Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout.
ABSTRACT: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome by MSU crystals and production of mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is central to acute gouty arthritis. However very little is known about genetic control of the innate immune response involved in acute gouty arthritis. Therefore our aim was to test functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants in the toll-like receptor (TLR)-inflammasome-IL-1β axis for association with gout.1,494 gout cases of European and 863 gout cases of New Zealand (NZ) Polynesian (Māori and Pacific Island) ancestry were included. Gout was diagnosed by the 1977 ARA gout classification criteria. There were 1,030 Polynesian controls and 10,942 European controls including from the publicly-available Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Framingham Heart (FHS) studies. The ten SNPs were either genotyped by Sequenom MassArray or by Affymetrix SNP array or imputed in the ARIC and FHS datasets. Allelic association was done by logistic regression adjusting by age and sex with European and Polynesian data combined by meta-analysis. Sample sets were pooled for multiplicative interaction analysis, which was also adjusted by sample set.Eleven SNPs were tested in the TLR2, CD14, IL1B, CARD8, NLRP3, MYD88, P2RX7, DAPK1 and TNXIP genes. Nominally significant (P < 0.05) associations with gout were detected at CARD8 rs2043211 (OR = 1.12, P = 0.007), IL1B rs1143623 (OR = 1.10, P = 0.020) and CD14 rs2569190 (OR = 1.08; P = 0.036). There was significant multiplicative interaction between CARD8 and IL1B (P = 0.005), with the IL1B risk genotype amplifying the risk effect of CARD8.There is evidence for association of gout with functional variants in CARD8, IL1B and CD14. The gout-associated allele of IL1B increases expression of IL-1β - the multiplicative interaction with CARD8 would be consistent with a synergy of greater inflammasome activity (resulting from reduced CARD8) combined with higher levels of pre-IL-1β expression leading to increased production of mature IL-1β in gout.
Project description:It has been suggested that inflammasome-mediated IL-1? production in monocytic cells is responsible for the acute inflammatory response in gouty arthritis. However, phenotypical and functional analyses of monocytes during gouty arthritis have yet to be conducted. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of monocytes/macrophages in the synovial fluid cells of patients with acute gout. The number and frequency of monocytes/macrophages in the synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) of patients was examined. The expression of markers for monocyte recruitment and tissue-resident macrophages, the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and phagocytosis were analyzed in the monocytes/macrophages of patients with acute gout attacks. The number and frequency of CD14+CD3-CD19-CD56- monocytes/macrophages was markedly increased in the SFMCs of patients with gout compared to those of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CD14+ cells showed the phenotypes of infiltrated monocytes rather than tissue-resident macrophages, characterized by a high expression of CCR2, MRP8, and MRP14, but a low expression of MERTK and 25F9. These cells had the capacity to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-1? after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides. In addition, anti-inflammatory features, including CD163 expression and IL-10 production from CD14+ cells, were significantly higher in patients with gout than in those with RA. CD14+ cells with phenotype of M2 macrophages had high phagocytic activity for monosodium urate crystals. Thus, our results indicate that monocytes/macrophages from patients with gout have the phenotype of infiltrated monocytes, and these cells consist of different populations characterized by anti-inflammatory activities as well as pro-inflammatory functions.
Project description:Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals can present as acute inflammatory arthritis which is known as an acute CPP crystal arthritis. Although monocytes/macrophages have been shown to play a role in the initiation of crystal-mediated inflammatory responses, differences in their phenotypes between acute CPP crystal arthritis and acute gouty arthritis have not yet been investigated. We examined the immunological characteristics of synovial monocytes/macrophages in patients with acute CPP crystal and acute gouty arthritis. CD14+CD3-CD19-CD56- cell frequencies in synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) were measured. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and markers was determined. The SFMCs were dominated by a population of monocytes/macrophages in acute CPP crystal arthritis similar to that in acute gout. Synovial monocytes/macrophages showed the phenotypes of infiltrated monocytes as shown by expression of CD88, C-C chemokine receptor type 2, myeloid-related protein (MRP)8 and MRP14 but not proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase MER. Comparatively, the CD14+ cells from patients with acute CPP crystal arthritis had similar high levels of IL-1β and TNF-α production but significantly lower expression of IL-10 and M2 marker (CD163). The monocytes/macrophages had the capacity to produce IL-8 in response to CPP crystals. Proinflammatory features were more dominant in monocytes/macrophages during acute CPP crystal arthritis than those during acute gouty arthritis.
