Deguelin inhibits vasculogenic function of endothelial progenitor cells in tumor progression and metastasis via suppression of focal adhesion.
ABSTRACT: Deguelin is a nature-derived chemopreventive drug. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone-marrow (BM)-derived key components to induce new blood vessels in early tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we determined whether deguelin inhibits EPC function in vitro and in vivo at doses not affecting cancer cell apoptosis. Deguelin significantly reduced the number of EPC colony forming units of BM-derived c-kit+/sca-1+ mononuclear cells (MNCs), proliferation, migration, and adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers, and suppressed incorporation of EPC into tube-like vessel networks when co-cultured with endothelial cells. Deguelin caused cell cycle arrest at G1 without induction of apoptosis in EPC. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, tumor growth, lung metastasis and tumor-induced circulating EPCs were supressed by deguelin treatment (2 mg/kg). In mice tranplanted with GFP-expressing BM-MNCs, deguelin reduced the co-localization of CD31 and GFP, suggesting suppression of BM-derived EPC incoporation into tumor vessels. Interestingly, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-integrin-linked kinase (ILK) activation and actin polymerization were repressed by deguelin. Decreased number of focal adhesions and a depolarized morphology was found in deguelin-treated EPCs. Taken together, our results suggest that the deguelin inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis via EPC suppression and that suppression of focal adhesion by FAK-integrin-ILK-dependent actin remodeling is a key underlying molecular mechanism.
Project description:Tumor angiogenesis is essential for malignant growth and metastasis. Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to angiogenesis-mediated tumor growth. EPC ablation can reduce tumor growth; however, the lack of a marker that can track EPCs from the BM to tumor neovasculature has impeded progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying EPC biology. Here, we report the use of transgenic mouse and lentiviral models to monitor the BM-derived compartment of the tumor stroma; this approach exploits the selectivity of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) for EPCs to track EPCs in the BM, blood, and tumor stroma, as well as mature EPCs. Acute ablation of BM-derived EPCs using Id1-directed delivery of a suicide gene reduced circulating EPCs and yielded significant defects in angiogenesis-mediated tumor growth. Additionally, use of the Id1 proximal promoter to express microRNA-30-based short hairpin RNA inhibited the expression of critical EPC-intrinsic factors, confirming that signaling through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 is required for EPC-mediated tumor biology. By exploiting the selectivity of Id1 gene expression in EPCs, our results establish a strategy to track and target EPCs in vivo, clarifying the significant role that EPCs play in BM-mediated tumor angiogenesis.
Project description:?1 integrin regulates multiple epithelial cell functions by connecting cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). While ?1 integrin-mediated signaling in murine epithelial stem cells is well-studied, its role in human adult epithelial progenitor cells (ePCs) in situ remains to be defined. Using microdissected, organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles (HFs) as a clinically relevant model for studying human ePCs within their natural topobiological habitat, ?1 integrin-mediated signaling in ePC biology was explored by ?1 integrin siRNA silencing, specific ?1 integrin-binding antibodies and pharmacological inhibition of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a key component of the integrin-induced signaling cascade. ?1 integrin knock down reduced keratin 15 (K15) expression as well as the proliferation of outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs). Embedding of HF epithelium into an ECM rich in ?1 integrin ligands that mimic the HF mesenchyme significantly enhanced proliferation and migration of ORSKs, while K15 and CD200 gene and protein expression were inhibited. Employing ECM-embedded ?1 integrin-activating or -inhibiting antibodies allowed to identify functionally distinct human ePC subpopulations in different compartments of the HF epithelium. The ?1 integrin-inhibitory antibody reduced ?1 integrin expression in situ and selectively enhanced proliferation of bulge ePCs, while the ?1 integrin-stimulating antibody decreased hair matrix keratinocyte apoptosis and enhanced transferrin receptor (CD71) immunoreactivity, a marker of transit amplifying cells, but did not affect bulge ePC proliferation. That the putative ILK inhibitor QLT0267 significantly reduced ORSK migration and proliferation and induced massive ORSK apoptosis suggests a key role for ILK in mediating the ß1 integrin effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ePCs in human HFs require ?1 integrin-mediated signaling for survival, adhesion, and migration, and that different human HF ePC subpopulations differ in their response to ?1 integrin signaling. These insights may be exploited for cell-based regenerative medicine strategies that employ human HF-derived ePCs.
