Checking In: A Pilot of a Physician-Delivered Intervention to Increase Parent-Adolescent Communication About Blood Glucose Monitoring.
ABSTRACT: Low-cost, translatable interventions to promote adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are needed. This study evaluated a brief physician-delivered intervention designed to increase parent-adolescent communication about blood glucose monitoring. Thirty adolescent-parent dyads completed baseline questionnaires and received the physician-delivered intervention. Participants completed follow-up questionnaires at 12 weeks; HbA1c and glucometer data were abstracted from medical charts. Parent-reported conflict surrounding diabetes management decreased from pre- to postintervention. Participants who reported adhering to the intervention plan (n = 15) demonstrated an increase in blood glucose monitoring frequency and trends in improved HbA1c and parental diabetes collaboration from pre- to postintervention. Participants and physicians reported overall satisfaction with the program. Results demonstrate initial feasibility as well as a trend toward improvement in diabetes-specific health indicators for parent-adolescent dyads who adhered to program components. Frequent joint review of glucometer data can be a useful strategy to improve type 1 diabetes-related health outcomes and parent-adolescent communication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. METHODS:A two-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted with 359 parent-adolescent dyads, recruited primarily through schools across Australia. Parents and adolescents were assessed at baseline and 3 months later (postintervention). Parents in the intervention condition received PiP, a tailored Web-based parenting intervention designed following Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) principles to target parenting factors associated with adolescents' risk for depression and anxiety problems. PiP comprises a tailored feedback report highlighting each parent's strengths and areas for improvement, followed by a set of interactive modules (up to nine) that is specifically recommended for the parent based on individually identified areas for improvement. Parents in the active-control condition received a standardized package of five Web-based factsheets about adolescent development and well-being. Parents in both conditions received a 5-min weekly call to encourage progress through their allocated program to completion. Both programs were delivered weekly via the trial website. The primary outcome measure at postintervention was parent-reported changes in parenting risk and protective factors, which were measured using the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS). Secondary outcome measures were the adolescent-report PRADAS, the parent- and child-report Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (depressive symptoms), and parent- and child-report Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (anxiety symptoms). RESULTS:Parents in the intervention condition completed a mean of 73.7% of their intended personalized PiP program. A total of 318 parents (88.6%, 318/359) and 308 adolescents (92.8%, 308/332) completed the postintervention assessment. Attrition was handled using mixed model of repeated measures analysis of variance. As hypothesized, we found a significant condition-by-time interaction on the PRADAS, with a medium effect size, Cohen d=0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.79. No significant differences between conditions were found at postintervention on any of the secondary outcome measures, with adolescent depressive (parent-report only) and anxiety (both parent- and adolescent-report) symptoms decreasing significantly from baseline to postintervention in both conditions. CONCLUSIONS:The fully automated PiP intervention showed promising short-term effects on parenting behaviors that are associated with adolescents' risk for depression and anxiety. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether these effects translate into reduced adolescent depression and anxiety problems. The intervention may be useful as a low-cost universal public health program to increase parenting practices believed to benefit adolescents' mental health. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000328572; https://www.anzctr.org.au/ Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx? id=368274 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qgsZ3Aqj).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Management of diabetes in pregnancy is burdensome due to self-glucose monitoring, recording, and reporting demands. Cellular-enabled glucometers provide real-time transmission of glucose values independent of internet access and cell phone data plans. We describe a quality improvement (QI) intervention that introduced cellular-enabled glucometers for use during pregnancies complicated by diabetes. METHODS:Our aim was to improve maternal glucose control in a cohort of insulin-requiring pregnant women enrolled in a telemedicine diabetes program. During initial establishment of a QI program, women were offered cellular-enabled glucometers but could elect to keep their standard meter. The primary outcome evaluated was glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at delivery. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics including initial HbA1c were similar between women using a standard glucometer (n = 45) and those using a cellular-enabled glucometer (n = 72). Women who used a cellular-enabled glucometer had a lower HbA1c at delivery compared to those using a standard glucometer (5.8% vs 6.3%, P = .03). This improvement was particularly notable for women with poor glucose control (defined as HbA1c >6.5%) at initial obstetric visit. Women with poor glucose control who used a cellular-enabled glucose monitor had significantly lower HbA1c at delivery (6.0% vs 6.8%, P = .03) and greater change from initial visit compared to those using a standard glucometer (-2.6% vs -1.4%, P = .02). No statistically significant differences were detected in tracked neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION:For pregnancies complicated by insulin-requiring diabetes, use of cellular-enabled glucometers as part of a perinatal diabetes program improves glucose control at delivery with timely transmission of accurate values throughout gestation.
