Nitrogen dioxide accelerates flowering without changing the number of leaves at flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT: A negative correlation has consistently been reported between the change in flowering time and the change in leaf number at flowering in response to environmental stimuli, such as the application of exogenous compounds, cold temperature, day length and light quality treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). However, we show here that the application of exogenous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) did not change the number of rosette leaves at flowering, but actually accelerated flowering in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, NO2 treatment was found to increase the rate of leaf appearance. Based on these results, reaching the maximum rosette leaf number earlier in response to NO2 treatment resulted in earlier flowering relative to controls.
Project description:Here we analyzed in leaves the effect of FT overexpression driven by meristem-specific KNAT1 gene homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana (Lincoln et al., 1994; Long et al., 1996) on the transcriptomic response during plant development. Our results demonstrated that meristematic FT overexpression generates a phenotype with an early flowering independent of photoperiod when compared with wild type (WT) plants. Arabidopsis FT-overexpressor lines (AtFTOE) did not show significant differences compared with WT lines neither in leaf number nor in rosette diameter up to day 21, when AtFTOE flowered. After this period AtFTOE plants started flower production and no new rosette leaves were produced. Additionally, WT plants continued on vegetative stage up to day 40, producing 12-14 rosette leaves before flowering. Transcriptomic analysis of rosette leaves studied by sequencing Illumina RNA-seq allowed us to determine the differential expression in mature leaf rosette of 3652 genes, being 626 of them up-regulated and 3026 down-regulated. Overexpressed genes related with flowering showed up-regulated transcription factors such as MADS-box that are known as flowering markers in meristem and which overexpression has been related with meristem identity preservation and the transition from vegetative to floral stage. Genes related with sugar transport have shown a higher demand of monosaccharides derived from the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and probably fructose, which can also be influenced by reproductive stage of AtFTOE plants.
Project description:Leaves are thought to be the primary carbon source for reproduction in plants, so a positive relationship between vegetative size and reproductive output is expected, establishing a trade-off between time to reproduction and reproductive output. A common response to higher temperatures due to climate changes is the induction of earlier transition into reproduction. Thus, in annual plants, earlier transition into flowering can potentially constrain plant size and reduce seed production. However, trade-offs between early reproduction and fitness are not always observed, suggesting mechanisms to escape the constraints of early flowering do exist. Here, we test whether inflorescence photosynthesis contribution to the reproductive output of Arabidopsis thaliana can offset the cost of early reproduction. We followed the development, growth rate and fitness of 15 accessions, and removed all rosette leaves at flowering (prior to the completion of inflorescence development or any fruit production) in half of the plants to determine the ability of inflorescences to maintain fitness in the absence of leaves. Although leaf removal significantly reduced fruit number, seed weight and plant height, even the most severely impacted accessions maintained 35% of their fitness with the inflorescence as the sole photosynthetic organ; and some accessions experienced no reduction in fitness. Differences between accessions in their ability to maintain fitness after leaf removal is best explained by earlier flowering time and the ability to maintain as many or more branches after leaf removal as in the control treatment. Although earlier flowering does constrain plant vegetative size, we found that inflorescence photosynthesis can significantly contribute to seed production, explaining why early flowering plants can maintain high fitness despite a reduction in vegetative size. Thus, plants can be released from the usually assumed trade-offs associated with earlier reproduction, and selection on inflorescence traits can mediate the impact of climate change on phenology.
Project description:Natural selection driven by water availability has resulted in considerable variation for traits associated with drought tolerance and leaf-level water-use efficiency (WUE). In Arabidopsis, little is known about the variation of whole-plant water use (PWU) and whole-plant WUE (transpiration efficiency). To investigate the genetic basis of PWU, we developed a novel proxy trait by combining flowering time and rosette water use to estimate lifetime PWU. We validated its usefulness for large-scale screening of mapping populations in a subset of ecotypes. This parameter subsequently facilitated the screening of water use and drought tolerance traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from two Arabidopsis accessions with distinct water-use strategies, namely, C24 (low PWU) and Col-0 (high PWU). Subsequent quantitative trait loci mapping and validation through near-isogenic lines identified two causal quantitative trait loci, which showed that a combination of weak and nonfunctional alleles of the FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) genes substantially reduced plant water use due to their control of flowering time. Crucially, we observed that reducing flowering time and consequently water use did not penalize reproductive performance, as such water productivity (seed produced per unit of water transpired) improved. Natural polymorphisms of FRI and FLC have previously been elucidated as key determinants of natural variation in intrinsic WUE (?13 C). However, in the genetic backgrounds tested here, drought tolerance traits, stomatal conductance, ?13 C. and rosette water use were independent of allelic variation at FRI and FLC, suggesting that flowering is critical in determining lifetime PWU but not always leaf-level traits.
Project description:The transition from vegetative to reproductive stages marks a major milestone in plant development. It is clear that global change factors (e.g., increasing [CO(2)] and temperature) have already had and will continue to have a large impact on plant flowering times in the future. Increasing atmospheric [CO(2)] has recently been shown to affect flowering time, and may produce even greater responses than increasing temperature. Much is known about the genes influencing flowering time, although their relevance to changing [CO(2)] is not well understood. Thus, we present the first study to identify QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) that affect flowering time at elevated [CO(2)] in Arabidopsis thaliana.We developed our mapping population by crossing a genotype previously selected for high fitness at elevated [CO(2)] (SG, Selection Genotype) to a Cape Verde genotype (Cvi-0). SG exhibits delayed flowering at elevated [CO(2)], whereas Cvi-0 is non-responsive to elevated [CO(2)] for flowering time. We mapped one major QTL to the upper portion of chromosome 1 that explains 1/3 of the difference in flowering time between current and elevated [CO(2)] between the SG and Cvi-0 parents. This QTL also alters the stage at which flowering occurs, as determined from higher rosette leaf number at flowering in RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) harboring the SG allele. A follow-up study using Arabidopsis mutants for flowering time genes within the significant QTL suggests MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) as a potential candidate gene for altered flowering time at elevated [CO(2)].This work sheds light on the underlying genetic architecture that controls flowering time at elevated [CO(2)]. Prior to this work, very little to nothing was known about these mechanisms at the genomic level. Such a broader understanding will be key for better predicting shifts in plant phenology and for developing successful crops for future environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SKIP is a transcription cofactor in many eukaryotes. It can regulate plant stress tolerance in rice and Arabidopsis. But the homolog of SKIP protein in soybean has been not reported up to now. RESULTS: In this study, the expression patterns of soybean GAMYB binding protein gene (GmGBP1) encoding a homolog of SKIP protein were analyzed in soybean under abiotic stresses and different day lengths. The expression of GmGBP1 was induced by polyethyleneglycol 6000, NaCl, gibberellin, abscisic acid and heat stress. GmGBP1 had transcriptional activity in C-terminal. GmGBP1 could interact with R2R3 domain of GmGAMYB1 in SKIP domain to take part in gibberellin flowering pathway. In long-day (16 h-light) condition, transgenic Arabidopsis with the ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 exhibited earlier flowering and less number of rosette leaves; Suppression of AtSKIP in Arabidopsis resulted in growth arrest, flowering delay and down-regulation of many flowering-related genes (CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY); Arabidopsis myb33 mutant plants with ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 showed the same flowering phenotype with wild type. In short-day (8 h-light) condition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants with GmGBP1 flowered later and showed a higher level of FLOWERING LOCUS C compared with wild type. When treated with abiotic stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis with the ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 enhanced the tolerances to heat and drought stresses but reduced the tolerance to high salinity, and affected the expressions of several stress-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: In Arabidopsis, GmGBP1 might positively regulate the flowering time by affecting CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY and GAMYB directly or indirectly in photoperiodic and gibberellin pathways in LDs, but GmGBP1 might represse flowering by affecting FLOWERING LOCUS C and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE in autonomous pathway in SDs. GmGBP1 might regulate the activity of ROS-eliminating to improve the resistance to heat and drought but reduce the high-salinity tolerance.
Project description:In this dataset we integrated figures comparing leaf number and rosette diameter in three Arabidopsis FT overexpressor lines (AtFTOE) driven by KNAT1 promoter, "A member of the KNOTTED class of homeodomain proteins encoded by the STM gene of Arabidopsis" , vs Wild Type (WT) Arabidopsis plats. Also, presented in the tables are some transcriptomic data obtained by RNA-seq Illumina HiSeq from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis plants of AtFTOE 2.1 line vs WT with accession numbers SRR2094583 and SRR2094587 for AtFTOE replicates 1-3 and AtWT for control replicates 1-2 respectively. Raw data of paired-end sequences are located in the public repository of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States of America, Bethesda, MD, USA as Sequence Read Archive (SRA). Performed analyses of differential expression genes are visualized by Mapman and presented in figures. "Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering" , described the interpretation and discussion of the obtained data.
Project description:Variations in flowering time and plant architecture have a crucial impact on crop biomass and yield, as well as the aesthetic value of ornamental plants. Aechmea fasciata, a member of the Bromeliaceae family, is a bromeliad variety that is commonly cultivated worldwide. Here, we report the characterization of AfSPL14, a squamosa promoter binding protein-like gene in A. fasciata. AfSPL14 was predominantly expressed in the young vegetative organs of adult plants. The expression of AfSPL14 could be upregulated within 1 h by exogenous ethephon treatment. The constitutive expression of AfSPL14 in Arabidopsis thaliana caused early flowering and variations in plant architecture, including smaller rosette leaves and thicker and increased numbers of main inflorescences. Our findings suggest that AfSPL14 may help facilitate the molecular breeding of A. fasciata, other ornamental and edible bromeliads (e.g., pineapple), and even cereal crops.
Project description:Leavenworthia crassa is a rosette flowering species that differs from inflorescence flowering species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, in having elongated pedicels and shortened interfloral internodes on the main axis. Based on previous experiments, we hypothesized that changes to the L. crassa TFL1 ortholog, LcrTFL1, were important in the evolution of rosette flowering. We isolated LcrTFL1 and introduced a genomic construct into tfl1 mutant A. thaliana plants. We also generated and analyzed EGFP-LcrTFL1 reporter-fusion lines, and LcrTFL1/LcrLFY doubly transgenic lines. The transgene rescued the mutant defects, but manifested gain-of-function phenotypes. However, LcrTFL1 lines differed from 35S:TFL1 lines in several regards. Defects in floral meristem identity establishment were observed, as was the production of flowers with extra petals. We also noted features that resemble rosette flowering: LcrTFL1 lines produced significantly shorter interfloral internodes and significantly longer pedicels than either wild-type or 35S:TFL1 plants. Our data show that there are substantive differences in the regulation and/or function of TFL1 orthologs between A. thaliana and L. crassa. These may reflect changes that occurred during the evolution of rosette flowering in Leavenworthia, but, if so, our results show that additional, as-yet-unidentified genes were involved in this instance of architectural evolution.
Project description:The collection of microorganisms found in the root zone of soil, termed the rhizosphere microbiome, has been shown to impact plant growth and development. Here, we tease apart the function of the cultivable portion of the microbiome from the whole microbiome in retaining plant traits modified through artificial selection on flowering time. Specifically, the whole microbiome associated with earlier flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was cultivated on four types of solid media to create cultivated fractions of the microbiome. These cultivated microbiomes were subsequently preserved in glycerol, frozen, and revived to yield a portion of the cultivable fraction to compare (1) whole microbiome, (2) cultivable microbiome, and (3) revived, cultivable microbiome controls on early flowering time. Plants grown in soils inoculated with bacteria grown on 25 % Luria broth and 10 % tryptic soy agar retained the early flowering trait. An increase in leaf biomass with two of the cultivated microbiomes (49.4 and 38.5 %) contrasted the lowered biomass effect of the whole microbiome. Inoculation with the cultivated microbiomes that were cryopreserved in glycerol showed no effect on flowering time or leaf biomass. The results indicate that the cultivable portion of a plant's microbiome retains the early flowering effect in A. thaliana, but cryopreservation of the cultivated microbiomes disrupts the microbial effects on flowering time. Furthermore, the contrasting effects on leaf biomass (an indirect response from selection on early flowering time), seen with the whole microbiome versus the cultivable portion, suggests versatility in using cultivation methods to modify multiple traits of plants.
Project description:The onset of floral development is a pivotal switch in the life of soybean. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal phytohormones with essential roles in plant growth and development, are associated with flowering induction. Genes involved in BR biosynthesis have been studied to a great extent in Arabidopsis, but the study of these genes has been limited in soybean. In this study, four CPD homologs (GmCPDs) catalyzing BR synthesis were isolated from soybean. Transcripts were mainly confined to cotyledons and leaves and were down-regulated in response to exogenous BR. Bioinformatic analysis showed strong sequence and structure similarity between GmCPDs and AtCPD as well as CPDs of other species. Overexpression of GmCPDs in an Arabidopsis BR-deficient mutant rescued the phenotype by restoring the biosynthesis pathway, revealing the functional roles of each GmCPDs in. Except for the rescue of root development, leaf expansion and plant type architecture, GmCPDs in expression also complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in CPD. Further evidence in soybean plants is that the expression levels of GmCPDs in are under photoperiod control in Zigongdongdou, a photoperiod-sensitive variety, and show a sudden peak upon floral meristem initiation. Together with increased GmCPDs in expression in the leaves and cotyledons of photoperiod-insensitive early-maturity soybean, it is clear that GmCPDs in contribute to flowering development and are essential in the early stages of flowering regulation.