Polymorphisms in the GCKR are associated with serum lipid traits, the risk of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: The present study was to determine the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucokinase regulator gene (GCKR) and serum lipid levels, and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). Genotypes of the GCKR rs1260326 and rs8179206 in 1736 unrelated subjects (CAD, 584; IS, 555; and healthy controls; 597) were determined by the Snapshot technology platform. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs1260326 and rs8179206 were not different among the three groups (P > 0.05). The subjects with rs1260326TT genotype had higher serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in controls, and higher triglyceride (TG) levels in CAD patients than the subjects with CC and CT genotypes after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking (P < 0.05). The rs1260326TT genotype was also associated with decreased risk of IS in females (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76, P = 0.007). The present study shows that the GCKR rs1260326TT genotype is associated with high LDL-C in controls, high TG levels in CAD patients, and a decreased risk of IS in females.
Project description:Background and Aims: Accumulated studies have evaluated the effects of glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene polymorphisms on the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but the association of GCKR polymorphisms with the risk of NAFLD and CAD in the Chinese Han population have remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GCKR gene polymorphisms (rs780094 and rs1260326) and the risk of NAFLD and CAD in NAFLD patients in a Chinese Northern Han population. Methods: GCKR rs780094 and rs1260326 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction sequencing for B-type ultrasonography-proven NAFLD patients with (n = 82) or without (n = 142) CAD, and in healthy controls (n = 152). Serum lipid profiles' levels were determined using biochemical methods. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 22.0 statistical software. Results: As the results showed, significant differences in the serum lipid profiles existed between each group. No significant differences were observed in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of GCKR rs780094 and rs1260326 in each group. The GCKR rs780094 T and rs1260326 T allele carriers possessed decreased body mass index value, and serum fasting plasma glucose and TG levels in the overall subjects, respectively. In addition, the GCKR rs780094 T allele carriers possessed decreased serum fasting plasma glucose level in the controls and NAFLD + CAD patients. Conclusions: GCKR rs780094 and rs1260326 polymorphisms were found to be not associated with the risk of NAFLD nor of CAD in NAFLD patients in this Chinese Northern Han population. GCKR rs780094 T and rs1260326 T alleles could affect the body mass index value and serum fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels.
Project description:Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent studies revealed that glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) variants (rs780094 and rs1260326) are associated with serum triglycerides and plasma glucose levels. Here we analyzed primarily the association of these two variants with the lipid profile and plasma glucose levels in Hungarian subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome; and also correlated the genotypes with the carotid intima-media thickness records. METHODS: A total of 321 type 2 diabetic patients, 455 metabolic syndrome patients, and 172 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Both GCKR variants were found to associate with serum triglycerides and with fasting plasma glucose. However, significant association with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome could not be observed. Analyzing the records of the patients, a positive association of prevalence the GCKR homozygous functional variants and carotid intima-media thickness was found in the metabolic syndrome patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that rs780094 and rs1260326 functional variants of the GCKR gene are inversely associated with serum triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose levels, as it was already reported for diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients in some other populations. Besides this positive replication, as a novel feature, our preliminary findings also suggest a cardiovascular risk role of the GCKR minor allele carriage based on the carotid intima-media thickness association.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Variants in gene encoding glucokinase regulator protein (GCKR) were found to have converse effects on triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the influence of GCKR variants for triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits in Chinese children and adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped two GCKR variants rs1260326 and rs1260333 in children and adults, and analyzed the association between two variants and triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR using linear regression model, and estimated the effect on insulin resistance using logistic regression model. Rs1260326 and rs1260333 associated with increased triglycerides in children and adults (p<0.05). In children, both variants significantly reduced insulin (p<0.05. for rs1260326, ??=?-0.07; for rs1260333, ??=?-0.07) and HOMA-IR (p<0.05. for rs1260326, ??=?-0.03; for rs1260333, ??=?-0.03). There were significant associations between two variants and insulin resistance for children. Under co-dominant model, for CT vs. CC, OR is 0.83 (95%CI 0.69-1.00) for rs1260326, and 0.83 (95%CI 0.68-1.00) for rs1260333; for TT vs. CC, OR is 0.72 (95%CI 0.58-0.88) for rs1260326, and 0.72 (95%CI 0.58-0.89) for rs1260333. Under allele model, for allele T vs. C, the ORs are 0.85 (95%CI 0.76-0.94) and 0.85 (95%CI 0.76-0.94) for rs1260326 and rs1260333, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the associations between GCKR variants and triglycerides in Chinese children and adults. Triglycerides-increasing alleles of GCKR variants reduce insulin and HOMA-IR index, and protect from insulin resistance in children. Our results suggested GCKR has an effect on development of insulin resistance in Chinese children.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study's aim was to evaluate whether the GCKR rs1260326 variant increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL). SETTING AND DESIGN:To test this hypothesis, 14 adolescents, seven homozygous for the common allele (CC) and seven homozygous for the risk allele (TT), underwent measurement of hepatic DNL during the fasting state and after consumption of a carbohydrate (CHO) drink (75 g glucose and 25 g fructose). DNL was assessed through incorporation of deuterium in the palmitate contained in the very low-density lipoprotein. RESULTS:Subjects with TT demonstrated higher fasting fractional DNL (P = .036) and a lower increase in fractional DNL after the CHO challenge (P = .016). With regard to absolute lipogenesis, TT subjects had both higher fasting rates (P = .015) and 44% greater area under the curve of absolute lipogenesis during the study (P = .016), compared to CC subjects. Furthermore, subjects carrying the TT genotype showed higher basal rates of glucose oxidation (P = .0028) and a lower ability than CC subjects to increase the rates of glucose oxidation after the CHO load (P = .054). CONCLUSIONS:This study reports for the first time rates of DNL in obese adolescents and suggests that the GCKR rs1260326 gene variant, which is associated with greater glycolysis, increases hepatic DNL. These data highlight the role of glycolytic carbon flux in liver lipid synthesis and hypertriglyceridemia in these youngsters.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have confirmed that GCKR rs780093 polymorphism is associated with triglyceride (TG), a known risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of our study is to explore the association of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism with CHD in Han Chinese population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 568 CHD cases and 494 non-CHD controls were enrolled in the current case-control study. Genotyping was done using melting temperature shift (Tm-shift) approach. Our results also showed that GCKR rs780093 polymorphism was significantly associated with TG level (P = 0.0016). Although there was no significant association between cases and controls (P > 0.05), a breakdown analysis by age yielded a significant association of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism with CHD in individuals aged 65 and older (genotype: ?(2) = 6.86; df = 2; P = 0.03; allele: ?(2) = 4.11; df = 1; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirmed the contribution of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism to TG metabolism and demonstrated GCKR rs780093 as a risk factor of CHD in individuals aged 65 and older.
Project description:To investigate the relationship between a GCKR rs780094 polymorphism and lipid profiles in the Xinjiang Uygur population in China. 980 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, 1017 hyperuricemia (HUA) and 1185 healthy controls were included in this study. After genotyping of rs780094 by Sequenom Mass ARRAY system, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used for association analysis as well as a genotype-phenotype analysis. We found that the serum concentration of TC (P<0.001) was significantly higher and HDL-C (P<0.001) was lower in T2DM than in control participants. Subjects with HUA had a significantly higher TG (P=0.003) and lower HDL-C (P<0.001) than control participants. Additionally, under the recessive model, rs780094 was shown to be associated with the risk of HUA (P=0.015, OR=1.311), particularly in males (P=0.047, OR=1.330). Subsequent interaction analysis between rs780094 and lipid parameters showed that the TG level was positively correlated with HUA in the rs780094- AA+AG carriers (P=0.005). The TC concentrations showed to be associated with T2DM in the rs780094- AA+AG carriers (P<0.001). The association between lipid parameters and gender showed that significantly higher TG levels (P<0.001) and lower HDL-C levels (P<0.001) were observed in female HUA. Higher LDL-C levels were found in male HUA (P=0.015). Moreover, statistically higher TC levels and lower HDL-C levels were found both in male and female T2DM cases (TC: male: P<0.001, female: P=0.014. HDL-C: male: P<0.001, female: P<0.001.).To conclude, our results demonstrated that different genotypes of rs780094 had different effects on blood lipids in HUA and T2DM patients in a Uygur population. Gender was also one of the factors influencing blood lipid levels.
