Comprehensive silencing of target-sharing microRNAs is a mechanism for SIRT1 overexpression in cancer.
ABSTRACT: Overexpression of SIRT1 is frequently observed in various types of cancers, suggesting its potential role in malignancies. However, the molecular basis of how SIRT1 is elevated in cancer is less understood. Here we show that cancer-related SIRT1 overexpression is due to evasion of Sirt1 mRNA from repression by a group of Sirt1-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) that might be robustly silenced in cancer. Our comprehensive library-based screening and subsequent miRNA gene profiling revealed a housekeeping gene-like broad expression pattern and strong CpG island-association of the Sirt1-targeting miRNA genes. This suggests aberrant CpG DNA methylation as the mechanistic background for malignant SIRT1 elevation. Our work also provides an example where epigenetic mechanisms cause the group-wide regulation of miRNAs sharing a common key target.
Project description:Evidence supports a critical role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulation of tissue-specific differentiation and development. Signifying a disruption of these programs, expression profiling has revealed extensive miRNA dysregulation in tumors compared with healthy tissue. The miR-200 family has been established as a key regulator of epithelial phenotype and, as such, is deeply involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes in breast cancer. However, the effects of the miR-200 family on transformation of normal mammary epithelial cells have yet to be fully characterized. By examining a TGF-? driven model of transformation of normal mammary epithelium, we demonstrate that the class III histone deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a proposed oncogene in breast cancer, is overexpressed upon EMT-like transformation and that epigenetic silencing of miR-200a contributes at least in part to the overexpression of SIRT1. We have established the SIRT1 transcript as subject to regulation by miR-200a, through miR-200a targeting of SIRT1 3'-UTR. We also observed SIRT1 and miR-200a participation in a negative feedback regulatory loop. Restoration of miR-200a or the knockdown of SIRT1 prevented transformation of normal mammary epithelial cells evidenced by decreased anchorage-independent growth and decreased cell migration. Finally, we observed SIRT1 overexpression in association with decreased miR-200a in breast cancer patient samples. These observations provide further evidence for a critical tumor suppressive role of the miR-200 family in breast epithelium in addition to identifying a novel regulatory mechanism, which may contribute to SIRT1 up-regulation in breast cancer.
Project description:The role of microRNA in the aberrant autophagy that occurs in pancreatic cancer remains controversial. Because hypoxia is known to induce autophagy, we screened for differentially expressed microRNAs using a miRNA microarray with pancreatic cancer cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that miR-138-5p was among the most downregulated miRNA in hypoxia-stimulated cells, and that overexpression of miR-138-5p substantially reduced expression of autophagy markers. In addition, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses and electron microscopy revealed that miR-138-5p inhibited autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells and blocked serum starvation-induced autophagic flux independently of the typical autophagic signaling pathway. miR-138-5p had no effect on ATG3, ATG5, or ATG7, three primary autophagy-associated genes. Instead, miR-138-5p specifically targeted the SIRT1 3' untranslated region and suppressed autophagy by reducing the level of SIRT1, which acetylates FoxO1 and regulates autophagy via FoxO1/Rab7. SIRT1 or Rab7 knockdown blocked the SIRT1/FoxO1/Rab7 axis and suppressed autophagic inhibition by miR-138-5p. Finally, we found that miR-138-5p inhibited autophagy and tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that miR-138-5p suppresses autophagy in pancreatic cancer by targeting SIRT1.
Project description:SIRT1 is increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of stress responses, replicative senescence, inflammation, metabolism, and aging. SIRT1 expression is regulated transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally, and its enzymatic activity is controlled by NAD+ levels and interacting proteins. We found that SIRT1 protein levels were much higher in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) than in differentiated tissues. miRNAs post-transcriptionally downregulated SIRT1 during mESC differentiation and maintained low levels of SIRT1 expression in differentiated tissues. Specifically, miR-181a and b, miR-9, miR-204, miR-199b, and miR-135a suppressed SIRT1 protein expression. Inhibition of mir-9, the SIRT1-targeting miRNA induced earliest during mESC differentiation, prevented SIRT1 downregulation. Conversely, SIRT1 protein levels were upregulated post-transcriptionally during the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The regulation of SIRT1 protein levels by miRNAs might provide new opportunities for therapeutic tissue-specific modulation of SIRT1 expression and for reprogramming of somatic cells into iPS cells.
Project description:Both SIRT1 and UVA radiation are involved in cellular damage processes such as apoptosis, senescence and ageing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be closely related to UV radiation, as well as to SIRT1. In this study, we investigated the connections among SIRT1, UVA and miRNA in human skin primary fibroblasts. Our results showed that UVA altered the protein level of SIRT1 in a time point-dependent manner. Using miRNA microarray, bioinformatics analysis, we found that knocking down SIRT1 could cause up-regulation of miR-27a-5p and the latter could down-regulate SMAD2, and these results were verified by qRT-PCR or Western blot. Furthermore, UVA radiation (5 J/cm2 ), knocking down SIRT1 or overexpression of miR-27a-5p led to increased expression of MMP1, and decreased expressions of COL1 and BCL2. We also found additive impacts on MMP1, COL1 and BCL2 under the combination of UVA radiation + Sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor), or UVA radiation + miR-27a-5p mimic. SIRT1 activator resveratrol could reverse damage changes caused by UVA radiation. Besides, absent of SIRT1 or overexpression of miR-27a-5p increased cell apoptosis and induced cell arrest in G2/M phase. Taken together, these results demonstrated that UVA could influence a novel SIRT1-miR-27a-5p-SMAD2-MMP1/COL1/BCL2 axis in skin primary fibroblasts, and may provide potential therapeutic targets for UVA-induced skin damage.
Project description:The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 (sir2) is important in epigenetic gene silencing. Inhibition of SIRT1 reactivates silenced genes, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach of targeted reversal of aberrantly silenced genes. In addition, SIRT1 may be involved in the well-known link between obesity, cellular energy balance and cancer. However, a comprehensive study of SIRT1 using human cancer tissue with clinical outcome data is currently lacking, and its prognostic significance is uncertain. Using the database of 485 colorectal cancers in two independent prospective cohort studies, we detected SIRT1 overexpression in 180 (37%) tumors by immunohistochemistry. We examined its relationship to the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), related molecular events, clinical features including body mass index, and patient survival. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1) and eight other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, p14, and WRN) by MethyLight. SIRT1 overexpression was associated with CIMP-high (> or =6 of 8 methylated CIMP-specific promoters, P=0.002) and microsatellite instability (MSI)-high phenotype (P<0.0001). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, SIRT1 overexpression was significantly associated with the CIMP-high MSI-high phenotype (multivariate odds ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-7.59; P=0.008). In addition, mucinous component (P=0.01), high tumor grade (P=0.02), and fatty acid synthase overexpression (P=0.04) were significantly associated with SIRT positivity in multivariate analysis. SIRT1 was not significantly related with age, sex, tumor location, stage, signet ring cells, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), LINE-1 hypomethylation, KRAS, BRAF, BMI, PIK3CA, HDAC, p53, beta-catenin, COX-2, or patient prognosis. In conclusion, SIRT1 expression is associated with CIMP-high MSI-high colon cancer, suggesting involvement of SIRT1 in gene silencing in this unique tumor subtype.
Project description:The class III histone deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumors, including lung cancer; however, its regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we found that an inconsistent trend between SIRT1 protein and mRNA levels in human lung cancer tissues, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism may involved in SIRT1 regulation. Because microRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, candidate miRNAs that could potentially bind SIRT1 were gained through bioinformatics analyses. We further experimentally validated SIRT1 as the direct target of miR-30a by evaluating SIRT1 expression in lung cancer cells after the overexpression or knockdown of miR-30a and by luciferase assay. Moreover, we showed that miR-30a inhibited proliferation, invasion and promoted apoptosis of lung cancer cells by inhibiting SIRT1 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this study identified a new regulatory axis in which miR-30a and SIRT1 regulate the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and lung tumorigenesis.
