Lansoprazole Is Associated with Worsening Asthma Control in Children with the CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizer Phenotype.
ABSTRACT: Gastric acid blockade in children with asymptomatic acid reflux has not improved asthma control in published studies. There is substantial population variability regarding metabolism of and response to proton pump inhibitors based on metabolizer phenotype. How metabolizer phenotype affects asthma responses to acid blockage is not known.To determine how metabolizer phenotype based on genetic analysis of CYP2C19 affects asthma control among children treated with a proton pump inhibitor.Asthma control as measured by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and other questionnaires from a 6-month clinical trial of lansoprazole in children with asthma was analyzed for associations with surrogates of lansoprazole exposure (based on treatment assignment and metabolizer phenotype). Groups included placebo-treated children; lansoprazole-treated extensive metabolizers (EMs); and lansoprazole-treated poor metabolizers (PMs). Metabolizer phenotypes were based on CYP2C19 haplotypes. Carriers of the CYP2C19*2, *3, *8, *9, or *10 allele were PMs; carriers of two wild-type alleles were extensive metabolizers (EMs).Asthma control through most of the treatment period was unaffected by lansoprazole exposure or metabolizer phenotype. At 6 months, PMs displayed significantly worsened asthma control compared with EMs (+0.16 vs. -0.13; P = 0.02) and placebo-treated children (+0.16 vs. -0.23; P < 0.01). Differences in asthma control were not associated with changes in gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Recent upper respiratory infection worsened asthma control, and this upper respiratory infection effect may be more pronounced among lansoprazole-treated PMs.Children with the PM phenotype developed worse asthma control after 6 months of lansoprazole treatment for poorly controlled asthma. Increased exposure to proton pump inhibitor may worsen asthma control by altering responses to respiratory infections. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00604851).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 haplotype associates with lansoprazole-associated adverse event frequency. STUDY DESIGN:Respiratory adverse events from a clinical trial of lansoprazole in children with asthma were analyzed for associations with extensive or poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype based on CYP2C19 haplotypes. Carriers of CYP2C19*2, *3, *8, or *9 alleles were PMs; carriers of 2 wild-type alleles were extensive metabolizers (EMs). Plasma concentrations of lansoprazole were determined in PM and EM phenotypes. RESULTS:The frequency of upper respiratory infection among PMs (n = 45) was higher than that among EMs (n = 91), which in turn was higher than that in placebo subjects (n = 135; P = .0039). The frequency of sore throat (ST) was similarly distributed among EMs and PMs (P = .0015). The OR (95% CI) for upper respiratory infections in PMs was 2.46 (1.02-5.96) (P = .046); for EMs, the OR (95% CI) was 1.55 (0.86-2.79). The OR (95% CI) for ST in EMs and PMs was 2.94 (1.23-7.05, P = .016) vs 1.97 (1.09-3.55, P = .024), respectively. Mean ± SD plasma concentrations of lansoprazole were higher in PMs than in EMs: 207 ± 179 ng/mL vs 132 ± 141 ng/mL (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS:Lansoprazole-associated upper respiratory infections and ST in children are related in part to CYP2C19 haplotype. Our data suggest that lansoprazole-associated adverse events in children may be mitigated by adjusting the conventional dose in PMs. Additional studies are required to replicate our findings.
Project description:Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the first-line treatment for acid-related diseases. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of PPIs, however, are influenced by genetic factors such as variants in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450 2C19 [CYP2C19]) and drug transporters. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the influence of CYP2C19 genotype and PPI class, PPI dose, treatment duration and clarithromycin dose on the cure rate of PPI-containing Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Methods: Randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating cure rates using a PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin regimen among different CYP2C19 genotypes through May 2021 were included. Results: A total of 25 studies (5,318 patients) were included. The overall eradication rate in the intention-to-treat analysis was 79.0% (3,689/4,669, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8–80.2%), and that in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizer (IMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs) was 77.7% (1,137/1,464, 95% CI: 75.3–79.6%), 81.2% (1,498/1,844, 95% CI: 79.3–83.0%) and 86.8% (644/742, 95% CI: 83.9–88.9%), respectively. Meta-analysis showed that the relaTakashitive risk of failed eradication in CYP2C19 EMs compared with IMs and PMs was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06–1.39, P = 0.006) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.27–1.94, P < 0.001), respectively, in the fixed-effects model. The cure rate of omeprazole and lansoprazole-containing eradication regimens differed among CYP2C19 genotypes (P < 0.05), while that of rabeprazole and esomeprazole-containing regimens was similar. Conclusion: The cure rates of PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin H. pylori eradication regimen, especially those containing omeprazole and lansoprazole, differ among CYP2C19 genotypes. Therefore, selection of a second-generation PPI or tailored treatment may achieve higher eradication rates than first-generation PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple regimen.
