Telomeres are partly shielded from ultraviolet-induced damage and proficient for nucleotide excision repair of photoproducts.
ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet light induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts, which interfere with DNA replication and transcription. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes these photoproducts, but whether NER functions at telomeres is unresolved. Here we use immunospot blotting to examine the efficiency of photoproduct formation and removal at telomeres purified from UVC irradiated cells at various recovery times. Telomeres exhibit approximately twofold fewer photoproducts compared with the bulk genome in cells, and telomere-binding protein TRF1 significantly reduces photoproduct formation in telomeric fragments in vitro. CPD removal from telomeres occurs 1.5-fold faster than the bulk genome, and is completed by 48?h. 6-4PP removal is rapidly completed by 6?h in both telomeres and the overall genome. A requirement for XPA protein indicates the mechanism of telomeric photoproduct removal is NER. These data provide new evidence that telomeres are partially protected from ultraviolet irradiation and that NER preserves telomere integrity.
Project description:Telomeric repeats preserve genome integrity by stabilizing chromosomes, a function that appears to be important for both cancer and aging. In view of this critical role in genomic integrity, the telomere's own integrity should be of paramount importance to the cell. Ultraviolet light (UV), the preeminent risk factor in skin cancer development, induces mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) which are both mutagenic and lethal. The human telomeric repeat unit (5'TTAGGG/CCCTAA3') is nearly optimal for acquiring UV-induced CPD, which form at dipyrimidine sites. We developed a ChIP-based technique, immunoprecipitation of DNA damage (IPoD), to simultaneously study DNA damage and repair in the telomere and in the coding regions of p53, 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial DNA. We find that human telomeres in vivo are 7-fold hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. In double-stranded oligonucleotides, this hypersensitivity is a property of both telomeric and non-telomeric repeats; in a series of telomeric repeat oligonucleotides, a phase change conferring UV-sensitivity occurs above 4 repeats. Furthermore, CPD removal in the telomere is almost absent, matching the rate in mitochondria known to lack nucleotide excision repair. Cells containing persistent high levels of telomeric CPDs nevertheless proliferate, and chronic UV irradiation of cells does not accelerate telomere shortening. Telomeres are therefore unique in at least three respects: their biophysical UV sensitivity, their prevention of excision repair, and their tolerance of unrepaired lesions. Utilizing a lesion-tolerance strategy rather than repair would prevent double-strand breaks at closely-opposed excision repair sites on opposite strands of a damage-hypersensitive repeat.
Project description:Ultraviolet light (UV) causes DNA damage that is removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER). UV-induced DNA lesions must be recognized and repaired in nucleosomal DNA, higher order structures of chromatin and within different nuclear sub-compartments. Telomeric DNA is made of short tandem repeats located at the ends of chromosomes and their maintenance is critical to prevent genome instability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the chromatin structure of natural telomeres is distinctive and contingent to telomeric DNA sequences. Namely, nucleosomes and Sir proteins form the heterochromatin like structure of X-type telomeres, whereas a more open conformation is present at Y'-type telomeres. It is proposed that there are no nucleosomes on the most distal telomeric repeat DNA, which is bound by a complex of proteins and folded into higher order structure. How these structures affect NER is poorly understood. Our data indicate that the X-type, but not the Y'-type, sub-telomeric chromatin modulates NER, a consequence of Sir protein-dependent nucleosome stability. The telomere terminal complex also prevents NER, however, this effect is largely dependent on the yKu-Sir4 interaction, but Sir2 and Sir3 independent.
Project description:Post-translational modifications alter protein function to mediate complex hierarchical regulatory processes that are crucial to eukaryotic cellular function. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is an important post-translational modification that affects transcriptional regulation, nuclear localization, and the maintenance of genome stability. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a very versatile DNA repair system that is essential for protection against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The deficiencies in NER function remarkably increase the risk of skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that several NER factors are SUMOylated, which influences repair efficiency. However, how SUMOylation modulates NER has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we performed RNAi knockdown of SUMO E3 ligases and found that, in addition to PIASy, the polycomb protein Pc2 affected the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. PIAS1 affected both the removal of 6-4 pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, whereas other SUMO E3 ligases did not affect the removal of either UV lesion.
Project description:Failure in repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage can lead to mutations and cancer. Among UV-lesions, the pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct (6-4PP) is removed from the genome much faster than the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), owing to the more efficient recognition of 6-4PP by XPC-RAD23B, a key initiator of global-genome nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we report a crystal structure of a Rad4-Rad23 (yeast XPC-Rad23B ortholog) bound to 6-4PP-containing DNA and 4-?s molecular dynamics (MD) simulations examining the initial binding of Rad4 to 6-4PP or CPD. This first structure of Rad4/XPC bound to a physiological substrate with matched DNA sequence shows that Rad4 flips out both 6-4PP-containing nucleotide pairs, forming an 'open' conformation. The MD trajectories detail how Rad4/XPC initiates 'opening' 6-4PP: Rad4 initially engages BHD2 to bend/untwist DNA from the minor groove, leading to unstacking and extrusion of the 6-4PP:AA nucleotide pairs towards the major groove. The 5' partner adenine first flips out and is captured by a BHD2/3 groove, while the 3' adenine extrudes episodically, facilitating ensuing insertion of the BHD3 ?-hairpin to open DNA as in the crystal structure. However, CPD resists such Rad4-induced structural distortions. Untwisting/bending from the minor groove may be a common way to interrogate DNA in NER.
