Role of PTPN22 and CSK gene polymorphisms as predictors of susceptibility and clinical heterogeneity in patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis).
ABSTRACT: To determine whether the PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22)/CSK (c-src tyrosine kinase) pathway is implicated in the susceptibility and clinical heterogeneity of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in the largest series of Caucasian HSP patients ever assessed for genetic studies.A set of 329 Spanish patients diagnosed with HSP fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and the Michel et al. classification criteria and 515 sex and ethnically matched controls were recruited in this study. Two well-known CSK (CSK rs34933034 and CSK rs1378942) and two functional PTPN22 (PTPN22 rs2476601 (R620W) and PTPN22 rs33996649 (R263Q)) polymorphisms, previously associated with autoimmunity, were genotyped with TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays.No significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between HSP patients and controls were observed when the CSK rs34933034, CSK rs1378942, PTPN22 rs2476601 (R620W) and PTPN22 rs33996649 (R263Q) polymorphisms were analyzed independently. In keeping with this observation, no significant differences were found when we assessed these polymorphisms combined conforming haplotypes. In addition, there were no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies when HSP patients were stratified according the age at disease onset, sex, presence of arthralgia/arthritis, nephritis or gastrointestinal manifestations.Our results do not support association between PTPN22/CSK and HSP.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyse the role of the PTPN22 and CSK genes, previously associated with autoimmunity, in the predisposition and clinical phenotypes of giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS:Our study population was composed of 911 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven GCA and 8136 unaffected controls from a Spanish discovery cohort and three additional independent replication cohorts from Germany, Norway and the UK. Two functional PTPN22 polymorphisms (rs2476601/R620W and rs33996649/R263Q) and two variants of the CSK gene (rs1378942 and rs34933034) were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan assays. RESULTS:The analysis of the discovery cohort provided evidence of association of PTPN22 rs2476601/R620W with GCA (PFDR=1.06E-04, OR=1.62, CI 95% 1.29 to 2.04). The association did not appear to follow a specific GCA subphenotype. No statistically significant differences between allele frequencies for the other PTPN22 and CSK genetic variants were evident either in the case/control or in stratified case analysis. To confirm the detected PTPN22 association, three replication cohorts were genotyped, and a consistent association between the PTPN22 rs2476601/R620W variant and GCA was evident in the overall meta-analysis (PMH=2.00E-06, OR=1.51, CI 95% 1.28 to 1.79). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the PTPN22 polymorphism rs2476601/R620W plays an important role in the genetic risk to GCA.
Project description:Several protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been significantly related with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility. Nevertheless, its potential influence on PTPN22 expression in RA has not been completely elucidated. Furthermore, PTPN22 binds to C-Src tyrosine kinase (CSK) forming a key complex in autoimmunity. However, the information of CSK gene in RA is scarce. In this study, we analyzed the relative PTPN22 and CSK expression in peripheral blood from 89 RA patients and 43 controls to determine if the most relevant PTPN22 (rs2488457, rs2476601 and rs33996649) and CSK (rs34933034 and rs1378942) polymorphisms may influence on PTPN22 and CSK expression in RA. The association between PTPN22 and CSK expression in RA patients and their clinical characteristics was also evaluated. Our study shows for the first time a marked down-regulation of PTPN22 expression in RA patients carrying the risk alleles of PTPN22 rs2488457 and rs2476601 compared to controls (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.007, respectively). Furthermore, CSK expression was significantly lower in RA patients than in controls (p?<?0.0001). Interestingly, a reduced PTPN22 expression was disclosed in RA patients with ischemic heart disease (p?=?0.009). The transcriptional suppression of this PTPN22/CSK complex may have a noteworthy clinical relevance in RA patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the PTPN22 gene (rs24746601 and rs33996649) have been associated with autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the R263Q SNP for the first time and to re-evaluate the role of the R620W SNP in the genetic predisposition to systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. METHODS:3422 SSc patients (2020 with limited cutaneous SSc and 1208 with diffuse cutaneous SSc) and 3638 healthy controls of Caucasian ancestry from an initial case--control set of Spain and seven additional independent replication cohorts were included in our study. Both rs33996649 and rs2476601 PTPN22 polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A meta-analysis was performed to test the overall effect of