Project description:Highly variable and non-linear pharmacokinetics of voriconazole are mainly caused by CYP2C19 polymorphisms. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic population pharmacokinetic model including the CYP2C19 phenotype, and to assess the appropriateness of various dosing regimens based on the therapeutic target. A total of 1,828 concentrations from 193 subjects were included in the population pharmacokinetic analysis. A three-compartment model with an inhibition compartment appropriately described the voriconazole pharmacokinetics reflecting auto-inhibition. Voriconazole clearance in the CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs) decreased by 17% and 53% compared to that in the extensive metabolizers (EMs). There was a time-dependent inhibition of clearance to 16.2% of its original value in the CYP2C19 EMs, and the extent of inhibition differed according to the CYP2C19 phenotypes. The proposed CYP2C19 phenotype-guided initial dosing regimens are 400 mg twice daily (bid) for EMs, 200 mg bid for IMs, and 100 mg bid for PMs. This CYP2C19 phenotype-guided initial dosing regimen will provide a rationale for individualizing the optimal voriconazole therapy.
Project description:This randomized double-blind crossover study aimed to investigate the influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel in patients with non-cardioembolic stroke treated with clopidogrel. Patients received clopidogrel 75 mg/day for >?4 weeks. Subsequently, patients received prasugrel 3.75 mg/day (group A; n?=?64) or 2.5 mg/day (group B; n?=?65) for 4 weeks followed by a 4 week switched-dose regimen. To assess the influence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms, patients were classified as extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs). The primary endpoint was P2Y<sub>12</sub> reaction units (PRU) at the end of each 4 week treatment. A significant reduction in PRU was noted after treatment with prasugrel 3.75 mg/day compared with the pre-dose value (after treatment with clopidogrel) (p?<?0.0001). By CYP2C19 phenotypes, a significant reduction in PRU was noted in IMs and PMs after treatment with prasugrel 3.75 mg/day and in PMs after treatment with prasugrel 2.5 mg/day, as compared with the pre-dose value (p?<?0.0001). The plasma concentration of the active metabolite of clopidogrel was relatively low in PMs compared to EMs and IMs; prasugrel was similar across all CYP2C19 phenotypes. No major or clinically significant hemorrhagic adverse events occurred. By CYP2C19 phenotype, the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel were greater with 3.75 mg/day in IMs and PMs, and with 2.5 mg/day in PMs compared with clopidogrel 75 mg/day, without safety concerns. CYP2C19 polymorphisms did not affect the plasma concentration of the active metabolite of prasugrel or its antiplatelet effects. (JapicCTI-101044).