Project description:It is unclear the role of salient psychosocial variables, such as physical activity (PA) enjoyment and self-efficacy, has on PA within parent-adolescent dyads. The purpose of this study was to examine the interdependent relationships among enjoyment, efficacy, and self-reported PA within parent-adolescent dyads using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The sample consisted of 1854 parent-adolescent dyads enrolled in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study. A panel research organization invited panel members balanced to the US population on sex, Census division, household income and size, and race/ethnicity. Panel members were screened for eligibility and web-based surveys were administered to each selected parent-adolescent dyad. Each individual answered questions pertaining to PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and reported weekly PA using validated questionnaires. Interrelationships among the observed variables were analyzed using APIM via a partially recursive path analysis. There was a significant correlation between parent and adolescent PA (r?=?0.15, p?<?0.001). Psychosocial variables explained more variance in adolescent PA (R2?=?0.252) than parent PA (R2?=?0.037) and the strongest standardized path coefficients were adolescent enjoyment (b?=?0.24; 95%CI: 0.18-0.29; p?<?0.001) and self-efficacy (b?=?0.27; 95%CI: 0.22-0.32; p?<?0.001) predicting adolescent PA. Adolescent- and parent-driven effects (0.7%-6.5%) and actor-driven effects (3.3%-5.7%) explained the majority of the systematic dyadic covariance in self-reported PA. There is a relatively strong association between adolescent enjoyment and self-efficacy with adolescent PA and the relationship between parent and adolescent self-reported PA is partially explained by parent and adolescent psychosocial variables and actor-driven effects within APIM.
Project description:Background:Type 1 diabetes is associated with significant mortality and economic cost. Management of type 1 diabetes involves completing multiple daily adherence behaviors, and many adolescents struggle with self-management and show poor glycemic control. Purpose:The purpose was to conduct an unblinded pilot randomized controlled parallel-group study of a web-delivered multicomponent intervention targeting self-monitoring of blood glucose, working memory, and parent supervision of diabetes care among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Intervention components included high magnitude incentives for adolescents and parents, motivational and cognitive behavioral therapy and working memory training for adolescents, and training in contingency contracting for parents. Methods:Adolescents (N = 114) with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes were screened, and N = 61 were randomized using minimum likelihood allocation to usual care (usual care, N = 31) or to a 25-week/15-session web-delivered intervention (WebRx, N = 30). Results:At the end of treatment, adolescents in WebRx had higher self-monitoring of blood glucose (d = 0.58) (primary outcome), better visual spatial working memory (d = 0.48) and inhibition (d = 0.98), and lower HbA1c (d = 0.45) than those in usual care. WebRx parents reported more frequent review of the adolescent's glucometer (d = 1.30) and reduced family conflict (d = 0.56). Between-condition differences were maintained 6 months later in self-monitoring of blood glucose (d = 0.42), visual spatial working memory (d = 0.76), family conflict (d = 0.50), and HbA1c (d = 0.44). Conclusions:Results showing sustained effects on self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA1c support moving forward with a larger trial to test this innovative web-delivered and multicomponent intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov Number (NCT01722643).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interventions that incorporate behavioral skills training and parental involvement have been effective for promoting weight loss among middle and upper class youth; however, few studies have produced similar weight loss effects in underserved ethnic minority youth. PURPOSE:This study examined whether online program exposure (in both an online tailored intervention and an online health education comparison program) predicted greater retention among African American youth and their parents in the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial. METHODS:Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 125) were randomized to either an online tailored intervention program (n = 63) or an online health education comparison program (n = 62). Paradata including login data were used to determine the number of sessions viewed (0-8) and the number of minutes spent online per session. Study retention, defined as collection of adolescent anthropometric measures at 6 months postintervention, was the outcome. RESULTS:Logistic regression analyses showed a significant effect for login rate on retention (OR = 1.21, 95% CI [1.04, 1.39]). Total number of sessions viewed, child age, child sex, parent age, and parent sex accounted for 11% of the variance in retention at 6 months post- intervention. Participants who were retained spent a significantly greater number of minutes during each session (M = 12.99, SD = 11.63) than participants who were not retained (M = 7.77, SD = 11.19), t(123) = 2.24, p = .027, d = 0.45. CONCLUSIONS:The use of paradata from online interventions is a novel and feasible approach for examining exposure in web-based interventions and program retention in underserved ethnic minority families. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01796067. Registered January 23, 2013.
Project description:Parents can play a vital role in shaping teenagers' sexual attitudes, behavior, and contraceptive use through communication, however, less is known about how to modify parent-adolescent communication among youth with mental health problems. The impact of a family-based sexual risk prevention intervention on both observational and self-report of parent adolescent sexual communication was examined at 12-months among adolescents with mental health problems. Of the 721 parent- adolescent dyads recruited for the study, 167 videotapes of sexual discussions between parents and adolescent were coded for the family-based intervention and 191 videotapes for the active comparison. Longitudinal analyses examined differences between conditions (family-based vs. comparison) in self-reported and observed parent-adolescent sexual discussions and also examined the impact of gender on intervention response. More parent I-statements, healthier parent Body-Language, and fewer adolescent Negative Vocalizations were detected for family-based intervention participants 12 months after participating in the brief intervention (11 hours of total intervention time) relative to those in the comparison condition. Parents in the family-based intervention also self-reported better sexual communication at 12-months. The current study provides supporting evidence that a relatively brief family-based intervention was successful at addressing parent-adolescent sexual communication among a mental health sample.