Project description:Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever. However, metabolites that impact neutrophil inflammasome remain unknown. Here, we identified that ketogenic diet (KD) increases ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and alleviates urate crystal-induced gout without impairing immune defense against bacterial infection. BHB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome in S100A9 fibril-primed and urate crystal-activated macrophages, which serve to recruit inflammatory neutrophils in joints. Consistent with reduced gouty flares in rats fed a ketogenic diet, BHB blocked IL-1? in neutrophils in a NLRP3-dependent manner in mice and humans irrespective of age. Mechanistically, BHB inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome in neutrophils by reducing priming and assembly steps. Collectively, our studies show that BHB, a known alternate metabolic fuel, is also an anti-inflammatory molecule that may serve as a treatment for gout.
Project description:The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) remains unclear and the NLRP3 inflammasome has been more and more recognized in the progression of many diseases. To investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in MM, we determined the genetic polymorphisms and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (IL-1β, IL-18, CARD8, and NF-κB) in MM patients, and explored their clinical relevance. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship of the NLRP3 inflammasome with Th cells in MM. Our study showed that the CARD8-C10X (rs2043211) AT genotype contributed to the susceptibility of MM. CARD8-C10X TT patients had earlier clinical stage. The WBC count in the three CARD8 genotypes showed an increasing trend (AA<AT<TT). Compared with patients with NF-κB-94 ins/del ATTG ins/ins and ins/del, patients with del/del had the highest myeloma cell ratio. Patients with IL-18 (rs16944) TT had the highest hemoglobin concentration (GG<GT<TT). Furthermore, we found that the genotype of CARD8-C10X (rs2043211) or NF-κB-94 ins/del ATTG was closely related to the frequency of Th1. Therefore, the genetic polymorphisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome associated with Th cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.
Project description:Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in gout amplifies the inflammatory response and mediates further damage. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic effect of OLT1177, an orally active NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor that is safe in humans, in murine acute arthritis models.Zymosan or monosodium urate (MSU) crystals were injected intra-articularly (i.a.) into mouse knee joints to induce reactive or gouty arthritis. Joint swelling, articular cell infiltration, and synovial cytokines were evaluated 25 hours and 4 hours following zymosan or MSU challenge, respectively. OLT1177 was administrated intraperitoneally by oral gavage or in the food by an OLT1177-enriched diet.OLT1177 reduced zymosan-induced joint swelling (p <?0.001), cell influx (p <?0.01), and synovial levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) (p <?0.05), respectively, when compared with vehicle-treated mice. Plasma OLT1177 levels correlated (p <?0.001) dose-dependently with reduction in joint inflammation. Treatment of mice with OLT1177 limited MSU crystal articular inflammation (p?>?0.0001), which was associated with decreased synovial IL-1?, IL-6, myeloperoxidase, and CXCL1 levels (p?<?0.01) compared with vehicle-treated mice. When administrated orally 1 hour after MSU challenge, OLT1177 reduced joint inflammation, processing of IL-1?, and synovial phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase compared with the vehicle group. Mice were fed an OLT1177-enriched diet for 3 weeks and then challenged i.a. with MSU crystals. Joint swelling, synovial IL-1?, and expression of Nlrp3 and Il1b were significantly reduced in synovial tissues in mice fed an OLT1177-enriched diet when compared with the standard diet group.Oral OLT1177 is highly effective in ameliorating reactive as well as gouty arthritis.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in many obesity-associated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and gouty arthritis, through its ability to induce interleukin (IL)-1β release. The molecular link between obesity and inflammasome activation is still unclear, but free fatty acids have been proposed as one triggering event. Here we reported opposite effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) compared with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages. Palmitate and stearate, both SFAs, triggered IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1/ASC/NLRP3-dependent pathway. Unlike SFAs, the UFAs oleate and linoleate did not lead to IL-1β secretion. In addition, they totally prevented the IL-1β release induced by SFAs and, with less efficiency, by a broad range of NLRP3 inducers, including nigericin, alum, and monosodium urate. UFAs did not affect the transcriptional effect of SFAs, suggesting a specific effect on the NLRP3 activation. These results provide a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of UFAs by preventing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1β processing. By this way, UFAs might play a protective role in NLRP3-associated diseases.
