Comparison of variable region 3 sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from infected children with the RNA and DNA sequences of the virus populations of their mothers.
ABSTRACT: We have compared the variable region 3 sequences from 10 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected infants to virus sequences from the corresponding mothers. The sequences were derived from DNA of uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), DNA of cultured PBMC, and RNA from serum collected at or shortly after delivery. The infected infants, in contrast to the mothers, harbored homogeneous virus populations. Comparison of sequences from the children and clones derived from DNA of the corresponding mothers showed that the transmitted virus represented either a minor or a major virus population of the mother. In contrast to an earlier study, we found no evidence of selection of minor virus variants during transmission. Furthermore, the transmitted virus variant did not show any characteristic molecular features. In some cases the transmitted virus was more related to the virus RNA population of the mother and in other cases it was more related to the virus DNA population. This suggests that either cell-free or cell-associated virus may be transmitted. These data will help AIDS researchers to understand the mechanism of transmission and to plan strategies for prevention of transmission.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences from variable region 3 (V3) of the envelope gene were analyzed from seven infected mother-infant pairs following perinatal transmission. The V3 region sequences directly derived from the DNA of the uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infected mothers displayed a heterogeneous population. In contrast, the infants' sequences were less diverse than those of their mothers. In addition, the sequences from the younger infants' peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA were more homogeneous than the older infants' sequences. All infants' sequences were different but displayed patterns similar to those seen in their mothers. In the mother-infant pair sequences analyzed, a minor genotype or subtype found in the mothers predominated in their infants. The conserved N-linked glycosylation site proximal to the first cysteine of the V3 loop was absent only in one infant's sequence set and in some variants of two other infants' sequences. Furthermore, the HIV-1 sequences of the epidemiologically linked mother-infant pairs were closer than the sequences of epidemiologically unlinked individuals, suggesting that the sequence comparison of mother-infant pairs done in order to identify genetic variants transmitted from mother to infant could be performed even in older infants. There was no evidence for transmission of a major genotype or multiple genotypes from mother to infant. In conclusion, a minor genotype of maternal virus is transmitted to the infants, and this finding could be useful in developing strategies to prevent maternal transmission of HIV-1 by means of perinatal interventions.
Project description:Influenza virus transmission between mothers and nursing-infants has not been investigated although mothers and infants often develop severe disease. Ferrets are considered the most appropriate model for influenza studies. We investigated influenza transmission in infant and nursing-mother ferrets. Influenza infected infants transmitted virus to mother mammary glands leading to live virus excretion in milk and influenza virus positive mammary gland epithelial cells. Global gene expression analysis showed down-regulation of milk production and induction of breast involution and oncogenesis pathways. Our results provide insight into influenza transmission between mothers and infants which may impact fields of infectious disease, maternal/infant health and neoplasm etiology. Total RNA was obtained from nursing mother ferret mammary glands at days 3/4 and 6/7 post-intranasal kit infection with 10^5 EID50 A/California/07/2009 (H1N1). Total RNA was also collected from uninfected control nursing mother mammary gland tissues (n = 3). Changes in gene expression relative to uninfected tissue controls were then investigated.
Project description:Influenza virus transmission between mothers and nursing-infants has not been investigated although mothers and infants often develop severe disease. Ferrets are considered the most appropriate model for influenza studies. We investigated influenza transmission in infant and nursing-mother ferrets. Influenza infected infants transmitted virus to mother mammary glands leading to live virus excretion in milk and influenza virus positive mammary gland epithelial cells. Global gene expression analysis showed down-regulation of milk production and induction of breast involution and oncogenesis pathways. Our results provide insight into influenza transmission between mothers and infants which may impact fields of infectious disease, maternal/infant health and neoplasm etiology. Total RNA was obtained from ferret lungs at days 3 and 6 post-intranasal infection with 10^5 EID50 A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) (n = 3/time-point). Total RNA was also collected from uninfected control lung tissues (n = 3). Changes in gene expression relative to uninfected tissue controls were then investigated.
Project description:We have examined the viral selection that may occur during transmission by studying the env gene sequences from four cases of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The V3 region sequences were directly amplified from both plasma viral RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing proviral DNA from mothers at delivery and at the time of diagnosis for children. Transmission occurred perinatally in three cases. The similarity of the viral sequences in each infant sample contrasted with the heterogeneous viral populations in the mothers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the transmission of one or a few closely related maternal minor virus variants. In contrast, the child virus population in the fourth case was as heterogeneous as that of his mother, and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested the transmission of multiple maternal variants. This case of multiple transmission was confirmed by analyzing sequences obtained at three times after delivery. Strains with sequences corresponding to the syncytium-inducing phenotype were also transmitted in this fourth case, and this was associated with the rapid development of disease in the child. There was no evidence for transmission of particular viral variants from mother to infant. We have thus described a particular case of vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission with the transmission of multiple maternal variants to the infant and a rapid, fatal outcome in the child.
Project description:Host immunologic factors, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), are thought to contribute to the control of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication and thus delay disease progression in infected individuals. Host immunologic factors are also likely to influence perinatal transmission of HIV-1 from infected mother to infant. In this study, the potential role of CTL in modulating HIV-1 transmission from mother to infant was examined in 11 HIV-1-infected mothers, 3 of whom transmitted virus to their offspring. Frequencies of HIV-1-specific human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted CTL responses and viral epitope amino acid sequence variation were determined in the mothers and their infected infants. Maternal HIV-1-specific CTL clones were derived from each of the HIV-1-infected pregnant women. Amino acid substitutions within the targeted CTL epitopes were more frequently identified in transmitting mothers than in nontransmitting mothers, and immune escape from CTL recognition was detected in all three transmitting mothers but in only one of eight nontransmitting mothers. The majority of viral sequences obtained from the HIV-1-infected infant blood samples were susceptible to maternal CTL. These findings demonstrate that epitope amino acid sequence variation and escape from CTL recognition occur more frequently in mothers that transmit HIV-1 to their infants than in those who do not. However, the transmitted virus can be a CTL susceptible form, suggesting inadequate in vivo immune control.
Project description:Selection of a minor viral genotype during perinatal transmission of human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been observed, but there is a lack of information on the correlation of the restrictive transmission with biological properties of the virus, such as replicative fitness. Recombinant viruses expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein or the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent (DsRed2) protein carrying the V1 to V5 regions of env from seven mother-infant pairs (MIPs) infected by subtype C HIV-1 were constructed, and competition assays were carried out to compare the fitness between the transmitted and nontransmitted viruses. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the frequency of infected cells, and the replicative fitness was determined based on a calculation that takes into account replication of competing viruses in a single infection versus dual infections. Transmitted viruses from five MIPs with the mothers chronically infected showed a restrictive env genotype, and all the recombinant viruses carrying the infants' Env had higher replicative fitness than those carrying the Env from the mothers. This growth fitness is lineage specific and can be observed only within the same MIP. In contrast, in two MIPs where the mothers had undergone recent acute infection, the viral Env sequences were similar between the mothers and infants and showed no further restriction in quasispecies during perinatal transmission. The recombinant viruses carrying the Env from the infants' viruses also showed replication fitness similar to those carrying the mothers' Env proteins. Our results suggest that newly transmitted viruses from chronically infected mothers have been selected to have higher replicative fitness to favor transmission, and this advantage is conferred by the V1 to V5 region of Env of the transmitted viruses. This finding has important implications for vaccine design or development of strategies to prevent HIV-1 transmission.
Project description:The role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in HBV intrauterine infection is not fully defined. Particularly the origin of PBMCs in HBV-infected neonates remains to be addressed. We carried out a population-based nested case-control study by enrolling 312 HBsAg-positive mothers and their babies. PBMC HBV DNA as well as serum HBsAg and HBV DNA was tested in cohort entry samples. Totally, 45.5% (142/312) of the newborns were found to be infected with HBV in perinatal transmission. 119 mother-infant pairs were identified to be different in the genetic profile of maternal and fetal PBMCs by AS-PCR and hemi-nested PCR. Among them, 57.1% (68/119) of the maternal PBMCs in index cases were positive for HBV DNA while 83.8% (57/68) of the HBV DNA positive maternal PBMCs passed the placental barrier and entered the fetus. Furthermore, maternal PBMC HBV infection was significantly associated with newborn infants HBV infection. PBMC traffic from mother to fetus resulted in a 9.5-fold increased risk of HBV infection in PBMC HBV DNA positive newborn infants. These data indicate that maternal PBMCs infected with HBV contribute to HBV intrauterine infection of newborn infants via PBMC traffic from mother to fetus.
