Effects of antibiotic antitumor drugs on nucleotide levels in cultured tumor cells: an exploratory method to distinguish the mechanisms of antitumor drug action based on targeted metabolomics.
ABSTRACT: Nucleotide pools in mammalian cells change due to the influence of antitumor drugs, which may help in evaluating the drug effect and understanding the mechanism of drug action. In this study, an ion-pair RP-HPLC method was used for a simple, sensitive and simultaneous determination of the levels of 12 nucleotides in mammalian cells treated with antibiotic antitumor drugs (daunorubicin, epirubicin and dactinomycin D). Through the use of this targeted metabolomics approach to find potential biomarkers, UTP and ATP were verified to be the most appropriate biomarkers. Moreover, a holistic statistical approach was put forward to develop a model which could distinguish 4 categories of drugs with different mechanisms of action. This model can be further validated by evaluating drugs with different mechanisms of action. This targeted metabolomics study may provide a novel approach to predict the mechanism of action of antitumor drugs.
Project description:Triptolide, the main active ingredient in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (Celastraceae), has shown promising effects against a variety of tumors. However, the molecular pharmacological mechanisms explaining the action of triptolide remain unknown. In this study, the CT26 colon tumor cell line was inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c mice, and plasma samples were subjected to 1H NMR metabolomics analysis. The metabolic signature identified five metabolites whose levels were lower and 15 whose levels were higher in CT26 tumor-bearing mice than in normal control mice. Triptolide treatment significantly reversed the levels of nine of these metabolites, including isoleucine, glutamine, methionine, proline, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-hydroxyisovalerate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, and low-density lipoprotein/very low-density lipoprotein. Based on the identities of these potential biomarkers, we conclude that the antitumor mechanism of triptolide might rely on correcting perturbations in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, serine/glycine/methionine biosynthesis, and ketone bodies metabolism.
Project description:Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PR-AMPs) having a potent antimicrobial activity predominantly toward Gram-negative bacteria and negligible toxicity toward host cells, are attracting attention as new templates for developing antibiotic drugs. We have previously isolated and characterized several bactenecins that are promising in this respect, from the leukocytes of the domestic goat Capra hircus: ChBac5, miniChBac7.5N-?, and -?, as well as ChBac3.4. Unlike the others, ChBac3.4 shows a somewhat unusual pattern of activities for a mammalian PR-AMP: it is more active against bacterial membranes as well as tumor and, to the lesser extent, normal cells. Here we describe a SAR study of ChBac3.4 (RFRLPFRRPPIRIHPPPFYPPFRRFL-NH2) which elucidates its peculiarities and evaluates its potential as a lead for antimicrobial or anticancer drugs based on this peptide. A set of designed structural analogues of ChBac3.4 was explored for antibacterial activity toward drug-resistant clinical isolates and antitumor properties. The N-terminal region was found to be important for the antimicrobial action, but not responsible for the toxicity toward mammalian cells. A shortened variant with the best selectivity index toward bacteria demonstrated a pronounced synergy in combination with antibiotics against Gram-negative strains, albeit with a somewhat reduced ability to inhibit biofilm formation compared to native peptide. C-terminal amidation was examined for some analogues, which did not affect antimicrobial activity, but somewhat altered the cytotoxicity toward host cells. Interestingly, non-amidated peptides showed a slight delay in their impact on bacterial membrane integrity. Peptides with enhanced hydrophobicity showed increased toxicity, but in most cases their selectivity toward tumor cells also improved. While most analogues lacked hemolytic properties, a ChBac3.4 variant with two additional tryptophan residues demonstrated an appreciable activity toward human erythrocytes. The variant demonstrating the best tumor/nontumor cell selectivity was found to more actively initiate apoptosis in target cells, though its action was slower than that of the native ChBac3.4. Its antitumor effectiveness was successfully verified in vivo in a murine Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of structural modification to manage caprine bactenecins' selectivity and activity spectrum and confirm that they are promising prototypes for antimicrobial and anticancer drugs design.
Project description:A new acridone derivative, 2-aminoacetamido-10-(3, 5-dimethoxy)-benzyl-9(10H)-acridone hydrochloride (named 8a) synthesized in our lab shows potent antitumor activity, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. Herein, we report the use of an UPLC/Q-TOF MS metabolomic approach to study the effects of three compounds with structures optimized step-by-step, 9(10H)-acridone (A), 10-(3,5-dimethoxy)benzyl-9(10H)-acridone (I), and 8a, on CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and to shed new light on the probable antitumor mechanism of 8a. Acquired data were processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify potential biomarkers. Comparing 8a-treated CCRF-CEM leukemia cells with vehicle control (DMSO), 23 distinct metabolites involved in five metabolic pathways were identified. Metabolites from glutathione (GSH) and glycerophospholipid metabolism were investigated in detail, and results showed that GSH level and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were significantly decreased in 8a-treated cells, while L-cysteinyl-glycine (L-Cys-Gly) and glutamate were greatly increased. In glycerophospholipid metabolism, cell membrane components phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were decreased in 8a-treated cells, while the oxidative products lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) were significantly increased. We further found that in 8a-treated cells, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) were notably increased, accompanied with decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-3. Taken together our results suggest that the acridone derivative 8a induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. The UPLC/Q-TOF MS based metabolomic approach provides novel insights into the mechanistic studies of antitumor drugs from a point distinct from traditional biological investigations.
Project description:Aim:According to the need for the development of new anticancer agents, we have synthetized novel bioactive compounds and aimed to determine their antitumor action. Materials & methods:We describe in vitro studies evaluating the effect of 35 novel chemical compounds on two triple negative murine mammary adenocarcinoma tumors. Results & conclusion:Three compounds were selected because of their high antitumor activity and their low toxicity to normal cells. Their effect on tumor cells apoptosis, clonogenicity and migratory capacity, were determined. We found that the selected compounds showed inhibition of viability and clonogenic capacity, and promotion of apoptosis. They also decreased the migratory capacity of tumor cells. The results obtained suggest the likelihood of their future use as antitumor and/or antimetastatic agents.
Project description:In the last several decades, there have been significant advances in anticancer therapy. However, the development of resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of specificity related to actively dividing cells leading to toxic side effects have undermined these achievements. As a result, there is considerable interest in alternative drugs with novel antitumor mechanisms. In addition to the recent approach using immunotherapy, an effective but much cheaper therapeutic option of pharmaceutical drugs would still provide the best choice for cancer patients as the first line treatment. Ribosomally synthesized cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) or host defense peptides (HDP) display broad-spectrum activity against bacteria based on electrostatic interactions with negatively charged lipids on the bacterial surface. Because of increased proportions of phosphatidylserine (negatively charged) on the surface of cancer cells compared to normal cells, cationic amphipathic peptides could be an effective source of anticancer agents that are both selective and refractory to current resistance mechanisms. We reviewed herein the prospect for AMP application to cancer treatment, with a focus on modes of action of cationic AMPs.
Project description:To identify the metabolite distribution in ascidian, we have applied an integrated liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics approach to explore and identify patterns in chemical diversity of invasive ascidian Styela plicata. A total of 71 metabolites were reported among these alkaloids, fatty acids and lipids are the most dominant chemical group. Multivariate statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation according to chemical diversity and taxonomic groups. PCA and partial least square discriminant analysis were applied to discriminate the chemical group of S. plicata crude compounds and classify the compounds with unknown biological activities. In this study, we reported for the first time that a partially purified methanol extract prepared from the ascidian S. plicata and Ascidia mentula possess antitumor activity against four tumor cell lines with different tumor histotype, such as HeLa (cervical carcinoma), HT29 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and M14 (melanoma). S. plicata fraction SP-50 showed strong inhibition of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa and HT29 cells, thus indicating S. plicata fraction SP-50 a potential lead compound for anticancer therapy. The molecular mechanism of action and chemotherapeutic potential of these ascidian unknown biomolecules need further research.
Project description:Deciphering the mode of action (MOA) of new antibiotics discovered through phenotypic screening is of increasing importance. Metabolomics offers a potentially rapid and cost-effective means of identifying modes of action of drugs whose effects are mediated through changes in metabolism. Metabolomics techniques also collect data on off-target effects and drug modifications. Here, we present data from an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to identify the modes of action of eight compounds: 1-[3-fluoro-4-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-pyrimidin-1-yl)phenyl]-3-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea (AZ1), 2-(cyclobutylmethoxy)-5'-deoxyadenosine, triclosan, fosmidomycin, CHIR-090, carbonyl cyanidem-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 5-chloro-2-(methylsulfonyl)-N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-4-pyrimidinecarboxamide (AZ7), and ceftazidime. Data analysts were blind to the compound identities but managed to identify the target as thymidylate kinase for AZ1, isoprenoid biosynthesis for fosmidomycin, acyl-transferase for CHIR-090, and DNA metabolism for 2-(cyclobutylmethoxy)-5'-deoxyadenosine. Changes to cell wall metabolites were seen in ceftazidime treatments, although other changes, presumably relating to off-target effects, dominated spectral outputs in the untargeted approach. Drugs which do not work through metabolic pathways, such as the proton carrier CCCP, have no discernible impact on the metabolome. The untargeted metabolomics approach also revealed modifications to two compounds, namely, fosmidomycin and AZ7. An untreated control was also analyzed, and changes to the metabolome were seen over 4 h, highlighting the necessity for careful controls in these types of studies. Metabolomics is a useful tool in the analysis of drug modes of action and can complement other technologies already in use.
Project description:Up-regulation of the PI3K/mTOR (phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling is common in carcinoma. Consistently, targeting these molecules has been shown to halt the growth of many tumors. The main purpose of this study was to develop surrogate biomarkers of the antitumor activity of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors.Fragments from eight tumors were collected immediately after resection in ice-cold RPMI gassed with 95% O2 :5% CO2. Viability was determined by measuring tumor cellular respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption). The specimens were incubated at 37°C with and without 50 nM GSK2126458 (a highly potent and selective inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR) for 90 min. The tissue was then processed for histology, measurement of intracellular caspase-3 activity (using the caspase-3 substrate N-acetyl-asp-glu-val-asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin), and immunohistochemical detection of the apoptotic biomarkers caspase-3, cytochrome C, and annexin A2.GSK2126458 induced morphologic changes in four tumors (two invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, and one ovarian dysgerminoma), intracellular caspase-3 activity in three tumors (two invasive ductal carcinomas and one poorly differentiated signet ring adenocarcinoma of gastric origin), and immunohistochemical evidence of apoptosis in at least four tumors (three invasive ductal carcinomas and one adenocarcinoma of gastric origin). Two tumors (ovarian serous carcinoma and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin) demonstrated no treatment effect.These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of using in vitro biomarkers for detecting antitumor activities of the rapidly emerging PI3K/mTOR inhibitors.
Project description:Metronomic chemotherapy refers to the close, regular administration of conventional chemotherapy drugs at relatively low, minimally toxic doses, with no prolonged break periods; it is now showing encouraging results in various phase II clinical trials and is currently undergoing phase III trial evaluation. It is thought to cause antitumor effects primarily by antiangiogenic mechanisms, both locally by targeting endothelial cells of the tumor neovasculature and systemically by effects on bone marrow-derived cells, including circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP). Previous studies have shown reduction of CEPs by metronomic administration of a number of different chemotherapeutic drugs, including vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, topotecan, and tegafur plus uracil (UFT). However in addition to, or even instead of, antiangiogenic effects, metronomic chemotherapy may cause suppression of tumor growth by other mechanisms such as stimulating cytotoxic T-cell responses or by direct antitumor effects. Here we report results evaluating the properties of metronomic administration of an oral prodrug of gemcitabine LY2334737 in nontumor-bearing mice and in preclinical models of human ovarian (SKOV3-13) and breast cancer (LM2-4) xenografts. Through daily gavage (at 6 mg/kg/d), the schedules tested were devoid of toxicity and caused antitumor effects; however, a suppressive effect on CEPs was not detected. Unexpectedly, metronomic LY2334737 administration caused increased blood flow in luciferase-tagged LM2-4 tumor xenografts, and this effect, readily measured using contrast micro-ultrasound, coincided with a relative increase in tumor bioluminescence. These results highlight the possibility of significant antitumor effects mediated by metronomic administration of some chemotherapy drugs without a concomitant inhibition of systemic angiogenesis.
Project description:Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and host defense peptides (HDPs) show vast potential as peptide-based drugs. Great effort has been made in order to exploit their mechanisms of action, aiming to identify their targets as well as to enhance their activity and bioavailability. In this review, we will focus on both naturally occurring and designed antiviral and antitumor cationic peptides, including those here called promiscuous, in which multiple targets are associated with a single peptide structure. Emphasis will be given to their biochemical features, selectivity against extra targets, and molecular mechanisms. Peptides which possess antitumor activity against different cancer cell lines will be discussed, as well as peptides which inhibit virus replication, focusing on their applications for human health, animal health and agriculture, and their potential as new therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the current scenario for production and the use of nanotechnology as delivery tool for both classes of cationic peptides, as well as the perspectives on improving them is considered.