Experimental Realization of a Quantum Pentagonal Lattice.
ABSTRACT: Geometric frustration, in which competing interactions give rise to degenerate ground states, potentially induces various exotic quantum phenomena in magnetic materials. Minimal models comprising triangular units, such as triangular and Kagome lattices, have been investigated for decades to realize novel quantum phases, such as quantum spin liquid. A pentagon is the second-minimal elementary unit for geometric frustration. The realization of such systems is expected to provide a distinct platform for studying frustrated magnetism. Here, we present a spin-1/2 quantum pentagonal lattice in the new organic radical crystal ?-2,6-Cl2-V [=?-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl]. Its unique molecular arrangement allows the formation of a partially corner-shared pentagonal lattice (PCPL). We find a clear 1/3 magnetization plateau and an anomalous change in magnetization in the vicinity of the saturation field, which originate from frustrated interactions in the PCPL.
Project description:Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66?mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.
Project description:When spins are arranged in a lattice of triangular motif, the phenomenon of frustration leads to numerous energetically equivalent ground states, and results in exotic states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Here we report an alternative situation: a system, classically a liquid, freezes in the clean limit into a glassy state induced by quantum fluctuations. We call such glassy state a spin jam. The case in point is a frustrated magnet, where spins are arranged in a triangular network of bipyramids. Quantum corrections break the classical degeneracy into a set of aperiodic spin configurations forming local minima in a rugged energy landscape. This is established by mapping the problem into tiling with hexagonal tiles. The number of tessellations scales with the boundary length rather than its volume, showing the absence of local zero-energy modes. Low-temperature thermodynamics is discussed to compare it with other glassy materials.
Project description:Amplitude modes arising from symmetry breaking in materials are of broad interest in condensed matter physics. These modes reflect an oscillation in the amplitude of a complex order parameter, yet are typically unstable and decay into oscillations of the order parameter's phase. This renders stable amplitude modes rare, and exotic effects in quantum antiferromagnets have historically provided a realm for their detection. Here we report an alternate route to realizing amplitude modes in magnetic materials by demonstrating that an antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional anisotropic triangular lattice (?-Na0.9MnO2) exhibits a long-lived, coherent oscillation of its staggered magnetization field. Our results show that geometric frustration of Heisenberg spins with uniaxial single-ion anisotropy can renormalize the interactions of a dense two-dimensional network of moments into largely decoupled, one-dimensional chains that manifest a longitudinally polarized-bound state. This bound state is driven by the Ising-like anisotropy inherent to the Mn3+ ions of this compound.
Project description:A spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (TLHAF) is a prototypical frustrated quantum magnet, which exhibits remarkable quantum many-body effects that arise from the synergy between spin frustration and quantum fluctuation. The ground-state properties of a spin-1/2 TLHAF are theoretically well understood. However, the theoretical consensus regarding the magnetic excitations is limited. The experimental study of the magnetic excitations in spin-1/2 TLHAFs has also been limited. Here we show the structure of magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 TLHAF Ba3CoSb2O9 investigated by inelastic neutron scattering. Significantly different from theoretical expectations, the excitation spectrum has a three-stage energy structure. The lowest-energy first stage is composed of dispersion branches of single-magnon excitations. The second and third stages are dispersive continua accompanied by a columnar continuum extending above 10?meV, which is six times larger than the exchange interaction J?=?1.67?meV. Our results indicate the shortcomings of the current theoretical framework.Two-dimensional frustrated magnets are heavily studied because theories predict that quantum effects may lead to the emergence of fractionalized excitations. Ito et al. use inelastic neutron scattering to show that the excitation spectrum of Ba3CoSb2O9 disagrees with current theoretical expectations.
Project description:Quantum entanglement in magnetic materials is expected to yield a quantum spin liquid (QSL), in which strong quantum fluctuations prevent magnetic ordering even at zero temperature. This topic has been one of the primary focuses of condensed-matter science since Anderson first proposed the resonating valence bond state in a certain spin-1/2 frustrated magnet in 1973. Since then, several candidate materials featuring frustration, such as triangular and kagome lattices, have been reported to exhibit liquid-like behavior. However, the mechanisms that stabilize the liquid-like states have remained elusive. Here, we present a QSL state in a spin-1/2 honeycomb lattice with randomness in the exchange interaction. That is, we successfully introduce randomness into the organic radial-based complex and realize a random-singlet (RS) state (or valence bond glass). All magnetic and thermodynamic experimental results indicate the liquid-like behaviors, which are consistent with those expected in the RS state. Our results suggest that the randomness or inhomogeneity in the actual systems stabilize the RS state and yield liquid-like behavior.
Project description:Geometrical frustration occurs when entities in a system, subject to given lattice constraints, are hindered to simultaneously minimize their local interactions. In magnetism, systems incorporating geometrical frustration are fascinating, as their behavior is not only hard to predict, but also leads to the emergence of exotic states of matter. Here, we provide a first look into an artificial frustrated system, the dipolar trident lattice, where the balance of competing interactions between nearest-neighbor magnetic moments can be directly controlled, thus allowing versatile tuning of geometrical frustration and manipulation of ground state configurations. Our findings not only provide the basis for future studies on the low-temperature physics of the dipolar trident lattice, but also demonstrate how this frustration-by-design concept can deliver magnetically frustrated metamaterials.Artificial magnetic nanostructures enable the study of competing frustrated interactions with more control over the system parameters than is possible in magnetic materials. Farhan et al. present a two-dimensional lattice geometry where the frustration can be controlled by tuning the unit cell parameters.
Project description:Geometric spin frustration in low-dimensional materials, such as the two-dimensional kagome or triangular antiferromagnetic nets, can significantly enhance the change of the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature following a change in the applied magnetic field, that is, the magnetocaloric effect. In principle, an equivalent outcome should also be observable in certain high-symmetry zero-dimensional, that is, molecular, structures with frustrated topologies. Here we report experimental realization of this in a heptametallic gadolinium molecule. Adiabatic demagnetization experiments reach ~200?mK, the first sub-Kelvin cooling with any molecular nanomagnet, and reveal isentropes (the constant entropy paths followed in the temperature-field plane) with a rich structure. The latter is shown to be a direct manifestation of the trigonal antiferromagnetic net structure, allowing study of frustration-enhanced magnetocaloric effects in a finite system.
Project description:The Shastry-Sutherland lattice, one of the simplest systems with geometrical frustration, which has an exact eigenstate by putting singlets on diagonal bonds, can be realized in a group of layered compounds and raises both theoretical and experimental interest. Most of the previous studies on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice are focusing on the Heisenberg model. Here we opt for the Hubbard model to calculate phase diagrams over a wide range of interaction parameters, and show the competing effects of interaction, frustration and temperature. At low temperature, frustration is shown to favor a paramagnetic metallic ground state, while interaction drives the system to an antiferromagnetic insulator phase. Between these two phases, there are an antiferromagnetic metal phase and a paramagnetic insulator phase (which should consist of a small plaquette phase and a dimer phase) resulting from the competition of the frustration and the interaction. Our results may shed light on more exhaustive studies about quantum phase transitions in geometrically frustrated systems.
Project description:The triangular lattice compound TlYbS2 was prepared as large single crystals via a molten flux growth technique using sodium chloride. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility measurements down to 0.4 K indicate a complete absence of long-range magnetic order. Despite this lack of long-range order, short-range antiferromagnetic interactions are evidenced through broad transitions, suggesting frustrated behavior. Variable magnetic field measurements reveal metamagnetic behavior at temperatures ?2 K. Complex low temperature field-tunable magnetic behavior, in addition to no observable long-range order down to 0.4 K, suggest that TlYbS2 is a frustrated magnet and a possible quantum spin liquid candidate.
Project description:A spin-[Formula: see text] lattice Heisenberg Kagome antiferromagnet (KAFM) is a prototypical frustrated quantum magnet, which exhibits exotic quantum spin liquids that evade long-range magnetic order due to the interplay between quantum fluctuation and geometric frustration. So far, the main focus has remained on the ground-state properties; however, the theoretical consensus regarding the magnetic excitations is limited. Here, we study the dynamic spin structure factor (DSSF) of the KAFM by means of the density matrix renormalization group. By comparison with the well-defined magnetically ordered state and the chiral spin liquid sitting nearby in the phase diagram, the KAFM with nearest neighbor interactions shows distinct dynamical responses. The DSSF displays important spectral intensity predominantly in the low-frequency region around the [Formula: see text] point in momentum space and shows a broad spectral distribution in the high-frequency region for momenta along the boundary of the extended Brillouin zone. The excitation continuum identified from momentum- and energy-resolved DSSF signals emergent spinons carrying fractional quantum numbers. These results capture the main observations in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements of herbertsmithite and indicate the spin liquid nature of the ground state. By tracking the DSSF across quantum-phase transition between the chiral spin liquid and the magnetically ordered phase, we identify the condensation of two-spinon bound state driving the quantum-phase transition.