Project description:Recently, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified as rs1260326, in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), was associated with hypertriglyceridemia in adults. Because accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes represents the hallmark of steatosis, we aimed to investigate whether this variant might be associated with fatty liver (hepatic fat content, HFF%). Moreover, because recently rs738409 in the PNPLA3 and rs2854116 in the APOC3 were associated with fatty liver, we explored how the GCKR SNP and these two variants jointly influence hepatosteatosis. We studied 455 obese children and adolescents (181 Caucasians, 139 African Americans, and 135 Hispanics). All underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting lipoprotein subclasses measurement by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. A subset of 142 children underwent a fast gradient magnetic resonance imaging to measure the HFF%. The rs1260326 was associated with elevated triglycerides (Caucasians P = 0.00014; African Americans P = 0.00417), large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (Caucasians P = 0.001; African Americans, P = 0.03), and with fatty liver (Caucasians P = 0.034; African Americans P = 0.00002; and Hispanics P = 0.016). The PNPLA3, but not the APOC3 rs2854116 SNP, was associated with fatty liver but not with triglyceride levels. There was a joint effect between the PNPLA3 and GCKR SNPs, explaining 32% of HFF% variance in Caucasians (P = 0.00161), 39.0% in African Americans (P = 0.00000496), and 15% in Hispanics (P = 0.00342).The rs1260326 in GCKR is associated with hepatic fat accumulation along with large VLDL and triglyceride levels. GCKR and PNPLA3 act together to convey susceptibility to fatty liver in obese youths.
Project description:Hepatic glucokinase (GCK) is a key regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver, where its activity is competitively modulated, with respect to glucose, by binding to glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes identified GCKR as a potential locus for modulating triglyceride levels. We evaluated, in a general French population, the contribution of the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism to quantitative metabolic parameters and to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia risk.Genotype effects of rs1260326 were studied in 4,833 participants from the prospective DESIR (Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome) cohort both at inclusion and using the measurements at follow-up.The minor T-allele of rs1260326 was strongly associated with lower fasting glucose (-1.43% per T-allele; P = 8 x 10(-13)) and fasting insulin levels (-4.23%; P = 3 x 10(-7)), lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (-5.69%; P = 1 x 10(-8)), and, conversely, higher triglyceride levels (3.41%; P = 1 x 10(-4)) during the 9-year study. These effects relate to a lower risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratio [OR] 0.79 [95% CI 0.70-0.88]; P = 4 x 10(-5)) and of incident cases during the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [0.74-0.95]; P = 0.005). Moreover, an additive effect of GCKR rs1260326(T) and GCK (-30G) alleles conferred lower fasting glycemia (P = 1 x 10(-13)), insulinemia (P = 5 x 10(-6)), and hyperglycemia risk (P = 1 x 10(-6)).GCKR-L446 carriers are protected against type 2 diabetes despite higher triglyceride levels and risk of dyslipidemia, which suggests a potential molecular mechanism by which these two components of the metabolic syndrome can be dissociated.
Project description:Postprandial triglyceridemia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, most of the genes that influence postprandial triglyceridemia are not known. We evaluated whether a common nonsynonymous SNP rs1260326/P446L in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene influenced variation in the postprandial lipid response after a high-fat challenge in seven hundred and seventy participants in the Amish HAPI Heart Study who underwent an oral high-fat challenge and had blood samples taken in the fasting state and during the postprandial phase at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h. We found that the minor T allele at rs1260326 was associated with significantly higher fasting TG levels after adjusting for age, sex, and family structure (P (a) = 0.06 for additive model, and P (r) = 0.0003 for recessive model). During the fat challenge, the T allele was associated with significantly higher maximum TG level (P (a) = 0.006), incremental maximum TG level (P (a) = 0.006), TG area under the curve (P (a) = 0.02) and incremental TG area under the curve (P (a) = 0.03). Our data indicate that the rs1260326 T allele of GCKR is associated with both higher fasting levels of TG as well as the postprandial TG response, which may result in higher atherogenic risk.