Project description:UV light induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PPs), which can result in carcinogenesis and aging, if not properly repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Assays to determine DNA damage load and repair rates are invaluable tools for fundamental and clinical NER research. However, most current assays to quantify DNA damage and repair cannot be performed in real time. To overcome this limitation, we made use of the damage recognition characteristics of CPD and 6-4PP photolyases (PLs). Fluorescently-tagged PLs efficiently recognize UV-induced DNA damage without blocking NER activity, and therefore can be used as sensitive live-cell damage sensors. Importantly, FRAP-based assays showed that PLs bind to damaged DNA in a highly sensitive and dose-dependent manner, and can be used to quantify DNA damage load and to determine repair kinetics in real time. Additionally, PLs can instantly reverse DNA damage by 405 nm laser-assisted photo-reactivation during live-cell imaging, opening new possibilities to study lesion-specific NER dynamics and cellular responses to damage removal. Our results show that fluorescently-tagged PLs can be used as a versatile tool to sense, quantify and repair DNA damage, and to study NER kinetics and UV-induced DNA damage response in living cells.
Project description:It is well established that efficient removal of highly-promutagenic UV-induced dipyrimidine photoproducts via nucleotide excision repair (NER) is required for protection against sunlight-associated malignant melanoma. Nonetheless, the extent to which reduced NER capacity might contribute to individual melanoma susceptibility in the general population remains unclear. Here we show that among a panel of 14 human melanoma strains, 11 exhibit significant inhibition of DNA photoproduct removal during S phase relative to G0/G1 or G2/M. Evidence is presented that this cell cycle-specific NER defect correlates with enhanced apoptosis and reduced clonogenic survival following UV irradiation. In addition, melanoma strains deficient in S phase-specific DNA photoproduct removal manifest significantly lower levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX at 1 h post-UV, suggesting diminished activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad 3-related (ATR) kinase, i.e., a primary orchestrator of the cellular response to UV-induced DNA replication stress. Consistently, in the case of DNA photoproduct excision-proficient melanoma cells, siRNA-mediated depletion of ATR (but not of its immediate downstream effector kinase Chk1) engenders deficient NER specifically during S. On the other hand simultaneous siRNA-mediated depletion of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) exerts no significant effect on either phosphorylation of H2AX at 1 h post-UV or the efficiency of DNA photoproduct removal. Our data suggest that defective NER exclusively during S phase, possibly associated with decreased ATR signaling, may constitute an heretofore unrecognized determinant in melanoma pathogenesis.
Project description:Accessibility within chromatin is an important factor in the prompt removal of UV-induced DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex has been shown to play an important modulating role in NER in vitro and yeast in vivo. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of cross-talk between SWI/SNF and NER in mammalian cells is not fully understood. Here, we show that knockdown of Brg1, the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, negatively affects the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), but not of pyrimidine (6, 4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP) following UV irradiation of mammalian cells. Brg1-deficient cells exhibit a lower chromatin relaxation as well as impaired recruitment of downstream NER factors, XPG and PCNA, to UV lesions. However, the assembly of upstream NER factors, DDB2 and XPC, at the damage site was unaffected by Brg1 knockdown. Interestingly, Brg1 interacts with XPC within chromatin and is recruited to UV-damaged sites in a DDB2- and XPC-dependent manner. Also, postirradiation decrease of XPC levels occurred more rapidly in Brg1-deficient than normal cells. Conversely, XPC transcription remained unaltered upon Brg1 knockdown indicating that Brg1 affects the stability of XPC protein following irradiation. Thus, Brg1 facilitates different stages of NER by initially modulating UV-induced chromatin relaxation and stabilizing XPC at the damage sites, and subsequently stimulating the recruitment of XPG and PCNA to successfully culminate the repair.
Project description:To maintain genetic integrity, ultraviolet light-induced photoproducts in DNA must be removed by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which is initiated by damage recognition and dual incisions of the lesion-containing strand. We intended to detect the dual-incision step of cellular NER, by using a fluorescent probe. A 140-base pair linear duplex containing the (6-4) photoproduct and a fluorophore-quencher pair was prepared first. However, this type of DNA was found to be degraded rapidly by nucleases in cells. Next, a plasmid was used as a scaffold. In this case, the fluorophore and the quencher were attached to the same strand, and we expected that the dual-incision product containing them would be degraded in cells. At 3?h after transfection of HeLa cells with the plasmid-type probes, fluorescence emission was detected at the nuclei by fluorescence microscopy only when the probe contained the (6-4) photoproduct, and the results were confirmed by flow cytometry. Finally, XPA fibroblasts and the same cells expressing the XPA gene were transfected with the photoproduct-containing probe. Although the transfer of the probe into the cells was slow, fluorescence was detected depending on the NER ability of the cells.
Project description:Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.
Project description:Somatic mutations in skin cancers and other ultraviolet (UV)-exposed cells are typified by C>T and CC>TT substitutions at dipyrimidine sequences; however, many oncogenic "driver" mutations in melanoma do not fit this UV signature. Here, we use genome sequencing to characterize mutations in yeast repeatedly irradiated with UV light. Analysis of ~50,000 UV-induced mutations reveals abundant non-canonical mutations, including T>C, T>A, and AC>TT substitutions. These mutations display transcriptional asymmetry that is modulated by nucleotide excision repair (NER), indicating that they are caused by UV photoproducts. Using a sequencing method called UV DNA endonuclease sequencing (UVDE-seq), we confirm the existence of an atypical thymine-adenine photoproduct likely responsible for UV-induced T>A substitutions. Similar non-canonical mutations are present in skin cancers, which also display transcriptional asymmetry and dependence on NER. These include multiple driver mutations, most prominently the recurrent BRAF V600E and V600K substitutions, suggesting that mutations arising from rare, atypical UV photoproducts may play a role in melanomagenesis.