A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction.
ABSTRACT: Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank.
Project description:Graphical abstract Highlights • Iron-phosphate compounds accounted for 93%–97% of TP in sludge.• The P-Fe containing sludge realized vivianite generation in anaerobic process.• ORP and pH maintained at ?350 mV and 7.5 met condition of vivianite formation.• Phosphate transformation and vivianite formation mechanism was revealed. Excess sludge was considered as a promising raw material for phosphorus recovery. In this study, the P-Fe containing sludge came from the aerobic membrane bioreactor with electrocoagulation (EC), which was refluxed to the anaerobic unit for iron reduction. Under anaerobic condition, the ORP and pH maintained at ?350 mV and 7.5, which exactly met the conditions for vivianite formation. According to the analysis of X-ray polycrystalline diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), the final product of the sludge after anaerobic condition was mainly vivianite. Microbial analysis showed that there were iron reducing bacteria (IRB) in sludge before and after anaerobic process, including Dechloromonas, Desulfovibrio. Aeromonas and Methanobacterium. During the transition process of aerobic and anaerobic conditions, amorphous phosphate substances in P-Fe containing sludge could be transformed vivianite just with long term standing, which could promote the recovery of phosphate resource from wastewater.
Project description:We developed a new sludge reduction HA-A/A-MCO (Hydrolysis-Acidogenosis-Anaerobic/Anoxic -Multistep Continuous Oxic tank) process, which has improved phosphate (P) and nitrogen (N) removal. Its biological treatment unit uses an A2/O P & N removal process with hydrolysis acidification, multistep continuous aeration, and continuous flow, coupled with sidestream P removal by draining out anaerobic P-bearing wastewater. The process has advanced synchronization of P and N removal and sludge reduction. The improved performance is closely associated with the population structure of P-accumulating organisms (PAOs). This study investigated the relationship between P removal performance and the population structure of PAOs. The results show that the average effluent P content of HA-A/A-MCO process was only 0.44 mg/L, when the influent P concentration was 8?12 mg/L. The effluent met the A standard set by GB18918-2002. PAOs were able to effectively release 1 mg of P and absorb 2.8 mg of P. The system removed P by draining out anaerobic P-rich wastewater, as P had been reduced in the aerobic absorption process. This reduced the need for excess P uptake ability of the PAOs. The bacterial pure culture method was applied to isolate 5 PAOs with typical P absorption and removel features. 16SrDNA amplification and sequence analysis revealed that Acinetobacter sp. and Lampropedia sp played dominant roles in anaerobic P-releasing process. Moreover, Devosia sp. and Bdellovibrio sp were the primary strains in the aerobic tank, and, they were the major stains for P absorption. Uncultured Bacterium and other uncultured strains were detected in the anoxic tank.
Project description:This particular study set out to demonstrate alterations on the microbial community of the oxic-settling-anaerobic/anoxic (OSA) process treating real domestic wastewater by changing interchange ratios (IRs). The sludge yield of systems operated at different IRs (1/13, 1/17 and 1/20) to assess sludge reduction was used to analyze microbial community composition variations. The highest IR (1/13) resulted in the highest sludge reduction (52.1%), while the OSA systems with IR of 1/17 and 1/20 reduced sludge production by 37.4% and 35.5%, respectively, in comparison to conventional systems. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis showed that the bacterial communities were composed of similar phylogenetic groups, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being dominant. The relative abundances differed due to the applied IRs. The highest abundance of Actinobacteria was determined at the highest IR (1/13) and increasing of the HRT to 1/20 caused a significant reduction in Actinobacteria species and the lowest abundance (6%) was determined in the OSA systems. The abundant of Thiothrix species that are boosted in the OSA trials may have a vital role in OSA systems, where its abundance was below the detection limits in the seed sludge sample. Therefore, they could be used as bioindicators in the OSA system.
Project description:Difficult separation of oil–solid phase and high fine content of the recovered oil were two problems in the treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom by the hot water-based extraction process. To solve the problems, one technology with “ball milling + ozone-catalyzed oxidation” as the core was studied, and the process parameters of ball milling and ozone-catalyzed oxidation were respectively optimized. After ball milling treatment, the oil content of dry oily sludge decreased from 33.9 to 10.2%. Then, an ozone catalytic oxidation treatment technology with aluminum ore as the catalyst was developed to further treat this stubborn oily sludge. Under the optimal conditions, the oil content of oily sludge could be further reduced to 0.28%, which met the treatment and disposal requirements stipulated in GB4284-2018. For further research on the contribution of the catalyst to the ozone catalytic oxidation system, the reaction activation energy and reaction rates of ozone oxidation and ozone catalytic oxidation were compared from the perspective of kinetics. The results showed that, with the catalyst addition, the reaction rate constants increased about three times and the reaction activation energy reduced 82.26%, which showed the effectiveness of the catalyst on the kinetics quantitatively. The combined process with “ball milling + ozone-catalyzed oxidation” as the core can solve the two problems in the treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom by hot water-based extraction and provides a reference for the harmless and resourceful treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.
