Crystal Structures of the Extracellular Domain from PepT1 and PepT2 Provide Novel Insights into Mammalian Peptide Transport.
ABSTRACT: Mammals obtain nitrogen via the uptake of di- and tri-peptides in the gastrointestinal tract through the action of PepT1 and PepT2, which are members of the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters. PepT1 and PepT2 also play an important role in drug transport in the human body. Recent crystal structures of bacterial homologs revealed a conserved peptide-binding site and mechanism of transport. However, a key structural difference exists between bacterial and mammalian homologs with only the latter containing a large extracellular domain, the function of which is currently unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of the extracellular domain from both PepT1 and PepT2 that reveal two immunoglobulin-like folds connected in tandem, providing structural insight into mammalian peptide transport. Functional and biophysical studies demonstrate that these domains interact with the intestinal protease trypsin, suggesting a role in clustering proteolytic activity to the site of peptide transport in eukaryotic cells.
Project description:PepT1 and PepT2 are major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters that utilize a proton gradient to drive the uptake of di- and tri-peptides in the small intestine and kidney, respectively. They are the major routes by which we absorb dietary nitrogen and many orally administered drugs. Here, we present the crystal structure of PepT(So), a functionally similar prokaryotic homologue of the mammalian peptide transporters from Shewanella oneidensis. This structure, refined using data up to 3.6 Å resolution, reveals a ligand-bound occluded state for the MFS and provides new insights into a general transport mechanism. We have located the peptide-binding site in a central hydrophilic cavity, which occludes a bound ligand from both sides of the membrane. Residues thought to be involved in proton coupling have also been identified near the extracellular gate of the cavity. Based on these findings and associated kinetic data, we propose that PepT(So) represents a sound model system for understanding mammalian peptide transport as catalysed by PepT1 and PepT2.
Project description:Short chain peptides are actively transported across membranes as an efficient route for dietary protein absorption and for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In mammals, peptide transport occurs via PepT1 and PepT2, which belong to the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter, or POT family. The recent crystal structure of a bacterial POT transporter confirmed that they belong to the major facilitator superfamily of secondary active transporters. Despite the functional characterization of POT family members in bacteria, fungi and mammals, a detailed model for peptide recognition and transport remains unavailable. In this study, we report the 3.3-Å resolution crystal structure and functional characterization of a POT family transporter from the bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus. Crystallized in an inward open conformation the structure identifies a hinge-like movement within the C-terminal half of the transporter that facilitates opening of an intracellular gate controlling access to a central peptide-binding site. Our associated functional data support a model for peptide transport that highlights the importance of salt bridge interactions in orchestrating alternating access within the POT family.
Project description:Proton coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) is a member of the peptide transporter superfamily and plays important role in the absorption of oligopeptide and peptidomimetic drugs. Our previous research verified that PEPT1 expressed specifically in human Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and cell lines and showed potential transport activity to be a new candidate of the tumor therapeutic target. In this study, we aim to explore the feasibility of a novel tumor target therapeutic strategy: Targeting PEPT1 to improve the antitumor efficacy of Doxorubicin in human HCC therapy. First, Doxorubicin was conjugated with Glycylglycylglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) - a tripeptide which was known as the substrate of PEPT1 and characterized by HPLC and MS successfully. Doxorubicin-tripeptide conjugate was then observed to clarify the target delivery by PEPT1 and the antitumor effect on human hepatocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the improvement of the toxic and side effect of Doxorubicin after conjugation was also evaluated by some biochemical tests. Our results reveal that targeting PEPT1 may contribute to the efficient delivery of Doxorubicin to hepatocarcinoma cells and the reduction of drug toxicity. PEPT1 has the prospect to be a novel target of HCC therapy.
Project description:A major challenge in drug development is the optimization of intestinal absorption and cellular uptake. A successful strategy has been to develop prodrug molecules, which hijack solute carrier (SLC) transporters for active transport into the body. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, have been successfully targeted using this approach. Peptide transporters display a remarkable capacity to recognize a diverse library of di- and tripeptides, making them extremely promiscuous and major contributors to the pharmacokinetic profile of several important drug classes, including beta-lactam antibiotics and antiviral and antineoplastic agents. Of particular interest has been their ability to recognize amino acid and peptide-based prodrug molecules, thereby providing a rational approach to improving drug transport into the body. However, the structural basis for prodrug recognition has remained elusive. Here we present crystal structures of a prokaryotic homolog of the mammalian transporters in complex with the antiviral prodrug valacyclovir and the peptide-based photodynamic therapy agent, 5-aminolevulinic acid. The valacyclovir structure reveals that prodrug recognition is mediated through both the amino acid scaffold and the ester bond, which is commonly used to link drug molecules to the carrier's physiological ligand, whereas 5-aminolevulinic acid makes far fewer interactions compared with physiological peptides. These structures provide a unique insight into how peptide transporters interact with xenobiotic molecules and provide a template for further prodrug development.
