Stereo- and regioselective glycosylations to the bis-C-arylglycoside of kidamycin.
ABSTRACT: In explorations toward the total synthesis of the antitumor anthrapyran natural product kidamycin, the regioselective introduction of aminosugars angolosamine and vancosamine as C-arylglycosides has been accomplished onto hydroxylated anthrapyran aglycones. Specifically, the 9,11-dihydroxylated anthrapyran A undergoes sequential glycosylations with angolosamine synthon B and vancosamine synthon C to regio- and stereoselectively afford bis-C-glycoside D corresponding to the C-glycoside pattern of kidamycin.
Project description:A synthetic strategy towards the potent cytostatic agent pluraflavin A has been developed. Formation of the enantioenriched anthrapyran core bearing a halogen atom enabled the introduction of the ??C-aryl glycoside by Stille cross-coupling and subsequent hydrogenation of the aryl glycal. Chemo- and stereoselective O-glycosylations of ??oliose and ??3-epi vancosamine residues afforded a fully glycosylated aromatic core. Attempts to install the dimethylamino group of the C-disaccharide suggest that introduction of an azide group by displacement and subsequent reduction may pave the way to the total synthesis of pluraflavin A.
Project description:TMSOTf-promoted glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosyl trichloroacetimidates provide excellent alpha-anomeric selectivities when performed at a relatively high reaction temperature in the presence of PhSEt or thiophene. NMR and computation studies have shown that these glycosylations proceed through an equatorial anomeric sulfonium ion, which upon displacement by a sugar alcohol provides an axial glycoside. Computational studies have indicated that steric factors determine the selective formation of the beta-anomeric sulfonium ion.
Project description:A synthesis of the nonreducing end hexasaccharide of saccharomicin B, ?-l-Eva-(1?4)-?-l-Eva-(1?4)-?-l-Dig-(1?4)-?-l-Eva-(1?4)-?-l-Dig-(1?4)-?-d-Fuc, has been developed. Selective glycosylations of l-digitoxose (l-Dig) using AgPF6/TTBP-mediated thioether activation and l-4-e pi-vancosamine (l-Eva) using Tf2O/DTBMP-mediated sulfoxide activation produced the hexasaccharide as a single diastereomer in very good yield. This hexasaccharide is properly functionalized to serve as a glycosyl donor for the total synthesis of saccharomicin B.
Project description:A concise synthesis of a branched trisaccharide, ?-l-Dig-(1 ? 3)-[?-l-Eva-(1 ? 4)]-?-d-Fuc, corresponding to saccharomicin B, has been developed via reagent-controlled ?-selective glycosylations. Starting from the d-fucose acceptor, l- epi-vancosamine was selectively installed using 2,3-bis(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclopropene-1-thione/oxalyl bromide mediated dehydrative glycosylation. Following deprotection, l-digitoxose was installed using the AgPF6/TTBP thioether-activation method to produce the trisaccharide as a single ?-anomer. This highly functionalized trisaccharide can potentially serve as both a donor and an acceptor for the total synthesis of the antibiotic saccharomicin B.
