PDZD7, CEP250 and C2orf71). The outcome showed an overall mutation detection ratio of 82.8% and allowed the identification of 42 novel putatively pathogenic mutations. Furthermore, we detected two novel nonsense mutations in CEP250 in a patient with a disease mimicking Usher syndrome that associates visual impairment due to cone-rod dystrophy and progressive hearing loss. Therefore, this approach proved reliable results for the molecular diagnosis of the disease and also allowed the consolidation of the CEP250 gene as disease causative for an Usher-like phenotype.
Project description:Mutations in CLRN1 cause Usher syndrome (USH) type III (USH3A), a disease characterized by progressive hearing impairment, retinitis pigmentosa, and vestibular dysfunction. Due to the lack of appropriate disease models, no efficient therapy for retinitis pigmentosa in USH patients exists so far. In addition, given the yet undefined functional role and expression of the different CLRN1 splice isoforms in the retina, non-causative therapies such as gene supplementation are unsuitable at this stage. In this study, we focused on the recently identified deep intronic c.254-649T>G CLRN1 splicing mutation and aimed to establish two causative treatment approaches: CRISPR-Cas9-mediated excision of the mutated intronic region and antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated correction of mRNA splicing. The therapeutic potential of these approaches was validated in different cell types transiently or stably expressing CLRN1 minigenes. Both approaches led to substantial correction of the splice defect. Surprisingly, however, no synergistic effect was detected when combining both methods. Finally, the injection of naked AONs into mice expressing the mutant CLRN1 minigene in the retina also led to a significant splice rescue. We propose that both AONs and CRISPR-Cas9 are suitable strategies to initiate advanced preclinical studies for treatment of USH3A patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Usher syndrome (USH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. The three recognised clinical phenotypes (types I, II and III; USH1, USH2 and USH3) are caused by mutations in nine different genes. USH2C is characterised by moderate to severe hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and normal vestibular function. One earlier report describes mutations in GPR98 (VLGR1) in four families segregating this phenotype. OBJECTIVE:To detect the disease-causing mutation in an Iranian family segregating USH2C. In this family, five members had a phenotype compatible with Usher syndrome, and two others had nonsyndromic hearing loss. METHODS:Mutation analysis of all 90 coding exons of GPR98. RESULTS:Consistent with these clinical findings, the five subjects with USH carried a haplotype linked to the USH2C locus, whereas the two subjects with nonsyndromic hearing loss did not. We identified a new mutation in GPR98 segregating with USH2C in this family. The mutation is a large deletion g.371657_507673del of exons 84 and 85, presumably leading to a frameshift. CONCLUSIONS:A large GPR98 deletion of 136 017 bp segregates with USH2C in an Iranian family. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a GPR98 mutation, and the first report on male subjects with USH2C and a GPR98 mutation.