Antibiotics in neonatal life increase murine susceptibility to experimental psoriasis.
ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease affecting ?2% of the world's population, but the aetiology remains incompletely understood. Recently, microbiota have been shown to differentially regulate the development of autoimmune diseases, but their influence on psoriasis is incompletely understood. We show here that adult mice treated with antibiotics that target Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria develop ameliorated psoriasiform dermatitis induced by imiquimod, with decreased pro-inflammatory IL-17- and IL-22-producing T cells. Surprisingly, mice treated neonatally with these antibiotics develop exacerbated psoriasis induced by imiquimod or recombinant IL-23 injection when challenged as adults, with increased IL-22-producing ??(+) T cells. 16S rRNA gene compositional analysis reveals that neonatal antibiotic-treatment dysregulates gut and skin microbiota in adults, which is associated with increased susceptibility to experimental psoriasis. This link between neonatal antibiotic-mediated imbalance in microbiota and development of experimental psoriasis provides precedence for further investigation of its specific aetiology as it relates to human psoriasis.
Project description:The immunomodulator Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) exerts pleiotropic immunomodulatory activities and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. Expression levels of MIF are also significantly elevated in the skin and serum of psoriasis patients, but the pathogenic significance of MIF in psoriasis is unknown. We have therefore addressed the role of MIF in two mouse models of psoriasis, namely in the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis (IIPD) and the IL-23-induced dermatitis model. Daily treatment with Aldara™ cream, containing imiquimod, markedly increased the abundance of MIF in the skin and generated a cellular skin expression pattern of MIF closely resembling that in human plaque psoriasis. Deficiency in MIF significantly alleviated IIPD. On the clinical level, all hallmarks of psoriasiform dermatitis, including erythema, skin infiltration, and desquamation were reduced in Mif -/- mice. On the histopathological level, MIF deficiency decreased keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammatory cell infiltration, specifically with respect to monocyte-derived cells, and dermal angiogenesis, suggesting that MIF may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasiform dermatitis through several mechanisms. Similarly, MIF deficiency also significantly reduced disease in the IL-23-induced dermatitis model, suggesting that MIF is involved in the pathogenic pathways activated by IL-23 and required to achieve full-blown psoriasiform dermatitis. Collectively, our results lend support to a possible disease-promoting role of MIF in psoriasis, which should be further investigated.
Project description:Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is well known as the most potent vasoconstrictor, and can evoke histamine-independent pruritus. Recently, its involvement in cutaneous inflammation has begun to draw attention. The upregulation of ET-1 expression in the epidermis of human psoriasis patients has been reported. It was also demonstrated that ET-1 can stimulate dendritic cells to induce Th17/1 immune responses. However, the role of the interaction between ET-1 and ET-1 receptors in the pathogenesis of psoriasis remains elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of ET-1 receptor antagonist on imiquimod (IMQ) -induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mouse. Psoriasis-related cytokines such as IL-17A and TNF-? induced ET-1 expression in human keratinocytes. Topical application of selective endothelin A receptor (ETAR) antagonist ambrisentan significantly attenuated the development of IMQ-induced psoriasiform dermatitis and also significantly inhibited the histological inflammation and cytokine expression (TNF-?, IL-12p40, IL-12 p19, and IL-17) in the lesional skin of the mouse model. Furthermore, topical application of ambrisentan suppressed phenotypic and functional activation of dendritic cells in lymph nodes. Our findings indicate that the ET-1 and ETAR axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and is a potential therapeutic target for treating psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and by infiltration of activated Th1 and Th17 cells in the (epi)dermis. By expression microarray, we previously found the GATA3 transcription factor significantly downregulated in lesional psoriatic skin. Since GATA3 serves as a key switch in both epidermal and T helper cell differentiation, we investigated its function