Project description:Carriers of two copies of the loss-of-function CYP2C19*2 variant convert less clopidogrel into its active metabolite, resulting in diminished antiplatelet responses and higher cardiovascular event rates. To evaluate whether increasing the daily clopidogrel dose in poor metabolizers (PM) overcomes the effect of the CYP2C19?*?2 variant, we enrolled 18 healthy participants in a genotype-stratified, multi-dose, three-period, fixed-sequence crossover study. Six participants with the *1/*1 extensive (EM), *1/*2 intermediate (IM), and *2/*2 poor metabolizer genotypes each received 75?mg, 150 mg, and 300?mg each for 8 days. In each period, maximal platelet aggregation 4?hours post-dose (MPA4) and active metabolite area under the curve (AUC) differed among genotype groups (P?<?.05 for all). At day 8, PMs needed 300?mg daily and IMs needed 150?mg daily to attain a similar MPA4 as EMs on the 75?mg dose (32.6%, 33.2%, 31.3%, respectively). Similarly, PMs needed 300?mg daily to achieve active metabolite concentrations that were similar to EMs on 75?mg (AUC 37.7 and 33.5?ng?h/mL, respectively). These results suggest that quadrupling the usual clopidogrel dose might be necessary to overcome the effect of poor CYP2C19 metabolism.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the association between cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) metabolizer status and risk for escitalopram and citalopram, collectively termed (es)citalopram, and sertraline adverse events (AEs) in children.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective cohort study, we used deidentified electronic health records linked to DNA. The cohort included children ≤18 years with ≥2 days of (es)citalopram or ≥7 days of sertraline exposure. The primary outcome was AEs assessed by manual chart review. <i>CYP2C19</i> was genotyped for functional variants (*2, *3, *4, *6, *8, and *17), and individuals were assigned metabolizer status. Association between AEs and metabolizer status was determined by using Cox regression adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, dose, and concomitant CYP2C19-inhibiting medications.<h4>Results</h4>The cohort included 249 sertraline-exposed and 458 (es)citalopram-exposed children, with a median age of 14.2 years (interquartile range 11.2-16.2) and 13.4 years (interquartile range 10.1-15.9), respectively. Sertraline AEs were more common in normal metabolizers (NMs) compared to poor metabolizers (PMs) or intermediate metabolizers (IMs) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.2; <i>P</i> = .047) in unadjusted analysis and after adjustment (HR 1.9; CI 1.04-3.4; <i>P</i> = .04). For (es)citalopram, more AEs were observed in NMs than PMs and IMs without statistically significant differences (unadjusted HR 1.6; CI 0.95-2.6; <i>P</i> = .08; adjusted HR 1.6; CI 0.95-2.6; <i>P</i> = .08).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In contrast to adults, in our pediatric cohort, CYP2C19 NMs experienced increased sertraline AEs than PMs and IMs. (Es)citalopram AEs were not associated with CYP2C19 status in the primary analysis. The mechanism underlying this pediatric-specific finding is unknown but may be related to physiologic differences of adolescence. Further research is required to inform genotype-guided prescribing for these drugs in children.
Project description:To investigate the contributions of CYP2C19 polymorphisms to the various clopidogrel responses tested by thrombelastography (TEG) in Chinese patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Patients were screened prospectively with ACS diagnose and were treated with clopidogrel and aspirin dual antiplatelet therapy. CYP2C19 loss of function (LOF) and gain of function (GOF) genotype, adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-channel platelet inhibition rate (PIR) tested by TEG and the occurrence of 3-month major adverse cardiovascular events and ischemic events were assessed in 116 patients.High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) prevalence defined by PIR <30% by TEG in ADP-channel was 32.76% (38/116). With respect to the normal wild type, CYP2C19*2, and *3 LOF alleles, and *17 GOF alleles, patients were classified into three metabolism phenotypes: 41.38% were extensive metabolizers (EMs), 56.90% were intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and 1.72% were poor metabolizers (PMs). Of the enrolled patients, 31.47%, 5.17%, and 0.43%, respectively, were carriers of *2, *3, and *17 alleles. The HTPR incidence differed significantly according to CYP2C19 genotypes, accounting for 18.75%, 41.54%, and 100.00% in EMs, IMs, and PMs, respectively. Eighteen (17.24%) ischemic events occurred during the 3-month follow-up, and there was a significant difference in ischemic events between HTPR group and nonhigh on-treatment platelet reactivity group.Genetic CYP2C19 polymorphisms are relative to the inferior, the antiplatelet activity after clopidogrel admission and may increase the incidence of ischemic events in patients with ACS.
Project description:AIMS:The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety, tolerability, dose proportionality and relative bioavailability of tablet and oral solution formulations of BI 409306 in healthy male subjects, and to compare the safety and pharmacokinetics in subjects who were extensive metabolizers (EMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-2C19. METHODS:The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre study evaluated single rising doses of BI 409306 (0.5-500 mg) administered as a tablet or oral solution to EMs or PMs. RESULTS:Of 80 enrolled subjects (mean age 36.7 years), 79 (CYP2C19 EMs, 71; CYP2C19 PMs, eight) received treatment and completed the study. Adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate in intensity. Overall, 17/71 (23.9%) EMs and 6/8 (75.0%) PMs experienced 28 and eight AEs, respectively, of which, 25 and seven AEs, respectively, were considered to be drug related. The most frequently reported AEs were nervous system and eye disorders; all occurred shortly (20-30 min) after administration and mostly resolved within 1-2 h. No serious AEs occurred. BI 409306 systemic absorption and elimination were rapid; peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was reached <1 h after drug administration, and the half-life ranged from 0.99 h to 2.71 h. Both the tablet and oral solution resulted in similar exposures. In PMs, at dose levels of 10 mg and 100 mg, Cmax was 2.2-2.3-fold higher, and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the time interval 0 extrapolated to infinity was 4.1-5.0-fold higher compared with EMs. CONCLUSIONS:In healthy male subjects, BI 409306 was generally safe and well tolerated, with rapid absorption and elimination. Systemic exposure was higher in CYP2C19 PMs than EMs at the same dose level.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>We investigated the impacts of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vicagrel in healthy Chinese subjects.<h4>Methods</h4>CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs; 16 subjects/group) participated in a randomized, open-label, 2-period cross-over study. Each study period lasted 7 days, with a loading dose of 24 mg of vicagrel or 300 mg of clopidogrel on day 1, and maintenance doses of 6 mg of vicagrel or 75 mg of clopidogrel daily from day 2 to day 7. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed on day 1 and day 7.<h4>Results</h4>After a loading dose, the AUC<sub>0-t</sub> of the active metabolite H4 by vicagrel was slightly lower in IMs and PMs (decreased by 21 and 27%, respectively) compared to EMs. Similar results were found after maintenance doses. In EMs, the AUC<sub>0-t</sub> of H4 by vicagrel was somewhat higher than clopidogrel after the loading dose, and comparable with clopidogrel (90% confidence interval 0.94, 1.21) after the maintenance doses. However, it was much higher than clopidogrel in PMs, with a 1.28-fold (loading dose) and a 73% (maintenance doses) increases compared to clopidogrel (P < 0.001). Consequently, the inhibition of platelet aggregation by vicagrel was greater than clopidogrel after both loading dose (28.2 vs 12.4% at 4 hours, P < 0.01) and maintenance doses (42.8 vs 24.6% at 4 hours, P < 0.001) in PMs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CYP2C19 polymorphisms have less impact on vicagrel as compared to clopidogrel. Drug exposure and response to vicagrel in PMs were even higher than to clopidogrel in IMs.
Project description:AIMS:The aim of the study was to investigate the combined impact of genetic polymorphisms in key pharmacokinetic genes on plasma concentrations and clinical outcomes of cyclophosphamide (CPA) in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS:One hundred and eighty nine Chinese SLE patients treated with CPA induction therapy (200 mg, every other day) were recruited and adverse reactions were recorded. After 4 weeks induction therapy, 128 lupus nephritis (LN) patients continued to CPA maintenance therapy (200-600 mg week(-1)) for 6 months, and their clinical outcomes were recorded. Blood samples were collected for CYP2C19, CYP2B6, GST and PXR polymorphism analysis, as well as CPA and its active metabolite (4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OH-CPA)) plasma concentration determination. RESULTS:Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that CYP2B6 -750 T > C (P < 0.001), -2320 T > C (P < 0.001), 15582C > T (P = 0.017), CYP2C19*2 (P < 0.001) and PXR 66034 T > C (P = 0.028) accounted for 47% of the variation in 4-OH-CPA plasma concentration. Among these variants, CYP2B6 -750 T > C and CYP2C19*2 were selected as the combination genetic marker because these two SNPs contributed the most to the inter-individual variability in 4-OH-CPA concentration, accounting for 23.6% and 21.5% of the variation, respectively. Extensive metabolizers (EMs) (CYP2B6 -750TT, CYP2C19*1*1) had significantly higher median 4-OH-CPA plasma concentrations (34.8, 11.0 and 6.6 ng ml(-1) for EMs, intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs), P < 0.0001), higher risks of leukocytopenia (OR = 7.538, 95% CI 2.951, 19.256, P < 0.0001) and gastrointestinal toxicity (OR = 7.579, 95% CI 2.934, 19.578, P < 0.0001), as well as shorter median time to achieve complete remission (13.2, 18.3 and 23.3 weeks for EMs, IMs and PMs, respectively, P = 0.026) in LN patients than PMs (CYP2B6 -750CC, CYP2C19*2*2) and IMs. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings have indicated that genetic markers of drug metabolizing enzymes could predict the 4-hydroxylation, adverse reactions and clinical efficacy of CPA. This is a necessary first step towards building clinical tools that will help assess clinical benefit and risk before undergoing CPA treatment in Chinese SLE patients.