Project description:The NAD-dependent deacetylase SirT1 regulates factors involved in stress response and cell survival and is a potential drug target of activators and inhibitors. Determination of SirT1 function in tumor cells is important for its targeting in cancer therapy. We found that SirT1 knockdown by short hairpin RNA accelerates tumor xenograft formation by HCT116 cells, whereas SirT1 overexpression inhibits tumor formation. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of SirT1 stimulates cell proliferation under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Paradoxically, SirT1 inhibition also sensitizes cells to apoptosis by chemotherapy drugs. Immunohistochemical staining revealed high level SirT1 in normal colon mucosa and benign adenomas. SirT1 overexpression was observed in approximately 25% of stage I/II/III colorectal adenocarcinomas but rarely found in advanced stage IV tumors. Furthermore, approximately 30% of carcinomas showed lower than normal SirT1 expression. This pattern is consistent with SirT1 having pleiotropic effects during cancer development (anti-proliferation and anti-apoptotic). These results suggest a rationale for the use of SirT1 activators and inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation by SIRT1, a multifaceted NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, is one of the most common factors modulating cellular processes in a broad range of diseases, including prostate cancer (CaP). SIRT1 is over-expressed in CaP cells, however the associated mechanism is not well understood. To identify whether specific microRNAs might mediate this linkage, we have screened a miRNA library for differential expression in ERG-associated CaP tissues. Of 20 differentially and significantly expressed miRNAs that distinguish ERG-positive tumors from ERG-negative tumors, we find miR-449a is highly suppressed in ERG-positive tumors. We establish that SIRT1 is a direct target of miR-449a and is also induced by ERG in ERG-associated CaP. Our data suggest that attenuation of miR-449a promotes the invasive phenotype of the ERG-positive CaP in part by inducing the expression of SIRT1 in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we also find that suppression of SIRT1 results in a significant reduction in ERG expression in ERG-positive CaP cells, indicating a feed-back regulatory loop associated with ERG, miR-449a and SIRT1. We also report that ERG suppresses p53 acetylation perhaps through miR-449a-SIRT1 axis in CaP cells. Our findings provide new insight into the function of miRNAs in regulating ERG-associated CaP. Thus, miR-449a activation or SIRT1 suppression may represent new therapeutic opportunity for ERG-associated CaP.
Project description:The progression of distant metastasis cascade is a multistep and complicated process, frequently leading to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Recently, growing evidence has indicated that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumorigenesis and tumor progression in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, by comparing the miRNA expression profiles of CRC tissues and corresponding hepatic metastasis tissues, we established the downregulation of miR-199b in CRC metastasis tissues. The decrease in miR-199b expression was significantly correlated to late TNM stage and distant metastasis. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that CRC patients with high expression level of miR-199b had a longer median survival. Functional assays results indicated that the restoration of miR-199b considerably reduced cell invasion and migration in vitro and in vivo, and increased the sensitivity to 5-FU and oxaliplatin. Further dual-luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that SIRT1 was the direct target of miR-199b in CRC. The expression of miR-199b was inversely correlated with SIRT1 in CRC specimens. SIRT1 knockdown produced effects on biological behavior that were similar to those of miR-199b overexpression. Furthermore, through Human Tumor Metastasis PCR Array we discovered KISS1 was one of the downstream targets of SIRT1. Silencing of SIRT1 upregulated KISS1 expression by enhancing the acetylation of the transcription factor CREB. The latter was further activated via binding to the promoter of KISS1 to induce transcription. Thus, we concluded that miR-199b regulates SIRT1/CREB/KISS1 signaling pathway and might serve as a prognosis marker or a novel therapeutic target for patients with CRC.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs), which are a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression via induction of translational repression or mRNA degradation. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-22 underlying the malignant progression of breast cancer, remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-22 in breast cancer cell growth and metastasis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction data revealed that miR-22 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, the miR-22 levels were further decreased in stage III-IV, compared with stage I-II breast cancer. In addition, low miR-22 levels were significantly associated with the poor differentiation, metastasis and advanced clinical stages of breast cancer. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) was demonstrated to act as a direct target gene of miR-22 and its protein expression negatively regulated by miR-22 in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, SIRT1 expression levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. SIRT1 levels were observed to be increased in stage III-IV when compared with stage I-II breast cancer. miR-22 overexpression decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, whereas overexpression of SIRT1 eliminated the suppressive effects of the miR-22 overexpression on the malignant phenotype of MCF-7 cells. The results of the present study therefore suggested that miR-22 demonstrated suppressive effects on breast cancer growth and metastasis via targeting SIRT1, and thus the miR-22/SIRT1 axis may be used as a novel and potential therapeutic target for breast cancer in the future.