Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-alkyl-2-methoxymethyl-salvinorin ethers as selective ?-opioid receptor agonists.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a new series of C-2-alkyl-2-methoxymethyl-salvinorin ethers and their binding affinities at ?-, ?-, and ?-opioid receptors are presented. We have developed a synthesis that enables installation of alkyl-substituents at C-2 while maintaining the integrity of the C-2 methoxymethyl ether and retaining ?-opioid receptor binding activity. Among these new compounds, 2-methyl-2-methoxymethyl-salvinorin ether (9a) is a potent full agonist at the ? receptor and shows comparable potency in Ki and EC50 with salvinorin A and U50488H. These C2-alkylated analogs have been identified as full ? agonists.
Project description:[reaction: see text] Treatment of salvinorin A (1a) with KOH in MeOH gave the enedione 3, for which the dienone structure 7 was recently proposed. Also isolated, after methylation, were the secotriesters 4a-c. A mechanism for this unusual series of autoxidations is proposed. Surprisingly, 4a showed weak affinity at the kappa-opioid receptor. Divinatorins A-C (2a-c) showed no affinity at opioid receptors. Attempted reduction of 3 to a novel salvinorin diol (9d) was unsuccessful, but careful deacetylation of salvinorin C (9a) provided a viable route to this compound. A general method for identifying salvinorin 8-epimers by TLC is also presented.
Project description:Protection of salvinorin B as standard alkoxyalkyl ethers yielded highly potent kappa opioid receptor agonists. Ethoxymethyl ether 6 is among the most potent and selective kappa agonists reported to date. Fluoroethoxymethyl ether 11 is the first potent, selective fluorinated kappa ligand, with potential use in MRI and PET studies. Further enlargement of the alkoxy group, alkylation of the acetal carbon, or heteroatom substitution all reduced activity. These protecting groups may prove useful in related work not only by enabling the use of harsher synthetic conditions, but potentially by optimizing the potency of the products.
Project description:The title compound [MOM-SalB; systematic name: methyl (2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-2-(3-fur-yl)-9-meth-oxy-meth-oxy-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-2,4a,5,6,7,8,9,10a-octa-hydro-1H-benzo[f]isochromene-7-carboxyl-ate], C(23)H(30)O(8), is a deriv-ative of the ?-opioid salvinorin A with enhanced potency, selectivity, and duration of action. Superimposition of their crystal structures reveals, surprisingly, that the terminal C and O atoms of the MOM group overlap with the corresponding atoms in salvinorin A, which are separated by an additional bond. This counter-intuitive isosterism is possible because the MOM ether adopts the 'classic anomeric' conformation (gauche-gauche), tracing a helix around the planar acetate of salvinorin A. This overlap is not seen in the recently reported structure of the tetra-hydro-pyranyl ether, which is less potent. The classic anomeric conformation is strongly favoured in alk-oxy-methyl ethers, but not in substituted acetals, which may contribute to their reduced potency. This structure may prove useful in evaluating models of the activated ?-opioid receptor.
Project description:Previous structure-activity relationship studies of salvinorin A have shown that modification of the acetate functionality off the C-2 position to a methoxy methyl or methoxy ethyl ether moiety leads to increased potency at KOP receptors. However, the reason for this increase remains unclear. Here we report our efforts towards the synthesis and evaluation of C-2 constrained analogs of salvinorin A. These analogs were evaluated at opioid receptors in radioligand binding experiments as well as in the GTP-?-S functional assay. One compound, 5, was found to have affinity and potency at ? opioid (KOP) receptors comparable to salvinorin A. In further studies, 5 was found to attenuate cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior in rats comparably to salvinorin A. This finding represents the first example of a salvinorin A analog that has demonstrated anti-addictive capabilities.
Project description:Novel semisynthetic analogs of salvinorin A, a full agonist having extraordinary affinity as well as selectivity for the ?-opioid receptor (KOR), were obtained in good yields. The derivatives are remarkable for their unusual and unique hemiacetal structure in the salvinorin series of compounds. The formation of the hemiacetal occurs with epimerization at C-12, thus preserving the original configuration of salvinorin A. The dimethyl ester derivative of the hemiacetal was found to have an affinity for both KOR and MOR (?-opioid receptor).