Project description:The glycosylations of hydroxylysine during collagen biosynthesis in isolated chick-embryo tendon cells were studied by using pulse-chase labelling experiments with [14C]-lysine. The hydroxylation of lysine and the glycosylations of hydroxylysine continued after a 5 min pulse label for up to about 10 min during the chase period. These data differ from those obtained previously in isolated chick-embryo cartilage cells, in which, after a similar 5 min pulse label, these reactions continued during the chase period for up to about 20 min. The collagen synthesized by the isolated chick-embryo tendon cells differed markedly from the type I collagen of adult tissues in its degree of hydroxylation of lysine residues and glycosylations of hydroxylysine residues. When the isolated tendon cells were incubated in the presence of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, the degree of glycosylations of hydroxylysine during the first 10 min of the chase period was identical with that in cells incubated without thcarboxylic acid for at least 60 min, whereas no additional glycosylations took place in the control cells after the 10 min time-point. As a consequence, the collagen synthesized in the presence of this compound contained more carbohydrate than did the collagen synthesized by the control cells. Additional experiments indicated that azetidine-2-carboxylic acid did not increase the collagen glycosyltransferase activities in the tendon cells or the rate of glycosylation reactions when added directly to the enzyme incubation mixture. Control experiments with colchicine indicated that the delay in the rate of collagen secretion, which was observed in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, did not in itself affect the degree of glycosylations of collagen. The results thus suggest that the increased glycosylations were due to inhibition of the collagen triple-helix formation, which is known to occur in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
Project description:Higher aminosugars are interesting targets in carbohydrate synthesis since these compounds play important roles in biological systems. However, their availability from natural sources is limited. Thus, in order to investigate their biological function, the development of facile and adaptable routes to this class of compounds is of fundamental importance. Our synthetic route towards these target molecules makes use of readily accessible pentoses and hexoses, which are subjected to indium-mediated two-carbon chain elongation. Subsequent ozonolysis and treatment with base yields ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, which are stereoselectively epoxidized using Jørgenson's protocol. After Wittig chain elongation the obtained allylic epoxides were regio- and stereoselectively opened with trimethylsilyl azide under palladium catalysis. Finally, a suitable deprotection protocol, starting with acidic acetate cleavage and ozonolysis was established. Peracetylation of the products simplifies purification and subsequent azide reduction followed by final deacetylation using methanolic sodium methoxide furnishes the title compounds.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells kill tumor and virus-infected cells using activating NK cell receptors. One of the major NK-activating receptors is NKp46 and its mouse ortholog Ncr1. NKp46/Ncr1 is expressed exclusively on NK cells and on a subset of innate lymphoid cells. NKp46/Ncr1 was shown to be involved in a myriad of pathologies and immunological settings. Specifically, NKp46/Ncr1 was shown to interact with the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein and with an unknown tumor/cellular ligand. NKp46 and Ncr1 are structurally similar; however, they are substantially different in their glycosylation patterns. Although the human NKp46 carries both O- and N-glycosylations that are essential for its activity, the mouse Ncr1 was predicted to have N-linked glycosylations only. Here we discovered using prediction algorithms and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis that Ncr1 carries two putative novel O-glycosylations, one of which (Thr 225) is conserved in NKp46. We next used surface plasmon resonance, biochemical, mutational and functional in vitro and in vivo assays to demonstrate that the putative O-glycosylations of Ncr1 are critical for its function.
Project description:Thiouracil catalyzes stereoselective glycosylations with galactals in loadings as low as 0.1 mol%. It is proposed that in these glycosylations thiouracil, monothiophthalimide, and the previously reported catalyst, Schreiner's thiourea, do not operate via a double H-bonding mechanism but rather by Brønsted acid/base catalysis. In addition to the synthesis of 2-deoxyglycosides and glycoconjugates, we report the first organocatalytic synthesis of 1,1'-linked trehalose-type sugars.
Project description:This work describes the first example of using chiral catalysts to control site-selectivity for the glycosylations of complex polyols such as 6-deoxyerythronolide B and oleandomycin-derived macrolactones. The regiodivergent introduction of sugars at the C3, C5, and C11 positions of macrolactones was achieved by selecting appropriate chiral acids as catalysts or through introduction of stoichiometric boronic acid-based additives. BINOL-based chiral phosphoric acids (CPAs) were used to catalyze highly selective glycosylations at the C5 positions of macrolactones (up to 99:1 rr), whereas the use of SPINOL-based CPAs resulted in selectivity switch and glycosylation of the C3 alcohol (up to 91:9 rr). Additionally, the C11 position of macrolactones was selectively functionalized through traceless protection of the C3/C5 diol with boronic acids prior to glycosylation. Investigation of the reaction mechanism for the CPA-controlled glycosylations revealed the involvement of covalently linked anomeric phosphates rather than oxocarbenium ion pairs as the reactive intermediates.
Project description:Combining triflic acid-promoted glycosylations of trichloroacetimidates with reductive opening of benzylidene acetals with triflic acid and triethylsilane as one-pot procedures provides access to a wide range of disaccharides and 2,4- and 3,4-branched trisaccharides.