Project description:The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11?Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15?Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450?mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970?mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760?mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5?log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment.
Project description:This paper presents data collected from a survey on sewage sludge treatment and disposal routes originated from activated sludge water treatment in France. The data of 3,679 wastewater treatment plants - representing 52% of WWTP using activated sludge and 69% of sludge disposed by these WWTP - were collected from several French organisms such as SATESE (technical support for wastewater treatment plants), water supply agencies, internal service of agricultural Chambers and public administrations in 71 French departments. The survey allows a detailed description of the processes used for sewage sludge treatment (i.e. thickening, dewatering, stabilization, drying) as well as the type of disposal routes (i.e. land application, incineration, landfill.) and the related amount of sewage sludge disposed in dry matter tons. The data are provided in a raw and analyzed form within the Excel file provided with this article.
Project description:Conventional processes (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration) are widely used in drinking water treatment plants and are considered a good treatment strategy to eliminate cyanobacterial cells and cell-bound cyanotoxins. The diversity of cyanobacteria was investigated using taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomics over two seasons in a drinking water treatment plant before, during, and after the bloom. Changes in the community structure over time at the phylum, genus, and species levels were monitored in samples retrieved from raw water (RW), sludge in the holding tank (ST), and sludge supernatant (SST). <i>Aphanothece clathrata brevis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Dolichospermum spiroides</i><i>,</i> and <i>Chroococcus minimus</i> were predominant species detected in RW by taxonomic cell counts. Shotgun metagenomics revealed that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in RW before and after the cyanobacterial bloom. Taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomic showed that the <i>Dolichospermum</i> bloom occurred inside the plant. Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major bacterial phyla during the bloom. Shotgun metagenomics also showed that <i>Synechococcus</i>, <i>Microcystis</i><i>,</i> and <i>Dolichospermum</i> were the predominant detected cyanobacterial genera in the samples. Conventional treatment removed more than 92% of cyanobacterial cells but led to cell accumulation in the sludge up to 31 times more than in the RW influx. Coagulation/sedimentation selectively removed more than 96% of <i>Microcystis</i> and <i>Dolichospermum</i>. Cyanobacterial community in the sludge varied from raw water to sludge during sludge storage (1-13 days). This variation was due to the selective removal of coagulation/sedimentation as well as the accumulation of captured cells over the period of storage time. However, the prediction of the cyanobacterial community composition in the SST remained a challenge. Among nutrient parameters, orthophosphate availability was related to community profile in RW samples, whereas communities in ST were influenced by total nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen (N- Kjeldahl), total and particulate phosphorous, and total organic carbon (TOC). No trend was observed on the impact of nutrients on SST communities. This study profiled new health-related, environmental, and technical challenges for the production of drinking water due to the complex fate of cyanobacteria in cyanobacteria-laden sludge and supernatant.
Project description:Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), acrylamide, and methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were used as co-monomers to produce a sludge dewatering agent carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-poly(acrylamide-methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) (CCPAD) by UV-induced graft polymerization. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were employed to investigate and optimize the grafting rate, grafting efficiency, and intrinsic viscosity influenced by the total monomer concentration, CMCS concentration, cationic degree, pH value, and illumination time. The structure, surface morphology, and thermal stability of CCPAD were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential thermal-thermogravimetry. The raw sludge with 97.9% water content was sourced from the concentrated tank of a sewage treatment plant and used in the sludge condition experiments. In addition, CCPAD was applied as the sludge conditioner to investigate the effects of cationic degree, intrinsic viscosity, and pH on the supernatant turbidity, moisture content, specific resistance to filtration, and sludge settling ratio. Moreover, the mechanism of sludge conditioning by CCPAD was discussed by examining the zeta potential and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content of the supernatant. The sludge dewatering results confirmed that CCPAD had excellent performance for improving sludge dewaterability.
Project description:Background. In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA. This work describes the development, implementation and modeling based analysis of a novel multiphase anaerobic fermentation-digestion process aimed at FS treatment in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods. A pilot-scale anaerobic fermentation process was implemented at the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly's Oti Sanitary Landfill Site at Adanse Dompoase. The process consisted of six 10 m reactors in series, which were inoculated with bovine rumen and fed with fecal sludge obtained from public toilets. The performance of the fermentation process was characterized in terms of both aqueous and gaseous variables representing the conversion of influent organic carbon to VFA as well as CH 4. Using the operating data, the first-ever process model for FS fermentation and digestion was developed and calibrated, based on the activated sludge model framework. Results and Conclusions. This work represents one of the first systematic efforts at integrated FS characterization and process modeling to enable anaerobic fermentation and digestion of FS. It is shown that owing to pre-fermentation of FS in public septage holding tanks, one could employ significantly smaller digesters (lower capital costs) or increased loading capabilities for FS conversion to biogas or VFA. Further, using the first-ever calibrated process model for FS fermentation and digestion presented herein, we expect improved and more mechanistically informed development and application of different process designs and configurations for global FS management practice.