Project description:Oligopeptide transporter 1 (Pept1) is located on the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium and plays an important role in dipeptide and tripeptide absorption from protein digestion. In this study, we cloned and characterized the cDNA sequence of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) from Ctenopharyngodon idella. The expression patterns of JAK2 in various tissues and developmental stages were characterized by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The mRNA expression levels of JAK2 and Pept1 regulated by leptin in the intestine were also analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The cDNA sequence of JAK2 is 3378 bp in length, and the mRNA of JAK2 was broadly expressed in all tissues and embryonic stages of C. idella analyzed. In addition, we found that leptin regulated expression of JAK2 and Pept1 in the intestine; Pept1 expression was down-regulated by the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, luciferase experiments showed that overexpression of the JAK2 gene significantly upregulated the activity of the Pept1 5' regulatory sequence in C. idella. In conclusion, these results may help in elucidating the regulatory effect of the leptin-mediated JAK2 pathway on intestinal Pept1 expression in C. idella and the molecular mechanism of peptide transport by the intestinal transporter Pept1 in fishes.
Project description:In addition to being responsible for the majority of absorption of dietary nitrogen, the mammalian proton-coupled di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 is also recognised as a major route of drug delivery for several important classes of compound, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thus there is considerable interest in the PepT1 protein and especially its substrate binding site. In the absence of a crystal structure, computer modelling has been used to try to understand the relationship between PepT1 3D structure and function. Two basic approaches have been taken: modelling the transporter protein, and modelling the substrate. For the former, computer modelling has evolved from early interpretations of the twelve transmembrane domain structure to more recent homology modelling based on recently crystallised bacterial members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Substrate modelling has involved the proposal of a substrate binding template, to which all substrates must conform and from which the affinity of a substrate can be estimated relatively accurately, and identification of points of potential interaction of the substrate with the protein by developing a pharmacophore model of the substrates. Most recently, these two approaches have moved closer together, with the attempted docking of a substrate library onto a homology model of the human PepT1 protein. This article will review these two approaches in which computers have been applied to peptide transport and suggest how such computer modelling could affect drug design and delivery through PepT1.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) can transport bacterially derived chemotactic peptides and therefore reside at the critical interface of innate immune responses and regulation. However, there is substantial contention regarding how these bacterial peptides access the cytosol to exert their effects and which POTs are involved in facilitating this process. Thus, the current study proposed to determine the (sub)cellular expression and functional activity of POTs in macrophages derived from mouse bone marrow and to evaluate the effect of specific POT deletion on the production of inflammatory cytokines in wild-type, Pept2 knockout and Pht1 knockout mice. We found that PEPT2 and PHT1 were highly expressed and functionally active in mouse macrophages, but PEPT1 was absent. The fluorescent imaging of muramyl dipeptide-rhodamine clearly demonstrated that PEPT2 was expressed on the plasma membrane of macrophages, whereas PHT1 was expressed on endosomal membranes. Moreover, both transporters could significantly influence the effect of bacterially derived peptide ligands on cytokine stimulation, as shown by the reduced responses in Pept2 knockout and Pht1 knockout mice as compared with wild-type animals. Taken as a whole, our results point to PEPT2 (at plasma membranes) and PHT1 (at endosomal membranes) working in concert to optimize the uptake of bacterial ligands into the cytosol of macrophages, thereby enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. This new paradigm offers significant insight into potential drug development strategies along with transporter-targeted therapies for endocrine, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Peptide transport plays an important role in cellular homeostasis as a key route for nitrogen acquisition in mammalian cells. PepT1 and PepT2, the mammalian proton coupled peptide transporters (POTs), function to assimilate and retain diet-derived peptides and play important roles in drug pharmacokinetics. A key characteristic of the POT family is the mechanism of peptide selectivity, with members able to recognise and transport >8000 different peptides. In this study, we present thermodynamic evidence that in the bacterial POT family transporter PepTSt, from Streptococcus thermophilus, at least two alternative transport mechanisms operate to move peptides into the cell. Whilst tri-peptides are transported with a proton:peptide stoichiometry of 3:1, di-peptides are co-transported with either 4 or 5 protons. This is the first thermodynamic study of proton:peptide stoichiometry in the POT family and reveals that secondary active transporters can evolve different coupling mechanisms to accommodate and transport chemically and physically diverse ligands across the membrane.
Project description:Short-chain peptides are transported across membranes through promiscuous proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs)--a subfamily of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). The human POTs, PEPT1 and PEPT2, are also involved in the absorption of various drugs in the gut as well as transport to target cells. Here, we present a structure of an oligomeric POT transporter from Shewanella oneidensis (PepTSo2), which was crystallized in the inward open conformation in complex with the peptidomimetic alafosfalin. All ligand-binding residues are highly conserved and the structural insights presented here are therefore likely to also apply to human POTs.