Project description:Activating germline mutations in the human inflammasome sensor NLRP1 causes palmoplantar dyskeratosis and susceptibility to Mendelian autoinflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cytosolic serine dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 suppress inflammasome activation upstream of NLRP1 and CARD8 in human keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of DPP8/DPP9 protease activity was shown to induce pyroptosis in murine C57BL/6 macrophages without eliciting other inflammasome hallmark responses. Here, we show that DPP8/DPP9 inhibition in macrophages that express a Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LeTx)-sensitive Nlrp1b allele triggered significantly accelerated pyroptosis concomitant with caspase-1 maturation, ASC speck assembly, and secretion of mature IL-1β and IL-18. Genetic ablation of ASC prevented DPP8/DPP9 inhibition-induced caspase-1 maturation and partially hampered pyroptosis and inflammasome-dependent cytokine release, whereas deletion of caspase-1 or gasdermin D triggered apoptosis in the absence of IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. In conclusion, blockade of DPP8/DPP9 protease activity triggers rapid pyroptosis and canonical inflammasome hallmarks in primary macrophages that express a LeTx-responsive Nlrp1b allele.
Project description:This article presents data related to our another article entitled, Genotyping and differential expression analysis of inflammasome genes in sporadic malignant melanoma reveal novel contribution of CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in melanoma susceptibility and progression (W.C. Silva, T.M. Oshiro, D.C. Sá, D.D.G.S. Franco, C. Festa Neto, A. Pontillo, 2016) . Data presented here refers to the distribution of selected inflammasome SNPs in a Brazilian case/control cohort. We have identified 4 inflammasome related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for CARD8 (rs6509365); IL1B (rs1143643) and IL18 (rs5744256 and rs1834481) related to melanoma susceptibility/protection. This data can serve as a potential prognostic marker in sporadic malignant melanoma.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex responsible for caspase-1-dependent maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Gain-of-function missense mutations in NLRP3 cause the disease spectrum known as the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). In this study, we generated Nlrp3-knockin mice on various KO backgrounds including Il1b/Il18-, caspase-1-, caspase-11- (Casp1/11-), and Tnf-deficient strains. The Nlrp3L351P Il1b-/- Il18-/- mutant mice survived and grew normally until adulthood and, at 6 months of age, exhibited marked splenomegaly and leukophilia. Injection of these mice with low-dose LPS resulted in elevated serum TNF levels compared with Nlrp3L351P Casp1/11-/- mice and Il1b-/- Il18-/- littermates. Treatment of Nlrp3A350V mice with the TNF inhibitor etanercept resulted in all pups surviving to adulthood, with normal body and spleen/body weight ratios. Nlrp3A350V Tnf-/- mice showed a similar phenotypic rescue, with marked reductions in serum IL-1β and IL-18, reduced myeloid inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and spleen, and substantial decreases in splenic mRNA expression of both inflammasome components (Nlrp3, Pycard, pro-Casp1) and pro-cytokines (Il1b, Il18). Likewise, we observed a reduction in the expression of both pro-Casp1 and pro-Il1b in cultured Nlrp3A350V Tnf-/- BM-derived DCs. Our data show that TNF is an important transcriptional regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome components in murine inflammasomopathies. Moreover, these results may have therapeutic implications for CAPS patients with partial responses to IL-1-targeted therapies.
Project description:Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricemia and the deposition of Monosodium Urate (MSU) crystals. It is also considered as a complex disorder in which multiple genetic factors have been identified in association with its susceptibility and/or clinical outcomes. Major genes that were associated with gout include URAT1, GLUT9, OAT4, NPT1 (SLC17A1), NPT4 (SLC17A3), NPT5 (SLC17A4), MCT9, ABCG2, ABCC4, KCNQ1, PDZK1, NIPAL1, IL1?, IL-8, IL-12B, IL-23R, TNFA, MCP-1/CCL2, NLRP3, PPARGC1B, TLR4, CD14, CARD8, P2X7R, EGF, A1CF, HNF4G and TRIM46, LRP2, GKRP, ADRB3, ADH1B, ALDH2, COMT, MAOA, PRKG2, WDR1, ALPK1, CARMIL (LRRC16A), RFX3, BCAS3, CNIH-2, FAM35A and MYL2-CUX2. The proteins encoded by these genes mainly function in urate transport, inflammation, innate immunity and metabolism. Understanding the functions of gout-associated genes will provide important insights into future studies to explore the pathogenesis of gout, as well as to develop targeted therapies for gout.