these PTPN22 polymorphisms in SSc. RESULTS:The meta-analysis revealed evidence of association of the rs2476601 T allele with SSc susceptibility (p(FDRcorrected)=0.03 pooled, OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28). In addition, the rs2476601 T allele was significantly associated with anticentromere-positive status (p(FDRcorrected)=0.02 pooled, OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.42). Although the rs33996649 A allele was significantly associated with SSc in the Spanish population (p(FDRcorrected)=0.04, OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.92), this association was not confirmed in the meta-analysis (p=0.36 pooled, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.1). CONCLUSION:The study suggests that the PTPN22 R620W polymorphism influences SSc genetic susceptibility but the novel R263Q genetic variant does not. These data strengthen evidence that the R620W mutation is a common risk factor in autoimmune diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Endogenous uveitis is a major cause of visual loss mediated by the immune system. The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes a lymphoid-specific phosphatase that plays a key role in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Two independent functional missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the PTPN22 gene (R263Q and R620W) have been associated with different autoimmune disorders. We aimed to analyze for the first time the influence of these PTPN22 genetic variants on endogenous non-anterior uveitis susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 217 patients with endogenous non-anterior uveitis and 718 healthy controls from a Spanish population. The PTPN22 polymorphisms (rs33996649 and rs2476601) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The allele, genotype, carriers, and allelic combination frequencies were compared between cases and controls with ?(2) analysis or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Our results showed no influence of the studied SNPs in the global susceptibility analysis (rs33996649: allelic P- value=0.92, odds ratio=0.97, 95% confidence interval=0.54-1.75; rs2476601: allelic P- value=0.86, odds ratio=1.04, 95% confidence interval=0.68-1.59). Similarly, the allelic combination analysis did not provide additional information. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the studied polymorphisms of the PTPN22 gene do not play an important role in the pathophysiology of endogenous non-anterior uveitis.
Project description:To investigate the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene and additional gene- gene and gene- type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) interaction with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) risk in Chinese Uygur population.A total of 722 participants (186 males, 536 females) were selected, including 360 PTB patients and 362 control participants. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to screen the best interaction combination among SNPs and T2DM. Logistic regression was performed to investigate association between 3 SNPs within PTPN22 gene, additional gene- gene and gene- T2DM interaction on PTB risk.Logistic regression analysis showed that PTB risk was significantly lower in carriers with rs2476601- CT genotype than those with CC genotype (CT versus CC), adjusted OR (95%CI) =0.42 (0.17-0.83), and higher in carriers with the rs33996649- GA genotype than those with GG genotype (GA versus GG), adjusted OR (95%CI) = 5.66 (2.24-9.47). We found a significant two-locus model (p=0.0010) involving rs33996649 and T2DM. Overall, the cross-validation consistency of this two- locus model was 10/ 10, and the testing accuracy was 60.11%. We also conducted stratified analysis for rs33996649 and T2DM using logistic regression. We found that T2DM patients with rs33996649 - GA genotype have the highest PTB risk, compared to non- T2DM patients with rs33996649- GG genotype, OR (95%CI) = 4.52 (2.71 -6.43), after covariates adjustment.We found that the T allele of rs2476601 and the A allele of rs33996649within PTPN22 gene, interaction between rs2476601 and T2DM were all associated with increased PTB risk.
Project description:To investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the PTPN22 gene region in a UK cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to look for evidence of disease associations independent of the well-characterised R620W variant (rs2476601).951 RA cases in the UK satisfying American Rheumatism Association (ARA) criteria and 448 population controls were genotyped for 11 SNPs across the PTPN22 gene region using the Sequenom MassArray MassEXTEND technology. Allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies of cases and controls were compared.In addition to the R620W (rs2476601) SNP, three SNPs were associated with RA in this study. The sole haplotype on which the associated T allele of R620W occurred was associated with RA; no other haplotypes showed a significant difference in frequencies between RA cases and controls.In contrast with a study of American patients with RA no evidence of association with PTPN22 independent of the well-characterised R620W variant was found, suggesting that in these patients this variant alone explains the association with the PTPN22 gene.
Project description:The hematopoietic-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) is encoded by a major autoimmunity risk gene. PTPN22 inhibits T cell activation by dephosphorylating substrates involved in proximal T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Here, we found by mass spectrometry that PTPN22 was phosphorylated at Ser751 by PKC? in Jurkat and primary human T cells activated with phorbol ester/ionomycin or antibodies against CD3/CD28. The phosphorylation of PTPN22 at Ser751 prolonged its half-life by inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitination and impairing recruitment of the phosphatase to the plasma membrane, which is necessary to inhibit proximal TCR signaling. Additionally, the phosphorylation of PTPN22 at Ser751 enhanced the interaction of PTPN22 with the carboxyl-terminal Src kinase (CSK), an interaction that is impaired by the PTPN22 R620W variant associated with autoimmune disease. The phosphorylation of Ser751 did not affect the recruitment of PTPN22 R620W to the plasma membrane but protected this mutant from degradation. Together, out data indicate that phosphorylation at Ser751 mediates a reciprocal regulation of PTPN22 stability versus translocation to TCR signaling complexes by CSK-dependent and CSK-independent mechanisms.
Project description:To examine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 gene (PTPN22) and to study the relationship between PTPN22 and the HLA region in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs).PTPN22 SNPs were assessed in a large, cross-sectional, case-control study from the UK involving patients with adult or juvenile IIM, comprising patients with polymyositis (PM) (n=114), dermatomyositis (DM) (n=102), myositis associated with another connective tissue disease (myositis-CTD overlap syndrome) (n=64), or juvenile DM (n=101), in comparison with 748 control subjects. Seventeen PTPN22 SNPs were genotyped using the Sequenom MassArray iPLEX platform. Serotyping for myositis-specific/myositis-associated autoantibodies (MSAs/MAAs) was performed by radioimmunoprecipitation.A significant association was noted between the R620W variant (rs2476601) and IIM (corrected P [Pcorr]=0.0009 versus controls), and specifically with the clinical subgroup of PM (Pcorr=0.003 versus controls). A weaker association was noted with juvenile DM (Pcorr=0.009 versus controls). No significant associations were noted after stratification by serologic subgroups. The association with the R620W variant was independent of alleles forming the HLA 8.1 haplotype. No other PTPN22 SNPs were associated with IIM. The PTPN22 haplotype containing the R620W T allele was the only haplotype significantly associated with IIM.The R620W variant is a significant risk factor for IIM, independent of the HLA 8.1 haplotype. Unlike that in the HLA region, risk is not increased in individuals possessing MSAs/MAAs. These results are further evidence that the PTPN22 gene confers autoimmune susceptibility.
Project description:Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is one of the commonest forms of vasculitis in the elderly, and may result in blindness and stroke. The pathogenesis of GCA is not understood, although environmental, infectious and genetic risk factors are implicated. One gene of interest is PTPN22, encoding lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), expressed exclusively in immune cells, which is proposed to be an 'archetypal non-HLA autoimmunity gene'. The minor allele of a functional PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2476601, R620W), which disrupts an interaction motif in the protein, was originally reported to be associated with biopsy-proven GCA in Spanish patients, with supporting data from three replicate Northern European studies. Recently, this observation was extended with additional patients and controls, and studies encompassing European, Scandinavian, UK and American patients. The aim of our study was to determine the association between PTPN22 rs2476601 (R620W) and biopsy-proven GCA in an Australian case cohort.
Project description:A missense C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene recently emerged as a major risk factor for human autoimmunity. PTPN22 encodes the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), which forms a complex with the kinase Csk and is a critical negative regulator of signaling through the T cell receptor. The C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism results in the LYP-R620W variation within the LYP-Csk interaction motif. LYP-W620 exhibits a greatly reduced interaction with Csk and is a gain-of-function inhibitor of signaling. Here we show that LYP constitutively interacts with its substrate Lck in a Csk-dependent manner. T cell receptor-induced phosphorylation of LYP by Lck on an inhibitory tyrosine residue releases tonic inhibition of signaling by LYP. The R620W variation disrupts the interaction between Lck and LYP, leading to reduced phosphorylation of LYP, which ultimately contributes to gain-of-function inhibition of T cell signaling.