Project description:The kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) has been identified as a potential drug target to prevent or alter the course of mood, anxiety and addictive disorders or reduce response to stress. In a search for highly potent and selective KOPR partial agonists as pharmacological tools, we have modified 12-epi-salvinorin A, a compound which we have previously observed to be a KOPR partial agonist. Five analogues of 12-epi-salvinorin A were synthesized and their effects on G protein activation as well as ?-arrestin2 recruitment were evaluated. Only 12-epi-salvinorin A (1) partially activated signaling through G proteins, yet acted as a full agonist in the ?-arrestin 2 DiscoveRx assay. Other salvinorin analogues tested in these functional assays were full agonists in both assays of KOPR activation. By comparison, the non-selective opioid ligand nalbuphine, known to be a partial agonist for G-protein activation, was also a partial agonist for the ?-arrestin mediated signaling pathway activated through KOPR.
Project description:Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as legal hallucinogens. We discovered that Salvinorin A potently and selectively inhibited (3)H-bremazocine binding to cloned kappa opioid receptors. Salvinorin A had no significant activity against a battery of 50 receptors, transporters, and ion channels and showed a distinctive profile compared with the prototypic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. Functional studies demonstrated that Salvinorin A is a potent kappa opioid agonist at cloned kappa opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and at native kappa opioid receptors expressed in guinea pig brain. Importantly, Salvinorin A had no actions at the 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptor, the principal molecular target responsible for the actions of classical hallucinogens. Salvinorin A thus represents, to our knowledge, the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist. Because Salvinorin A is a psychotomimetic selective for kappa opioid receptors, kappa opioid-selective antagonists may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders). Additionally, these results suggest that kappa opioid receptors play a prominent role in the modulation of human perception.
Project description:Salvinorin-A is a terpene found in the leaves of the plant Salvia divinorum. When administered to humans, salvinorin-A induces an intense but short-lasting modified state of awareness, sharing features with those induced by the classical serotonin-2A receptor agonist psychedelics. However, unlike substances such as psilocybin or mescaline, salvinorin-A shows agonist activity at the kappa-opioid receptor rather than at the serotonin-2A receptor. Here, we assessed the involvement of kappa-opioid receptor and serotonin-2A agonism in the subjective, cardiovascular, and neuroendocrine effects of salvinorin-A in humans.We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study with 2 groups of 12 healthy volunteers with experience with psychedelic drugs. There were 4 experimental sessions. In group 1, participants received the following treatment combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+salvinorin-A, naltrexone+placebo, and naltrexone+salvinorin-A. Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist, was administered at a dose of 50mg orally. In group 2, participants received the treatment combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+salvinorin-A, ketanserin+placebo, and ketanserin+salvinorin-A. Ketanserin, a selective serotonin-2A antagonist, was administered at a dose of 40mg orally.Inhalation of 1mg of vaporized salvinorin-A led to maximum plasma concentrations at 1 and 2 minutes after dosing. When administered alone, salvinorin-A severely reduced external sensory perception and induced intense visual and auditory modifications, increased systolic blood pressure, and cortisol and prolactin release. These effects were effectively blocked by naltrexone, but not by ketanserin.Results support kappa opioid receptor agonism as the mechanism of action underlying the subjective and physiological effects of salvinorin-A in humans and rule out the involvement of a serotonin-2A-mediated mechanism.
Project description:Salvinorin A, the active ingredient of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum is the most potent known naturally occurring hallucinogen and is a selective ?-opioid receptor agonist. To better understand the ligand-receptor interactions, a series of dicarboxylic ester-type of salvinorin A derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their binding affinity at ?-, ?- and ?-opioid receptors. Most of the analogues show high affinity to the ?-opioid receptor. Methyl malonyl derivative 4 shows the highest binding affinity (Ki=2nM), analogues 5, 7, and 14 exhibit significant affinity for the ?-receptor (Ki=21, 36 and 39nM).
Project description:The plant metabolite salvinorin A potently and selectively agonizes the human kappa-opioid receptor, an emerging target for next-generation analgesics. Here we review analogs of the salvinorin chemotype and their effects on selectivity, affinity and potency. Extensive peripheral modifications using isolated salvinorin A have delivered a trove of SAR information. More deep-seated changes are now possible by advances in chemical synthesis.