Project description:The vpr sequences from six human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected mother-infant pairs following perinatal transmission were analyzed. We found that 153 of the 166 clones analyzed from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA samples showed a 92.17% frequency of intact vpr open reading frames. There was a low degree of heterogeneity of vpr genes within mothers, within infants, and between epidemiologically linked mother-infant pairs. The distances between vpr sequences were greater in epidemiologically unlinked individuals than in epidemiologically linked mother-infant pairs. Moreover, the infants' sequences displayed patterns similar to those seen in their mothers. The functional domains essential for Vpr activity, including virion incorporation, nuclear import, and cell cycle arrest and differentiation were highly conserved in most of the sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of 166 mother-infant pairs and 195 other available vpr sequences from HIV databases formed distinct clusters for each mother-infant pair and for other vpr sequences and grouped the six mother-infant pairs' sequences with subtype B sequences. A high degree of conservation of intact and functional vpr supports the notion that vpr plays an important role in HIV-1 infection and replication in mother-infant isolates that are involved in perinatal transmission.
Project description:The extent of nucleotide variation within the HIV-1 env hypervariable domains serves as a marker of virus genotypes within infected individuals and as a means to track transmission of the virus between individuals. We analyzed env V1 and V2 sequences in longitudinal samples from two HIV-1-infected mothers, each with three children infected by maternal transmission of the virus. Sequences in samples that were obtained from two infants at 2 d and 4 wk after birth displayed more variation in V1 and V2 than maternal samples obtained at the same times. Multiple HIV-1 genotypes were identified in each mother. In each family, multiple maternal HIV-1 genotypes were transmitted to the infants. Specific amino acid residues in the hypervariable domains were conserved within sequences from each family producing a family-specific amino acid signature pattern in V1 and V2. Viruses that were highly related to maternal viruses in signature pattern persisted for as long as 4 yr in the older children. Results support a model of transmission involving multiple HIV-1 genotypes with development of genetic variation from differential outgrowth and accumulation of genetic changes within each individual.
Project description:Infants of HIV-positive mothers can acquire HIV infection by various routes, but even in the absence of antiviral treatment, the majority of these infants do not become infected. There is evidence that maternal antibodies provide some protection from infection, but gestational maternal antibodies have not yet been characterized in detail. One of the most studied vertically infected infants is BG505, as the virus from this infant yielded an Envelope protein that was successfully developed as a stable trimer. Here, we isolated and characterized 39 HIV-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) from MG505, the mother of BG505, at a time point just prior to vertical transmission. These nAbs belonged to 21 clonal families and employed a variety of VH genes. Many were specific for the HIV-1 Env V3 loop, and this V3 specificity correlated with measurable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. The isolated nAbs did not recapitulate the full breadth of heterologous or autologous virus neutralization by contemporaneous plasma. Notably, we found that the V3-targeting nAb families neutralized one particular maternal Env variant, even though all tested variants had low V3 sequence diversity and were measurably bound by these nAbs. None of the nAbs neutralized BG505 transmitted virus. Furthermore, the MG505 nAb families were found at relatively low frequencies within the maternal B cell repertoire; all were less than 0.25% of total IgG sequences. Our findings illustrate an example of the diversity of HIV-1 nAbs within one mother, cumulatively resulting in a collection of antibody specificities that can contribute to the transmission bottleneck.IMPORTANCE Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 offers a unique setting in which maternal antibodies both within the mother and passively transferred to the infant are present at the time of viral exposure. Untreated HIV-exposed human infants are infected at a rate of 30 to 40%, meaning that some infants do not get infected despite continued exposure to virus. Since the potential of HIV-specific immune responses to provide protection against HIV is a central goal of HIV vaccine design, understanding the nature of maternal antibodies may provide insights into immune mechanisms of protection. In this study, we isolated and characterized HIV-specific antibodies from the mother of an infant whose transmitted virus has been well studied.