Biocide effects of volatile organic compounds produced by potential biocontrol rhizobacteria on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
ABSTRACT: Six rhizobacteria isolated from common bean and able to protect bean plants from the common bacterial blight (CBB) causal agent, were in vitro evaluated for their potential antifungal effects toward different plant pathogenic fungi, mostly soil-borne. By dual culture assays, the above bacteria resulted producing diffusible and volatile metabolites which inhibited the growth of the majority of the pathogens under study. In particular, the latter substances highly affected the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains, one of which was selected for further studies either on mycelium or sclerotia. Gas chromatographic analysis of the bacterial volatiles led to the identification of an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Time course studies showed the modification of the VOCs profile along a period of 5 days. In order to evaluate the single detected VOC effects on fungal growth, some of the pure compounds were tested on S. sclerotiorum mycelium and their minimal inhibitory quantities were determined. Similarly, the minimal inhibitory quantities on sclerotia germination were also defined. Moreover, observations by light and transmission electron microscopes highlighted hyphae cytoplasm granulation and ultrastructural alterations at cell organelles, mostly membranes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes appeared one of the primary targets of bacterial volatiles, as confirmed by hemolytic activity observed for the majority of pure VOCs. However, of interest is the alteration observed on mitochondria as well.
Project description:Stems and pods of hyacinth bean cultivated in a farmer's field in Gazipur District, Bangladesh, were found rotted in nearly 5% hyacinth bean plants. A fungus having fluffy mycelium and large sclerotia was isolated from affected tissues. Combined results of morphological, molecular and pathological analyses identified the fungus as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary. Inoculating the fungus on healthy hyacinth bean plants and pods reproduced the symptoms previously observed in the field. The three isolates obtained from naturally infected plants were cross inoculated in hyacinth bean, okra and African-American marigold and they were pathogenic to these hosts. The optimum temperature and pH for its growth were 20°C and pH 5.0, respectively. Sclerotial development was favored at pH 5.0. Sucrose and mannitol were the best carbon sources to support hyphal growth, while glucose was the most favourable for sclerotial development. The hyacinth bean genotypes, HB-82 (Rupban Sheem) and HB-102 were found highly resistant, while HB-94 (Ashina) was moderate resistant to the fungus. Finally, S. sclerotiorum was sensitive to Bavistin, Dithane M-45 and Rovral fungicides and Ca in the form of CaCl2. This observation could possibly aid in eliminating field loss in hyacinth bean caused by an emerging pathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum.
Project description:Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these microbes is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production during storage and possibly in the field.
Project description:Phytopathogenic fungal growth in postharvest fruits and vegetables is responsible for 20-25% of production losses. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been gaining importance in the food industry as a safe and ecofriendly alternative to pesticides for combating these phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we analysed the ability of some VOCs produced by strains of the genera <i>Bacillus</i>, <i>Peribacillus</i>, <i>Pseudomonas</i>, <i>Psychrobacillus</i> and <i>Staphylococcus</i> to inhibit the growth of <i>Alternaria alternata</i>, <i>Botrytis cinerea</i>, <i>Fusarium oxysporum</i>, <i>Fusarium solani</i>, <i>Monilinia fructicola</i>, <i>Monilinia laxa</i> and <i>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</i>, <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. We analysed bacterial VOCs by using GC/MS and 87 volatile compounds were identified, in particular acetoin, acetic acid, 2,3-butanediol, isopentanol, dimethyl disulphide and isopentyl isobutanoate. <i>In vitro</i> growth inhibition assays and <i>in vivo</i> experiments using cherry fruits showed that the best producers of VOCs, <i>Bacillus atrophaeus</i> L193, <i>Bacillus velezensis</i> XT1 and <i>Psychrobacillus vulpis</i> Z8, exhibited the highest antifungal activity against <i>B. cinerea</i>, <i>M. fructicola</i> and <i>M. laxa</i>, which highlights the potential of these strains to control postharvest diseases. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of bacterial VOC-treated fungi clearly showed antifungal activity which led to an intense degeneration of cellular components of mycelium and cell death.
Project description:Beneficial soil microorganisms can affect plant growth and resistance by the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Yet, little is known on how VOCs from soil-borne plant pathogens affect plant growth and resistance. Here we show that VOCs released from mycelium and sclerotia of the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani enhance growth and accelerate development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings briefly exposed to the fungal VOCs showed similar phenotypes, suggesting that enhanced biomass and accelerated development are primed already at early developmental stages. Fungal VOCs did not affect plant resistance to infection by the VOC-producing pathogen itself but reduced aboveground resistance to the herbivore Mamestra brassicae. Transcriptomics of A. thaliana revealed that genes involved in auxin signaling were up-regulated, whereas ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling pathways were down-regulated by fungal VOCs. Mutants disrupted in these pathways showed similar VOC-mediated growth responses as the wild-type A. thaliana, suggesting that other yet unknown pathways play a more prominent role. We postulate that R. solani uses VOCs to predispose plants for infection from a distance by altering root architecture and enhancing root biomass. Alternatively, plants may use enhanced root growth upon fungal VOC perception to sacrifice part of the root biomass and accelerate development and reproduction to survive infection.
Project description:We propose a novel application of secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) as a real-time clinical diagnostic tool for bacterial infection. It is known that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), produced in different combinations and quantities by bacteria as metabolites, generate characteristic odors for certain bacteria. These VOCs comprise a specific metabolic profile that can be used for species or serovar identification, but rapid and sensitive analytical methods are required for broad utility. In this study, the VOC profiles of five bacterial groups from four genera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum, were characterized by SESI-MS. Thirteen compounds were identified from these bacterial cultures, and the combination of these VOCs creates a unique pattern for each genus. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the purpose of species or serovar discrimination. The first three principal components exhibit a clear separation between the metabolic volatile profiles of these five bacterial groups that is independent of the growth medium. As a first step toward addressing the complexity of clinical application, in vitro tests for mixed cultures were conducted. The results show that individual species or serovars in a mixed culture are identifiable among a biological VOC background, and the ratios of the detected volatiles reflect the proportion of each bacterium in the mixture. Our data confirm the utility of SESI-MS in real-time identification of bacterial species or serovars in vitro, which, in the future, may play a promising clinical role in diagnosing infections.
Project description:A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos) including (E)-?-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2) that were constitutively overexpressing (E)-?-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai). In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants) placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications.
Project description:Protists are major predators of bacteria in soils. However, it remains unknown how protists sense their prey in this highly complex environment. Here, we investigated whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of six phylogenetic distinct soil bacteria affect the performance of three different soil protists and how that relates to direct feeding interactions. We observed that most bacteria affected protist activity by VOCs. However, the response of protists to the VOCs was strongly dependent on both the bacterial and protist interacting partner. Stimulation of protist activity by volatiles and in direct trophic interaction assays often coincided, suggesting that VOCs serve as signals for protists to sense suitable prey. Furthermore, bacterial terpene synthase mutants lost the ability to affect protists, indicating that terpenes represent key components of VOC-mediated communication. Overall, we demonstrate that volatiles are directly involved in protist-bacterial predator-prey interactions.
Project description:Soil and rhizosphere bacteria produce an array of secondary metabolites including a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds play an important role in the long-distance interactions and communication between (micro)organisms. Furthermore, bacterial VOCs are involved in plant pathogens inhibition and induction of soil fungistasis and suppressivenes. In the present study, we analysed the volatile blend emitted by the rhizospheric isolate Pseudomonas donghuensis P482 and evaluated the volatile effect on the plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria as well as one oomycete. Moreover, we investigated the role of the GacS/GacA system on VOCs production in P. donghuensis P482. The results obtained demonstrated that VOCs emitted by P. donghuensis P482 have strong antifungal and antioomycete, but not antibacterial activity. The production of certain volatiles such as dimethyl sulfide, S-methyl thioacetate, methyl thiocyanate, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-undecan and HCN is depended on the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system. Apparently, these compounds play an important role in the pathogens suppression as the gacA mutant entirely lost the ability to inhibit via volatiles the growth of tested plant pathogens.
Project description:Plants respond to herbivore attack with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can attract predatory arthropods and/or repel herbivores and thus serve as a means of defense against herbivores. Such VOCs might also be perceived by neighboring plants to adjust their defensive phenotype according to the present risk of attack. We exposed lima bean plants at their natural growing site to volatiles of beetle-damaged conspecific shoots. This reduced herbivore damage and increased the growth rate of the exposed plants. To investigate whether VOCs also can serve in signaling processes within the same individual plant we focused on undamaged "receiver" leaves that were either exposed or not exposed to VOCs released by induced "emitter" leaves. Extrafloral nectar secretion by receiver leaves increased when they were exposed to VOCs of induced emitters of neighboring plants or of the same shoot, yet not when VOCs were removed from the system. Extrafloral nectar attracts predatory arthropods and represents an induced defense mechanism. The volatiles also primed extrafloral nectar secretion to show an augmented response to subsequent damage. Herbivore-induced VOCs elicit a defensive response in undamaged plants (or parts of plants) under natural conditions, and they function as external signal for within-plant communication, thus serving also a physiological role in the systemic response of a plant to local damage.
Project description:Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV), and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) are important pathogens of common bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i>), a crop vital for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. These viruses are vectored by aphids non-persistently, with virions bound loosely to stylet receptors. These viruses also manipulate aphid-mediated transmission by altering host properties. Virus-induced effects on host-aphid interactions were investigated using choice test (migration) assays, olfactometry, and analysis of insect-perceivable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography (GC)-coupled mass spectrometry, and GC-coupled electroantennography. When allowed to choose freely between infected and uninfected plants, aphids of the legume specialist species <i>Aphis fabae</i>, and of the generalist species <i>Myzus persicae</i>, were repelled by plants infected with BCMV, BCMNV, or CMV. However, in olfactometer experiments with <i>A. fabae</i>, only the VOCs emitted by BCMNV-infected plants repelled aphids. Although BCMV, BCMNV, and CMV each induced distinctive changes in emission of aphid-perceivable volatiles, all three suppressed emission of an attractant sesquiterpene, ?-copaene, suggesting these three different viruses promote migration of virus-bearing aphids in a similar fashion.