Project description:Aneurysm embolization with coil is now widely used clinically. However, the recurrence of aneurysms after embolization has always plagued neurosurgeons because the endothelial layer of the aneurysm neck loses its integrity after being embolized by coil. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) could be incorporated into injured endothelium and differentiate into mature endothelial cells during vascular repairing processes. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of BM-EPCs on aneurysm repairing and remodeling in a rat embolization model of abdominal aortic aneurysm. BM-EPC proliferation, migration and tube formation were not affected by super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) labeling compared to the controls (p>0.05). The number of SPIO-labeled cells greatly increased in EPC transplanted rats compared to that of phosphate buffered saline treated rats. SPIO-labeled EPC (SPIO-EPC) are mainly located in the aneurysm neck and surrounded by fibrous tissue. A histology study showed that the aneurysm orifice was closed with neointima and the aneurysm was filled with newly formed fibrous tissue. The SPIO-EPC accumulated in the aneurysm neck, which accelerated focal fibrous tissue remodeling, suggesting that BM-EPCs play a crucial role in repairing and remodeling the aneurysm neck orifice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cilostazol(CLZ) has been used as a vasodilating anti-platelet drug clinically and demonstrated to inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and effect on endothelial cells. However, the effect of CLZ on re-endothelialization including bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) contribution is unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that CLZ might accelerate re-endothelialization with EPCs.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Balloon carotid denudation was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. CLZ group was given CLZ mixed feed from 2 weeks before carotid injury. Control group was fed normal diet. CLZ accelerated re-endothelialization at 2 weeks after surgery and resulted in a significant reduction of neointima formation 4 weeks after surgery compared with that in control group. CLZ also increased the number of circulating EPCs throughout the time course. We examined the contribution of BM-derived EPCs to re-endothelialization by BM transplantation from Tie2/lacZ mice to nude rats. The number of Tie2-regulated X-gal positive cells on injured arterial luminal surface was increased at 2 weeks after surgery in CLZ group compared with that in control group. In vitro, CLZ enhanced proliferation, adhesion and migration activity, and differentiation with mRNA upregulation of adhesion molecule integrin ?v?3, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and growth factor VEGF assessed by real-time RT-PCR in rat BM-derived cultured EPCs. In addition, CLZ markedly increased the expression of SDF-1? that is a ligand of CXCR4 receptor in EPCs, in the media following vascular injury.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>CLZ promotes EPC mobilization from BM and EPC recruitment to sites of arterial injury, and thereby inhibited neointima formation with acceleration of re-endothelialization with EPCs as well as pre-existing endothelial cells in a rat carotid balloon injury model. CLZ could be not only an anti-platelet agent but also a promising tool for endothelial regeneration, which is a key event for preventing atherosclerosis or restenosis after vascular intervention.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are essential in vasculogenesis and wound healing, but their circulating and wound level numbers are decreased in diabetes. This study aimed to determine mechanisms responsible for the diabetic defect in circulating and wound EPCs. Since mobilization of BM EPCs occurs via eNOS activation, we hypothesized that eNOS activation is impaired in diabetes, which results in reduced EPC mobilization. Since hyperoxia activates NOS in other tissues, we investigated whether hyperoxia restores EPC mobilization in diabetic mice through BM NOS activation. Additionally, we studied the hypothesis that impaired EPC homing in diabetes is due to decreased wound level stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), a chemokine that mediates EPC recruitment in ischemia. Diabetic mice showed impaired phosphorylation of BM eNOS, decreased circulating EPCs, and diminished SDF-1alpha expression in cutaneous wounds. Hyperoxia increased BM NO and circulating EPCs, effects inhibited by the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester. Administration of SDF-1alpha into wounds reversed the EPC homing impairment and, with hyperoxia, synergistically enhanced EPC mobilization, homing, and wound healing. Thus, hyperoxia reversed the diabetic defect in EPC mobilization, and SDF-1alpha reversed the diabetic defect in EPC homing. The targets identified, which we believe to be novel, can significantly advance the field of diabetic wound healing.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a group of heterogeneous cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood. Ischaemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that regulates EPC number and function. The present study was conducted to determine if ischaemia-induced ROS differentially regulated individual EPC subpopulations using a mouse model concomitantly overexpressing superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3 and glutathione peroxidase. Limb ischaemia was induced by femoral artery ligation in male transgenic mice with their wild-type littermate as control. BM and blood cells were collected for EPCs analysis and mononuclear cell intracellular ROS production, apoptosis and proliferation at baseline, day 3 and day 21 after ischaemia. Cells positive for c-Kit+ /CD31+ or Sca-1+ /Flk-1+ or CD34+ /CD133+ or CD34+ /Flk-1+ were identified as EPCs. ischaemia significantly increased ROS production and cell apoptosis and decreased proliferation of circulating and BM mononuclear cells and increased BM and circulating EPCs levels. Overexpression of triple antioxidant enzymes effectively prevented ischaemia-induced ROS production with significantly decreased cell apoptosis and preserved proliferation and significantly increased circulating EPCs level without significant changes in BM EPC populations, associated with enhanced recovery of blood flow and function of the ischemic limb. These data suggested that ischaemia-induced ROS was differentially involved in the regulation of circulating EPC population.