ABSTRACT: Congenital sodium diarrhea (CSD) refers to an intractable diarrhea of intrauterine onset with high fecal sodium loss. CSD is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Syndromic CSD is caused by SPINT2 mutations. While we recently described four cases of the non-syndromic form of CSD that were caused by dominant activating mutations in intestinal receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C), the genetic cause for the majority of CSD is still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the genetic cause for non-GC-C non-syndromic CSD in 18 patients from 16 unrelated families applying whole-exome sequencing and/or chromosomal microarray analyses and/or direct Sanger sequencing. SLC9A3 missense, splicing and truncation mutations, including an instance of uniparental disomy, and whole-gene deletion were identified in nine patients from eight families with CSD. Two of these nine patients developed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at 4 and 16 years of age. SLC9A3 encodes Na(+)/H(+) antiporter 3 (NHE3), which is the major intestinal brush-border Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. All mutations were in the NHE3 N-terminal transport domain, and all missense mutations were in the putative membrane-spanning domains. Identified SLC9A3 missense mutations were functionally characterized in plasma membrane NHE null fibroblasts. SLC9A3 missense mutations compromised NHE3 activity by reducing basal surface expression and/or loss of basal transport function of NHE3 molecules, whereas acute regulation was normal. This study identifies recessive mutations in NHE3, a downstream target of GC-C, as a cause of CSD and implies primary basal NHE3 malfunction as a predisposition for IBD in a subset of patients.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with functional inhibition of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange. In mice, a selective disruption of NHE3 (Slc9a3), a major apical Na+/H+ exchanger, also promotes IBD-like symptoms and gut microbial dysbiosis. We hypothesized that disruption of Na+/H+ exchange is necessary for the development of dysbiosis, which promotes an exacerbated mucosal inflammatory response. Therefore, we performed a temporal analysis of gut microbiota composition, and mucosal immune response to adoptive T cell transfer was evaluated in Rag2-/- and NHE3-/-/Rag2-/- (DKO) mice with and without broad-spectrum antibiotics. Microbiome (16S profiling), colonic histology, T cell and neutrophil infiltration, mucosal inflammatory tone, and epithelial permeability were analyzed. In adoptive T cell transfer colitis model, Slc9a3 status was the most significant determinant of gut microbial community. In DKO mice, NHE3-deficiency and dysbiosis were associated with dramatically accelerated and exacerbated disease, with rapid body weight loss, increased mucosal T cell and neutrophil influx, increased mucosal cytokine expression, increased permeability, and expansion of CD25-FoxP3+ Tregs; this enhanced susceptibility was alleviated by oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Based on these results and our previous work, we postulate that epithelial electrolyte homeostasis is an important modulator in the progression of colitis, acting through remodeling of the gut microbial community.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Congenital sodium diarrhoea (CSD) refers to a form of secretory diarrhoea with intrauterine onset and high faecal losses of sodium without congenital malformations. The molecular basis for CSD remains unknown. We clinically characterised a cohort of infants with CSD and set out to identify disease-causing mutations by genome-wide genetic testing. DESIGN:We performed whole-exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray analyses in 4 unrelated patients, followed by confirmatory Sanger sequencing of the likely disease-causing mutations in patients and in their family members, followed by functional studies. RESULTS:We identified novel de novo missense mutations in GUCY2C, the gene encoding receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) in 4 patients with CSD. One patient developed severe, early-onset IBD and chronic arthritis at 4?years of age. GC-C is an intestinal brush border membrane-bound guanylate cyclase, which functions as receptor for guanylin, uroguanylin and Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Mutations in GUCY2C were present in different intracellular domains of GC-C, and were activating mutations that enhanced intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate accumulation in a ligand-independent and ligand-stimulated manner, following heterologous expression in HEK293T cells. CONCLUSIONS:Dominant gain-of-function GUCY2C mutations lead to elevated intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and could explain the chronic diarrhoea as a result of decreased intestinal sodium and water absorption and increased chloride secretion. Thus, mutations in GUCY2C indicate a role for this receptor in the pathogenesis of sporadic CSD.