in psoriasis. Because psoriatic skin inflammation shares many characteristics of epidermal regeneration during wound healing, we also studied GATA3 expression under such conditions.Psoriatic lesional skin showed decreased GATA3 mRNA and protein expression compared to non-lesional skin. GATA3 expression was also markedly decreased in inflamed skin of mice with a psoriasiform dermatitis induced with imiquimod. Tape-stripping of non-lesional skin of patients with psoriasis, a standardized psoriasis-triggering and skin regeneration-inducing technique, reduced the expression of GATA3. In wounded skin of mice, low GATA3 mRNA and protein expression was detected. Taken together, GATA3 expression is downregulated under regenerative and inflammatory hyperproliferative skin conditions. GATA3 expression could be re-induced by successful narrow-band UVB treatment of both human psoriasis and imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice. The prototypic Th2 cytokine IL-4 was the only cytokine capable of inducing GATA3 in skin explants from healthy donors. Based on these findings we argue that GATA3 serves as a key regulator in psoriatic inflammation, keratinocyte hyperproliferation and skin barrier dysfunction.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte activation is known to play a critical role in psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), an innate immune system sensor, is reported to affect keratinocyte function. We therefore hypothesized that IFI16 promotes psoriasis by modulating keratinocyte activation. In the present study, we cinfirmed that IFI16 was overexpressed in epidermal keratinocytes of psoriasis patients. In addition, psoriasis-related cytokines, including IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-22, induced IFI16 up-regulation in keratinocytes via activation of STAT3 signaling. We also observed that IFI16 activated the TBK1-NF-?B signaling, leading to the production of CXCL10 and CCL20. Importantly, knocking down p204, which is reported as the mouse orthologous of human IFI16, inhibited epidermal hyperplasia in mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. These findings indicate that IFI16 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:The IL-36 family cytokines have emerged as important mediators of dermal inflammation in psoriasis and have been reported to provide a proinflammatory stimulus to a variety of immune and stromal cell subsets in the inflamed skin. However, it remains to be determined which cell type, if any, in the skin plays a predominant role in mediating IL-36 cytokines instructive role in disease. Here, we demonstrate that targeted deletion of Il36r in keratinocytes results in similar levels of protection from psoriasiform inflammation observed in "global" Il36r-deficient mice. Mice with deficiency in IL-36 receptor expression on keratinocytes had significantly decreased expression, comparable with Il36r-deficient mice, of established mediators of psoriatic inflammation, including, IL-17a, IL-23, IL-22, and a loss of chemokine-induced neutrophil and IL-17A-expressing ?? T-cell subset infiltration to the inflamed skin. These data demonstrate that keratinocytes are the primary orchestrating cell in mediating the effects of IL-36-driven dermal inflammation in the imiquimod model of psoriasiform inflammation and shed new light on the cell-specific roles of IL-36 cytokines during psoriatic disease.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 pathway is key for development of skin immunopathology. However, the role of keratinocytes and their crosstalk with immune cells at the onset of disease remains poorly understood. Here, we show that IL-36R-deficient (Il36r-/-) mice were protected from imiquimod-induced expansion of dermal IL-17-producing ?? T cells and psoriasiform dermatitis. Furthermore, IL-36R antagonist-deficient (Il36rn-/-) mice showed exacerbated pathology. TLR7 ligation on DCs induced IL-36-mediated crosstalk with keratinocytes and dermal mesenchymal cells that was crucial for control of the pathological IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis and disease development. Notably, mice lacking IL-23, IL-17, or IL-22 were less well protected from disease compared with Il36r-/- mice, indicating an additional distinct activity of IL-36 beyond induction of the pathological IL-23 axis. Moreover, while the absence of IL-1R1 prevented neutrophil infiltration, it did not protect from acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, demonstrating that neutrophils are dispensable for disease manifestation. These results highlight a central and unique IL-1-independent role for IL-36 in control of the IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 pathway and development of psoriasiform dermatitis.
Project description:Persistent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is believed to be involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is an important negative regulator of MAPK activity, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of MKP-1 in psoriasis development are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of MKP-1 was decreased in the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform mouse skin. MKP-1-deficient (MKP-1-/-) mice were highly susceptible to IMQ-induced skin inflammation, which was associated with increased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. MKP-1 acted on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells to regulate psoriasis pathogenesis. MKP-1 deficiency in macrophages led to enhanced p38 activation and higher expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, CXCL2, and S100a8 upon R848 stimulation. Moreover, MKP-1 deficiency in the non-hematopoietic compartments led to an enhanced IL-22 receptor signaling and higher expression of CXCL1 and CXCL2 upon IMQ treatment. Collectively, our data suggest a critical role for MKP-1 in the regulation of skin inflammation.
Project description:Psoriasis is an autoinflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Topical application of Aldara cream containing the Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 agonist Imiquimod (IMQ) onto patients induces flares of psoriasis. Likewise, in mice IMQ triggers pathological changes closely resembling psoriatic plaque formation. Key cytokines like IL-23 and type-I IFN (IFN-I), both being produced mainly by dendritic cells (DCs), have been implicated in psoriasis. Although plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are the main source of IFN? and thought to initiate disease, conventional DCs (cDCs) appear to maintain the psoriatic lesions. Any role of cDCs during lesion formation remains elusive. Here, we report that selective activation of TLR7 signaling specifically in CD11c(+) DCs was sufficient to induce psoriasiform skin disease in mice. Intriguingly, both pDCs and the IFN-I pathway were dispensable for the development of local skin inflammation. Selective TLR7 triggering of Langerin(+) DCs resulted in attenuated disease, whereas their depletion did not alter the severity of skin lesions. Moreover, after IMQ-painting, IL-23 was exclusively produced by Langerin(neg) DCs in vivo. In conclusion, TLR7-activated Langerin(neg) cDCs trigger psoriatic plaque formation via IL-23-mediated activation of innate IL-17/IL-22-producing lymphocytes, independently of pDCs or IFN-I. These results suggest therapeutic targeting of IL-23 production by cDCs to refine current treatment strategies for psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanism regulating the proliferation of keratinocytes, little is known about the epigenetic factors that control this process. EZH2 and EZH2 mediated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) was previously shown ectopically expressed in carcinoma and mediated proliferation, thereby we sought to clarify the role of EZH2-H3K27me3 in the proliferation of psoriatic keratinocyte. Interestingly, we found that EZH2 and H3K27me3 were both overexpressed in the epidermis of psoriatic lesional skin compared to normal skin. In vitro, the expression of EZH2 and H3K27me3 was stimulated in human keratinocytes treated with mixture of psoriasis-related cytokines pool (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17A, and IL-22). Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferative activity. Results from mRNA microarray analysis suggested that Kallikrein-8 (KLK8) might be the target gene of EZH2 in psoriatic keratinocytes. Overexpression or knockdown KLK8 could partially reverse the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes caused by knockdown or overexpression of EZH2. In vivo, the inhibitor of EZH2, GSK126 could ameliorate the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform lesion. These results suggest that EZH2 might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease dependent on the IL-23/IL-17 axis, a potent inflammatory pathway involved in pathogen clearance and autoimmunity. Several triggers have been proposed as initiators for psoriasis, including alarmins such as adenosine triphosphate. However, the role of alarmins in psoriasis pathogenesis and cutaneous inflammation has not been well addressed. Studies show that signaling through the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) pathway underlies the development of psoriasiform inflammation. In this regard, psoriasiform dermatitis induced by IL-23 is dependent on P2X7R signaling. Furthermore, direct activation of the P2X7R is sufficient to induce a well-characterized psoriasiform dermatitis. Mechanistic studies determined that P2X7R-induced inflammation is largely dependent on the IL-1?/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and neutrophils. In conclusion, this work provides basic mechanistic insight into local inflammatory circuits induced after purinergic P2X7R signaling that are likely involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis.