EasyClone 2.0: expanded toolkit of integrative vectors for stable gene expression in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the key cell factories for production of chemicals and active pharmaceuticals. For large-scale fermentations, particularly in biorefinery applications, it is desirable to use stress-tolerant industrial strains. However, such strains are less amenable for metabolic engineering than the standard laboratory strains. To enable easy delivery and overexpression of genes in a wide range of industrial S. cerevisiae strains, we constructed a set of integrative vectors with long homology arms and dominant selection markers. The vectors integrate into previously validated chromosomal locations via double cross-over and result in homogenous stable expression of the integrated genes, as shown for several unrelated industrial strains. Cre-mediated marker rescue is possible for removing markers positioned on different chromosomes. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented vector set for metabolic engineering of industrial yeast, we constructed xylose-utilizing strains overexpressing xylose isomerase, xylose transporter and five genes of the pentose phosphate pathway.
Project description:Background:Engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have significantly improved the prospects of biorefinery by improving the bioconversion yields in lignocellulosic bioethanol production and expanding the product profiles to include advanced biofuels and chemicals. However, the lignocellulosic biorefinery concept has not been fully applied using engineered strains in which either xylose utilization or advanced biofuel/chemical production pathways have been upgraded separately. Specifically, high-performance xylose-fermenting strains have rarely been employed as advanced biofuel and chemical production platforms and require further engineering to expand their product profiles. Results:In this study, we refactored a high-performance xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae that could potentially serve as a platform strain for advanced biofuels and biochemical production. Through combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9-mediated rational and evolutionary engineering, we obtained a newly refactored isomerase-based xylose-fermenting strain, XUSE, that demonstrated efficient conversion of xylose into ethanol with a high yield of 0.43 g/g. In addition, XUSE exhibited the simultaneous fermentation of glucose and xylose with negligible glucose inhibition, indicating the potential of this isomerase-based xylose-utilizing strain for lignocellulosic biorefinery. The genomic and transcriptomic analysis of XUSE revealed beneficial mutations and changes in gene expression that are responsible for the enhanced xylose fermentation performance of XUSE. Conclusions:In this study, we developed a high-performance xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain, XUSE, with high ethanol yield and negligible glucose inhibition. Understanding the genomic and transcriptomic characteristics of XUSE revealed isomerase-based engineering strategies for improved xylose fermentation in S. cerevisiae. With high xylose fermentation performance and room for further engineering, XUSE could serve as a promising platform strain for lignocellulosic biorefinery.
Project description:Background:Lignocellulosic biorefinery offers economical and sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a promising industrial host for biorefinery, has been intensively developed to expand its product profile. However, the sequential and slow conversion of xylose into target products remains one of the main challenges for realizing efficient industrial lignocellulosic biorefinery. Results:In this study, we developed a powerful mixed-sugar co-fermenting strain of S. cerevisiae, XUSEA, with improved xylose conversion capacity during simultaneous glucose/xylose co-fermentation. To reinforce xylose catabolism, the overexpression target in the pentose phosphate pathway was selected using a DNA assembler method and overexpressed increasing xylose consumption and ethanol production by twofold. The performance of the newly engineered strain with improved xylose catabolism was further boosted by elevating fermentation temperature and thus significantly reduced the co-fermentation time by half. Through combined efforts of reinforcing the pathway of xylose catabolism and elevating the fermentation temperature, XUSEA achieved simultaneous co-fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, composed of 39.6 g L-1 glucose and 23.1 g L-1 xylose, within 24 h producing 30.1 g L-1 ethanol with a yield of 0.48 g g-1. Conclusions:Owing to its superior co-fermentation performance and ability for further engineering, XUSEA has potential as a platform in a lignocellulosic biorefinery toward realizing a more economical and sustainable process for large-scale bioethanol production.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It remains a challenge for recombinant S. cerevisiae to convert xylose in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to ethanol. Although industrial diploid strains are more robust compared to laboratory haploid strains, however, industrial diploid S. cerevisiae strains have been less pursued in previous studies. This work aims to construct fast xylose-fermenting yeast using an industrial ethanol-producing diploid S. cerevisiae strain as a host. RESULTS: Fast xylose-fermenting yeast was constructed by genome integration of xylose-utilizing genes and adaptive evolution, including 1) Piromyces XYLA was introduced to enable the host strain to convert xylose to xylulose; 2) endogenous genes (XKS1, RKI1, RPE1, TKL1, and TAL1) were overexpressed to accelerate conversion of xylulose to ethanol; 3) Candida intermedia GXF1, which encodes a xylose transporter, was introduced at the GRE3 locus to improve xylose uptake; 4) aerobic evolution in rich xylose media was carried out to increase growth and xylose consumption rates. The best evolved strain CIBTS0735 consumed 80 g/l glucose and 40 g/l xylose in rich media within 24 hours at an initial OD600 of 1.0 (0.63 g DCW/l) and produced 53 g/l ethanol. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above fermentation performance, we conclude that CIBTS0735 shows great potential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Co-utilization of xylose and glucose from lignocellulosic biomass is an economically feasible bioprocess for chemical production. Many strategies have been implemented for efficiently assimilating xylose which is one of the predominant sugars of lignocellulosic biomass. However, there were few reports about engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for carotenoid production from xylose-glucose mixtures. Herein, we developed a platform for facilitating carotenoid production in S. cerevisiae by fermentation of xylose-glucose mixtures. Firstly, a xylose assimilation pathway with mutant xylose reductase (XYL1m), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and xylulokinase (XK) was constructed for utilizing xylose. Then, introduction of phosphoketolase (PK) pathway, deletion of Pho13 and engineering yeast hexose transporter Gal2 were conducted to improve carotenoid yields. The final strain SC105 produced a 1.6-fold higher production from mixed sugars than that from glucose in flask culture. In fed-batch fermentation with continuous feeding of mixed sugars, carotenoid production represented a 2.6-fold higher. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that S. cerevisiae was engineered to utilize xylose-glucose mixtures for carotenoid production with a considerable high yield. The present study exhibits a promising advantage of xylose-glucose mixtures assimilating strain as an industrial carotenoid producer from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Creating Saccharomyces yeasts capable of efficient fermentation of pentoses such as xylose remains a key challenge in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Metabolic engineering of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains has yielded xylose-fermenting strains, but these strains have not yet achieved industrial viability due largely to xylose fermentation being prohibitively slower than that of glucose. Recently, it has been shown that naturally occurring xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces species exist. Uncovering the genetic architecture of such strains will shed further light on xylose metabolism, suggesting additional engineering approaches or possibly even enabling the development of xylose-fermenting yeasts that are not genetically modified. We previously identified a hybrid yeast strain, the genome of which is largely Saccharomyces uvarum, which has the ability to grow on xylose as the sole carbon source. To circumvent the sterility of this hybrid strain, we developed a novel method to genetically characterize its xylose-utilization phenotype, using a tetraploid intermediate, followed by bulk segregant analysis in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing. We found that this strain's growth in xylose is governed by at least two genetic loci, within which we identified the responsible genes: one locus contains a known xylose-pathway gene, a novel homolog of the aldo-keto reductase gene GRE3, while a second locus contains a homolog of APJ1, which encodes a putative chaperone not previously connected to xylose metabolism. Our work demonstrates that the power of sequencing combined with bulk segregant analysis can also be applied to a nongenetically tractable hybrid strain that contains a complex, polygenic trait, and identifies new avenues for metabolic engineering as well as for construction of nongenetically modified xylose-fermenting strains.
Project description:Creating Saccharomyces yeasts capable of efficient fermentation of pentoses such as xylose remains a key challenge in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Metabolic engineering of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains has yielded xylose-fermenting strains, but these strains have not yet achieved industrial viability due largely to xylose fermentation being prohibitively slower than that of glucose. Recently, it has been shown that naturally occurring xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces species exist. Uncovering the genetic architecture of such strains will shed further light on xylose metabolism, suggesting additional engineering approaches or possibly even the development of xylose-fermenting yeasts that are not genetically modified. We previously identified a hybrid yeast strain, the genome of which is largely Saccharomyces uvarum, which has the ability to grow on xylose as the sole carbon source. Despite the sterility of this hybrid strain, we were able to develop novel methods to genetically characterize its xylose utilization phenotype, using bulk segregant analysis in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing. We found that its growth in xylose is governed by at least two genetic loci: one of the loci maps to a known xylose-pathway gene, a novel allele of the aldo-keto reductase gene GRE3, while a second locus maps to an allele of APJ1, a chaperonin gene not previously connected to xylose metabolism. Our work demonstrates that the power of sequencing combined with bulk segregant analysis can also be applied to a non-genetically-tractable hybrid strain that contains a complex, polygenic trait, and it identifies new avenues for metabolic engineering as well as for construction of non-genetically modified xylose-fermenting strains. Overall design: comparative genomic hybridization by array
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The most advanced strains of xylose-fermenting <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> still utilize xylose far less efficiently than glucose, despite the extensive metabolic and evolutionary engineering applied in their development. Systematic comparison of strains across literature is difficult due to widely varying conditions used for determining key physiological parameters. Here, we evaluate an industrial and a laboratory <i>S. cerevisiae</i> strain, which has the assimilation of xylose via xylitol in common, but differ fundamentally in the history of their adaptive laboratory evolution development, and in the cofactor specificity of the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH).<h4>Results</h4>In xylose and mixed glucose-xylose shaken bottle fermentations, with and without addition of inhibitor-rich wheat straw hydrolyzate, the specific xylose uptake rate of KE6-12.A (0.27-1.08 g g<sub>CDW</sub><sup>-1</sup> h<sup>-1</sup>) was 1.1 to twofold higher than that of IBB10B05 (0.10-0.82 g g<sub>CDW</sub><sup>-1</sup> h<sup>-1</sup>). KE6-12.A further showed a 1.1 to ninefold higher glycerol yield (0.08-0.15 g g<sup>-1</sup>) than IBB10B05 (0.01-0.09 g g<sup>-1</sup>). However, the ethanol yield (0.30-0.40 g g<sup>-1</sup>), xylitol yield (0.08-0.26 g g<sup>-1</sup>), and maximum specific growth rate (0.04-0.27 h<sup>-1</sup>) were in close range for both strains. The robustness of flocculating variants of KE6-12.A (KE-Flow) and IBB10B05 (B-Flow) was analyzed in high-gravity simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation. As in shaken bottles, KE-Flow showed faster xylose conversion and higher glycerol formation than B-Flow, but final ethanol titres (61 g L<sup>-1</sup>) and cell viability were again comparable for both strains.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Individual specific traits, elicited by the engineering strategy, can affect global physiological parameters of <i>S. cerevisiae</i> in different and, sometimes, unpredictable ways. The industrial strain background and prolonged evolution history in KE6-12.A improved the specific xylose uptake rate more substantially than the superior XR, XDH, and xylulokinase activities were able to elicit in IBB10B05. Use of an engineered XR/XDH pathway in IBB10B05 resulted in a lower glycerol rather than a lower xylitol yield. However, the strain development programs were remarkably convergent in terms of the achieved overall strain performance. This highlights the importance of comparative strain evaluation to advance the engineering strategies for next-generation <i>S. cerevisiae</i> strain development.
Project description:Economic bioconversion of plant cell wall hydrolysates into fuels and chemicals has been hampered mainly due to the inability of microorganisms to efficiently co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars, especially glucose and xylose, which are the most abundant sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot metabolize xylose due to a lack of xylose-metabolizing enzymes. We developed a rapid and efficient xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae through rational and inverse metabolic engineering strategies, comprising the optimization of a heterologous xylose-assimilating pathway and evolutionary engineering. Strong and balanced expression levels of the XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes constituting the xylose-assimilating pathway increased ethanol yields and the xylose consumption rates from a mixture of glucose and xylose with little xylitol accumulation. The engineered strain, however, still exhibited a long lag time when metabolizing xylose above 10 g/l as a sole carbon source, defined here as xylose toxicity. Through serial-subcultures on xylose, we isolated evolved strains which exhibited a shorter lag time and improved xylose-fermenting capabilities than the parental strain. Genome sequencing of the evolved strains revealed that mutations in PHO13 causing loss of the Pho13p function are associated with the improved phenotypes of the evolved strains. Crude extracts of a PHO13-overexpressing strain showed a higher phosphatase activity on xylulose-5-phosphate (X-5-P), suggesting that the dephosphorylation of X-5-P by Pho13p might generate a futile cycle with xylulokinase overexpression. While xylose consumption rates by the evolved strains improved substantially as compared to the parental strain, xylose metabolism was interrupted by accumulated acetate. Deletion of ALD6 coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase not only prevented acetate accumulation, but also enabled complete and efficient fermentation of xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and xylose by the evolved strain. These findings provide direct guidance for developing industrial strains to produce cellulosic fuels and chemicals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Xylose transport is one of the bottlenecks in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Xylose consumption by the wild-type strains of xylose-utilizing yeasts occurs once glucose is depleted resulting in a long fermentation process and overall slow and incomplete conversion of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Therefore, the engineering of endogenous transporters for the facilitation of glucose-xylose co-consumption is an important prerequisite for efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, several engineering approaches formerly used for the low-affinity glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were successfully applied for earlier identified transporter Hxt1 in Ogataea polymorpha to improve xylose consumption (engineering involved asparagine substitution to alanine at position 358 and replacement of N-terminal lysine residues predicted to be the target of ubiquitination for arginine residues). Moreover, the modified versions of S. cerevisiae Hxt7 and Gal2 transporters also led to improved xylose fermentation when expressed in O. polymorpha.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The O. polymorpha strains with modified Hxt1 were characterized by simultaneous utilization of both glucose and xylose, in contrast to the wild-type and parental strain with elevated ethanol production from xylose. When the engineered Hxt1 transporter was introduced into constructed earlier advanced ethanol producer form xylose, the resulting strain showed further increase in ethanol accumulation during xylose fermentation. The overexpression of heterologous S. cerevisiae Gal2 had a less profound positive effects on sugars uptake rate, while overexpression of Hxt7 revealed the least impact on sugars consumption.
Project description:Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative capacity pales in comparison with glucose, limiting the economic feasibility of industrial fermentations. To better understand xylose utilization for subsequent microbial engineering, we sequenced the genomes of two xylose-fermenting, beetle-associated fungi, Spathaspora passalidarum and Candida tenuis. To identify genes involved in xylose metabolism, we applied a comparative genomic approach across 14 Ascomycete genomes, mapping phenotypes and genotypes onto the fungal phylogeny, and measured genomic expression across five Hemiascomycete species with different xylose-consumption phenotypes. This approach implicated many genes and processes involved in xylose assimilation. Several of these genes significantly improved xylose utilization when engineered into S. cerevisiae, demonstrating the power of comparative methods in rapidly identifying genes for biomass conversion while reflecting on fungal ecology.