Project description:AIMS:Adolescent girls with diabetes are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes due to age, risk-taking behavior, poor glycemic control, and lack of knowledge. Our aims were to assess attitudes and behaviors related to reproductive health education (RHE) among diabetes healthcare providers and adolescent girls with diabetes, and to pilot a brief clinic-based RHE intervention. METHODS:We surveyed 29 providers and 50 adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes about RHE experiences, attitudes, and behaviors. We piloted the RHE intervention with 9 adolescent-parent dyads. RESULTS:50% of providers were very uncomfortable discussing pregnancy or contraception. Most (72%) did not proactively initiate RHE; common barriers included insufficient time and subject knowledge. Fewer than 10% recommended long-acting reversible contraceptives. A minority (10%) of adolescents had discussed pregnancy or contraception with a provider. RHE sessions lasted a median of 16 (range 13-24) minutes, and there were promising trends for changes in adolescents' self-efficacy and intentions to use contraception and seek preconception counseling and in their knowledge of reproductive health. CONCLUSION:Adolescent girls with diabetes rarely receive education on pregnancy and contraception due to provider discomfort, limited knowledge, and limited time. RHE using easily-accessible materials with an educator may help address this gap in care.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To test the effect of a culturally tailored, family-centered, short-term behavioral intervention on BMI in Latino-American preschool-aged children. METHODS:In a randomized controlled trial, 54 parent-child dyads were allocated to the intervention and 52 dyads were allocated to an alternative school-readiness program as the control condition. Parent-child dyads were eligible if the parent self-defined Latino, was at least 18 years old, had a 2- to 6-year-old child not currently enrolled in another healthy lifestyle program, had a valid telephone number, and planned on remaining in the city for the next 6 months. The Salud Con La Familia (Health with the Family) program consisted of 12 weekly 90-minute skills-building sessions designed to improve family nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Both programs were conducted in a community recreation center serving an urban neighborhood of mostly Spanish-speaking residents. RESULTS:Forty-two percent of participating preschool-aged children were overweight or obese. Controlling for child age, gender, and baseline BMI, the effect of the treatment condition on postintervention absolute BMI was B = -0.59 (P < .001). The intervention effect seemed to be strongest for obese children. CONCLUSIONS:A skills-building, culturally tailored intervention involving parent-child dyads changed short-term early growth patterns in these Latino-American preschool-aged children. Examining long-term effects would be a prudent next step.
Project description:Family conflict in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to worse disease management (i.e., glycemic control, adherence to treatment regimen) and reduced quality of life. We sought to examine parental risk factors associated with increased levels of diabetes-specific family conflict and to investigate the discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of conflict. Adolescents with T1D and their parents (N = 120 dyads) completed measures of diabetes-specific family conflict. Adolescents also reported on health-related quality of life, and parents reported on demographic information. Clinical data were obtained from adolescents' medical records. Adolescents reported significantly greater levels of conflict than their parents around direct diabetes management tasks (e.g., checking blood sugars) and indirect management tasks (e.g., carrying supplies for high or low blood sugars). Several demographic factors were associated with family conflict, including parental education, marital status, and household income. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of family conflict were significantly associated with diabetes-related outcomes. Specifically, higher quality of life was related to discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of conflict around indirect management tasks. In addition, poorer glycemic control was related to discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of family conflict around direct diabetes management tasks. These results support obtaining both the adolescent and parent report of conflict for unique information regarding family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Objectives: Marshallese are a Pacific Islander community that experience a disproportionate rate of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of an Adapted-Family Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) intervention among Marshallese adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and their family members when delivered in a clinical setting. Methods: Marshallese patients (primary participants) with type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and their family members (n = 10) enrolled in a pilot study deigned to evaluate an Adapted-Family DSME curriculum conducted by community health workers and a certified diabetes educator in a clinical setting. Primary and family participants' health information and biometric data (HbA1c, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index) were collected at preintervention and 12 weeks postintervention. Results: All 10 primary participants and 8 of the family members received all 10 hours of the education intervention. Nine of the 10 primary participants and 8 of the 10 family members completed the pre- and postintervention data collection events. Primary participants demonstrated a mean decrease in HbA1c of 0.7%, from pre- to postintervention, as well as improved blood pressure and cholesterol. Family members demonstrated minor improvements in HbA1c and blood pressure. Conclusions: Results suggest preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of the Adapted-Family DSME in a clinic setting and will inform implementation of a fully powered study.