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the angiogenicity of a combination of BM-EPCs and BM-MSCs in vitro in the presence of SP and its working mechanism.BM-MSCs and BM-EPCs were cocultured with or without SP. ELISA and RT-PCR were performed to detect angiogenic factors such as VEGF and PDGF-BB. N-cadherin was detected by Western blot analysis. The tubular network-forming ability was evaluated by a Matrigel tube-forming assay.BM-EPCs coculture with BM-MSCs strongly stimulated the recruitment of BM-MSCs onto the BM-EPC-generated endothelial tubular network. Upon SP treatment, endothelial branching point, tubule length, and tubular recruitment of BM-MSCs were further increased and stabilized. The coculture of BM-EPCs and BM-MSCs synergistically stimulated expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor, N-cadherin, and PDGF-BB, all of which were further enhanced by SP treatment. Blockade of PDGF-BB by its functional blocking antibodies markedly reduced the BM-MSC incorporation into the endothelial tubules. SP-pretreated BM-MSCs were preferentially incorporated into the preformed BM-EPC tubular network.BM-EPCs along with SP promote the pericyte-like coverage of BM-MSCs on endothelial tubules possibly through the induction of PDGF-BB.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and other potent proangiogenic factors. During angiogenesis, an increase in VEGF-A expression stimulates BM-EPCs to enhance endothelial tube formation and contribute to an increase in microvessel density. Hypoxia is known to produce an enhanced angiogenic response and heightened levels of VEGF-A have been seen in oxygen deprived epithelial and endothelial cells, yet the pathways for VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs have not been described. This study explores the influence of hypoxia on VEGF-A signaling in rat BM-EPCs utilizing a novel proteomic strategy to directly identify interacting downstream components of the combined VEGF receptor(s) signaling pathways, gene expression analysis, and functional phenotyping. VEGF-A signaling network analysis following liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry revealed proteins related to inositol/calcium signaling, nitric oxide signaling, cell survival, cell migration, and inflammatory responses. Alterations in BM-EPC expression of common angiogenic genes and tube formation in response to VEGF-A during hypoxia were measured and combined with the proteomic analysis to enhance and support the signaling pathways detected. BM-EPC tube formation assays in response to VEGF-A exhibited little tube formation; however, a cell projection/migratory phenotype supported the signaling data. Additionally, a novel assay measuring BM-EPC incorporation into preformed endothelial cell tubes indicated a significant increase of incorporated BM-EPCs after pretreatment with VEGF-A during hypoxia. This study verifies known VEGF-A pathway components and reveals several unidentified mechanisms of VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs during hypoxia that may be important for migration to sites of vascular regeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), in particular late EPCs, play important roles in endothelial maintenance and repair. Recent evidence has revealed shear stress as a key regulator for EPC differentiation. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the shear stress-induced EPC differentiation have not been understood completely. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of shear stress on the late EPC differentiation, and to elucidate the signal mechanism involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that cytoskeletal remodeling was involved in the shear stress-upregulated expression of endothelial markers vWF and CD31 in late EPCs, with subsequently increased in vivo reendothelialization after arterial injury. Moreover, shear stress activated several mechanosensitive molecules including integrin ?1, Ras, ERK1/2, paxillin and FAK, which were all involved in both cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell differentiation in response to shear stress in late EPCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shear stress is a key regulator for late EPC differentiation into endothelial cells, which is important for vascular repair, and the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by the activation of the cascade of integrin ?1, Ras, ERK1/2, paxillin and FAK is crucial in this process.
Project description:Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes serious blindness because of the vasculopathy that results from the abnormal oxygen dynamics. However, the systemic kinetics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-derived EPCs) during the "postnatal vasculogenesis " of ROP has yet to be elucidated. Thus, the authors investigated the kinetics of BM-derived EPCs using a murine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model.OIR was induced in C57BL/6J mice by continual aeration with 75% oxygen from postnatal day (P) 7 to P12 that afterward returned to normal room air.The frequency of circulating EPCs (Sca-1(+)/c-Kit(+) cells in blood) in an OIR model estimated by FACS decreased immediately after the hyperoxic phase (P12) and then increased at the hypoxic phase (P17) compared with control. Further, EPC colony-forming assay of BM-Lin(-)/Sca-1(+) (BM-LS) cells exhibited a conversion from the predominant primitive EPC colony production at P12 to the definitive EPC colony at P17. In the OIR retinas of BM-transplanted mice with BM-LS cells of EGFP transgenic mice, there was less incorporation of GFP(+) cells into vascular structures at P12, whereas there was a drastic recruitment into the "tufts " and for the intact vasculature at P17. Moreover, the definitive EPC colony cells intravitreally injected into OIR significantly abrogated pathologic versus primitive vascular growth.Taken together, these findings propose that the deviation of functional bioactivities of BM-derived EPCs contributing to intact vascular development under the abnormal oxygen dynamics may provide important mechanistic insight into pathologic vascular development in ROP.