Project description:Autosomal-recessive congenital sodium diarrhea (CSD) is characterized by perinatal onset of a persistent watery diarrhea with nonproportionally high fecal sodium excretion. Defective jejunal brush-border Na(+)/H(+) exchange has been reported in three sporadic patients, but the molecular basis of the disease has not been elucidated. We reviewed data from a large cohort of CSD patients (n = 24) and distinguished CSD associated with choanal or anal atresia, hypertelorism, and corneal erosions--i.e., a syndromic form of CSD--occurring in ten families from an isolated form--i.e., classic CSD--presenting in seven families. Patients from both groups have a high risk of mortality due to immediate electrolyte imbalances and complications from long-term parenteral nutrition in the first years of life, but survivors can eventually adapt to partial or complete enteral nutrition. A genome-wide SNP scan was applied and identified a homozygous c.593-1G-->A splicing mutation in SPINT2, encoding a Kunitz-type serine-protease inhibitor, in one extended kindred with syndromic CSD. The same mutation and four distinct, homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations (p.Y163C, c.1A-->T, c.337+2T-->C, c.553+2T-->A) were identified in all syndromic patients. No SPINT2 mutations were found in classic-CSD patients. SPINT2 mutations were associated with loss of protein synthesis or failure to inhibit the serine protease trypsin in vitro. We delineate syndromic CSD as a distinct disease entity caused by SPINT2 loss-of-function mutations. SPINT2 mutations might lead to an excess of yet unknown serine protease activity in affected tissues.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial Na+/H+ exchange facilitated by the apical NHE3 (Slc9a3) is a highly regulated process inhibited by intestinal pathogens and in inflammatory bowel diseases. NHE3-/- mice develop spontaneous, bacterially mediated colitis, and IBD-like dysbiosis. Disruption of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange in IBD may thus represent a host response contributing to the altered gut microbial ecology, and may play a pivotal role in modulating the severity of inflammation in a microbiome-dependent manner. To test whether microbiome fostered in an NHE3-deficient environment is able to drive mucosal immune responses affecting the onset or severity of colitis, we performed a series of cohousing experiments and fecal microbiome transplants into germ-free Rag-deficient or IL-10-/- mice. We determined that in the settings where the microbiome of NHE3-deficient mice was stably engrafted in the recipient host, it was able accelerate the onset and amplify severity of experimental colitis. NHE3-deficiency was characterized by the reduction in pH-sensitive butyrate-producing Firmicutes families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae (Clostridia clusters IV and XIVa), with an expansion of inflammation-associated Bacteroidaceae. We conclude that the microbiome fostered by impaired epithelial Na+/H+ exchange enhances the onset and severity of colitis through disruption of the gut microbial ecology.
Project description:Arterial hypertension is one of the main contributors to cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, heart failure, and coronary heart disease. Salt plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and is one of the most critical factors for hypertension and stroke. At the individual level, effective salt reduction is difficult to achieve and available methods for managing sodium balance are lacking for many patients. As part of the ingested food, salt is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract by the sodium proton exchanger subtype 3 (NHE3 also known as Slc9a3), influencing extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of pharmacological inhibition of NHE3-mediated sodium absorption in the gut and focus on the effect on blood pressure and end-organ damage.
Project description:Cholera toxin (CT) causes severe diarrhea by increasing intracellular cAMP leading to a PKA-dependent increase in Cl- secretion through CFTR and decreased Na+ absorption through inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3; also known as SLC9A3). The mechanism(s) by which CT inhibits NHE3 is partially understood, although no drug therapy has been successful at reversing this inhibition. We now describe that CT phosphorylates an amino acid in the PDZ domain of SNX27, which inhibits SNX27-mediated trafficking of NHE3 from the early endosomes to the plasma membrane (PM), and contributes to reduced basal NHE3 activity through a mechanism that involves reduced PM expression and reduced endocytic recycling. Importantly, mutagenesis studies (Ser to Asp) showed that the effect of this phosphorylation of SNX27 phenocopies the effects seen upon loss of SNX27 function, affecting PM trafficking of cargo proteins that bind SNX27-retromer. Additionally, CT destabilizes retromer function by decreasing the amount of core retromer proteins. These effects of CT can be partially rescued by enhancing retromer stability by using 'pharmacological chaperones'. Moreover, pharmacological chaperones can be used to increase basal and cholera toxin-inhibited NHE3 activity and fluid absorption by intestinal epithelial cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) plays a key role in coupled electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Reduced NHE3 expression or function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or enteric infections. Our previous studies revealed transcriptional regulation of NHE3 by various agents such as TNF-?, IFN-?, and butyrate involving transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. In silico analysis revealed that the NHE3 core promoter also contains a hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF-4?) binding site that is evolutionarily conserved in several species suggesting that HNF-4? has a role in NHE3 regulation. Nhe3 mRNA levels were reduced in intestine-specific Hnf4?-null mice. However, detailed mechanisms of NHE3 regulation by HNF-4? are not known. We investigated the regulation of NHE3 gene expression by HNF-4? in vitro in the human intestinal epithelial cell line C2BBe1 and in vivo in intestine-specific Hnf4?-null ( Hnf4??IEpC) and control ( Hnf4?fl/fl) mice. HNF-4? knockdown by short interfering RNA in C2BBe1 cells significantly decreased NHE3 mRNA and NHE3 protein levels. Gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HNF-4? directly interacts with the HNF-4? motif in the NHE3 core promoter. Site-specific mutagenesis on the HNF-4? motif decreased, whereas ectopic overexpression of HNF-4? increased, NHE3 promoter activity. Furthermore, loss of HNF-4? in Hnf4??IEpC mice decreased colonic Nhe3 mRNA and NHE3 protein levels. Our results demonstrate a novel role for HNF-4? in basal regulation of NHE3 expression. These studies represent an important and novel target for therapeutic intervention in IBD-associated diarrhea. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our studies for the first time show that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? directly regulates NHE3 promoter activity and its basal expression in the intestine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by histopathologic modifications of esophageal tissue, including eosinophil-rich inflammation, basal zone hyperplasia, and dilated intercellular spaces (DIS). The underlying molecular processes that drive the histopathologic features of EoE remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE:We sought to investigate the involvement of solute carrier family 9, subfamily A, member 3 (SLC9A3) in esophageal epithelial intracellular pH (pHi) and DIS formation and the histopathologic features of EoE. METHODS:We examined expression of esophageal epithelial gene networks associated with regulation of pHi in the EoE transcriptome of primary esophageal epithelial cells and an in vitro esophageal epithelial 3-dimensional model system (EPC2-ALI). Molecular and cellular analyses and ion transport assays were used to evaluate the expression and function of SLC9A3. RESULTS:We identified altered expression of gene networks associated with regulation of pHi and acid-protective mechanisms in esophageal biopsy specimens from pediatric patients with EoE (healthy subjects, n = 6; patients with EoE, n = 10). The most dysregulated gene central to regulating pHi was SLC9A3. SLC9A3 expression was increased within the basal layer of esophageal biopsy specimens from patients with EoE, and expression positively correlated with disease severity (eosinophils/high-power field) and DIS (healthy subjects, n = 10; patients with EoE, n = 10). Analyses of esophageal epithelial cells revealed IL-13-induced, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6-dependent SLC9A3 expression and Na+-dependent proton secretion and that SLC9A3 activity correlated positively with DIS formation. Finally, we showed that IL-13-mediated, Na+-dependent proton secretion was the primary intracellular acid-protective mechanism within the esophageal epithelium and that blockade of SLC9A3 transport abrogated IL-13-induced DIS formation. CONCLUSIONS:SLC9A3 plays a functional role in DIS formation, and pharmacologic interventions targeting SLC9A3 function may suppress the histopathologic manifestations in patients with EoE.
Project description:Mutations in the Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) gene lead to an autosomal dominant disorder known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin syndrome (GS). Several PTCH1 mutations have been observed in NBCCS associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), including non-syndromic KCOTs. The missense mutation c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) in exon 19 of the PTCH1 gene has only been reported in non-syndromic KCOTs. The present study reports for the first time a familial case (father and daughter) of NBCCS and KCOTs, carrying the same c.3277G>C (p.G1093R) germline mutation. This observation suggests that this missense mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of NBCCS as well as in a subset of non-syndromic KCOTs. The identification of a missense mutation may lead to an earlier diagnosis of NBCCS.
Project description:Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) represent a highly conserved family of ion transporters that regulate pH homeostasis. NHEs as well as other proton transporters were previously linked to the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway, cell polarity signaling, and mucociliary function. Furthermore, mutations in the gene SLC9A3 (encoding NHE3) were detected as additional risk factors for airway infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we used the Xenopus embryonic mucociliary epidermis as well as human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) as models to investigate the functional roles of NHEs in mucociliary development and regeneration. In Xenopus embryos, NHEs 1-3 were expressed during epidermal development, and loss of NHE function impaired mucociliary clearance in tadpoles. Clearance defects were caused by reduced cilia formation, disrupted alignment of basal bodies in multiciliated cells (MCCs), and dysregulated mucociliary gene expression. These data also suggested that NHEs may contribute to the activation of Wnt signaling in mucociliary epithelia. In HAECs, pharmacological inhibition of NHE function also caused defective ciliation and regeneration in airway MCCs. Collectively, our data revealed a requirement for NHEs in vertebrate mucociliary epithelia and linked NHE activity to cilia formation and function in differentiating MCCs. Our results provide an entry point for the understanding of the contribution of NHEs to signaling, development, and pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract.