Structural basis for the interaction between the Golgi reassembly-stacking protein GRASP65 and the Golgi matrix protein GM130.
ABSTRACT: GM130 and GRASP65 are Golgi peripheral membrane proteins that play a key role in Golgi stacking and vesicle tethering. However, the molecular details of their interaction and their structural role as a functional unit remain unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the PDZ domains of GRASP65 in complex with the GM130 C-terminal peptide at 1.96-Å resolution. In contrast to previous findings proposing that GM130 interacts with GRASP65 at the PDZ2 domain only, our crystal structure of the complex indicates that GM130 binds to GRASP65 at two distinct sites concurrently and that both the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of GRASP65 participate in this molecular interaction. Mutagenesis experiments support these structural observations and demonstrate that they are required for GRASP65-GM130 association.
Project description:Golgin45 is required for normal Golgi structure and the transportation of protein from the ER. It forms a specific complex with GRASP55 in vivo Little is known regarding the molecular details of this interaction and its structural role in stacking of the Golgi complex. Here, we present the crystal structure of the GRASP domains of GRASP55 in complex with the Golgin45 C-terminal peptide, determined at 1.33 Å resolution. Similar to the structure of GRASP65 bound to GM130 reported recently, this structure reveals more than one interacting site and involves both PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of the GRASP simultaneously. The C-terminal peptides of Golgin45 and GM130 present a conserved PDZ domain binding motif sequence and recognize the canonical PDZ-peptide binding groove of the PDZ1 domains of GRASP55 and GRASP65. A main difference in this recognition process resides in a structural rearrangement of GRASP65-GM130 that does not occur for the GRASP55-Golgin45 complex. The binding site at the cleft between the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of GRASP65 is dominated by hydrophobic interactions with GM130 that are not observed in the GRASP55-Golgin45 complex. In addition, a unique zinc finger structure is revealed in the GRASP55-Golgin45 complex crystal structure. Mutagenesis experiments support these structural observations and demonstrate that two of these sites are required to form a stable complex. Finally, a novel Golgi stacking model is proposed according to these structural findings.
Project description:The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and GRASP55. The structures reveal similar homotypic interactions: the GRASP domain forms a dimer in which the peptide-binding pockets of the two neighboring PDZ2 domains face each other, and the dimers are further connected by the C-terminal tail of one GRASP domain inserting into the binding pocket of the PDZ1 domain in another dimer. Biochemical analysis suggests that both types of contacts are relatively weak but are needed in combination for GRASP-mediated Golgi stacking. Our results unveil a novel mode of membrane tethering by GRASP proteins and provide insight into the mechanism of Golgi stacking.
Project description:In vitro assays identified the Golgi peripheral protein GRASP65 as a Golgi stacking factor that links adjacent Golgi cisternae by forming mitotically regulated trans-oligomers. These conclusions, however, require further confirmation in the cell. In this study, we showed that the first 112 amino acids at the N-terminus (including the first PDZ domain, PDZ1) of the protein are sufficient for oligomerization. Systematic electron microscopic analysis showed that the expression of non-regulatable GRASP65 mutants in HeLa cells enhanced Golgi stacking in interphase and inhibited Golgi fragmentation during mitosis. Depletion of GRASP65 by small interference RNA (siRNA) reduced the number of cisternae in the Golgi stacks; this reduction was rescued by expressing exogenous GRASP65. These results provided evidence and a molecular mechanism by which GRASP65 stacks Golgi cisternal membranes. Further experiments revealed that inhibition of mitotic Golgi disassembly by expressing non-regulatable GRASP65 mutants did not affect equal partitioning of the Golgi membranes into the daughter cells. However, it delayed mitotic entry and suppressed cell growth; this effect was diminished by dispersing the Golgi apparatus with Brefeldin A treatment prior to mitosis, suggesting that Golgi disassembly at the onset of mitosis plays a role in cell cycle progression.
Project description:We have identified a 55 kDa protein, named GRASP55 (Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa), as a component of the Golgi stacking machinery. GRASP55 is homologous to GRASP65, an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive membrane protein required for the stacking of Golgi cisternae in a cell-free system. GRASP65 exists in a complex with the vesicle docking protein receptor GM130 to which it binds directly, and the membrane tethering protein p115, which also functions in the stacking of Golgi cisternae. GRASP55 binding to GM130, could not be detected using biochemical methods, although a weak interaction was detected with the yeast two-hybrid system. Cryo-electron microscopy revealed that GRASP65, like GM130, is present on the cis-Golgi, while GRASP55 is on the medial-Golgi. Recombinant GRASP55 and antibodies to the protein block the stacking of Golgi cisternae, which is similar to the observations made for GRASP65. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and GRASP65 function in the stacking of Golgi cisternae.
Project description:In vitro studies have suggested that Golgi stack formation involves two homologous peripheral Golgi proteins, GRASP65 and GRASP55, which localize to the cis and medial-trans cisternae, respectively. However, no mechanism has been provided on how these two GRASP proteins work together to stack Golgi cisternae. Here, we show that depletion of either GRASP55 or GRASP65 by siRNA reduces the number of cisternae per Golgi stack, whereas simultaneous knockdown of both GRASP proteins leads to disassembly of the entire stack. GRASP55 stacks Golgi membranes by forming oligomers through its N-terminal GRASP domain. This process is regulated by phosphorylation within the C-terminal serine/proline-rich domain. Expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP55 mutants enhances Golgi stacking in interphase cells and inhibits Golgi disassembly during mitosis. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and GRASP65 stack mammalian Golgi cisternae via a common mechanism.
Project description:GRASP65 (Golgi reassembly and stacking protein of 65?KDa) is a cis-Golgi protein with roles in Golgi structure, membrane trafficking and cell signalling. It is cleaved by caspase-3 early in apoptosis, promoting Golgi fragmentation. We now show that cleavage is needed for Fas-mediated apoptosis: expression of caspase-resistant GRASP65 protects cells, whereas expression of membrane proximal caspase-cleaved GRASP65 fragments dramatically sensitises cells. GRASP65 coordinates passage through the Golgi apparatus of proteins containing C-terminal hydrophobic motifs, via its tandem PDZ type 'GRASP' domains. Fas/CD95 contains a C-terminal leucine-valine pairing so its trafficking might be coordinated by GRASP65. Mutagenesis of the Fas/CD95 LV motif reduces the number of cells with Golgi-associated Fas/CD95, and generates a receptor that is more effective at inducing apoptosis; however, siRNA-mediated silencing or expression of mutant GRASP65 constructs do not alter the steady state distribution of Fas/CD95. We also find no evidence for a GRASP65-Fas/CD95 interaction at the molecular level. Instead, we find that the C-terminal fragments of GRASP65 produced following caspase cleavage are targeted to mitochondria, and ectopic expression of these sensitises HeLa cells to Fas ligand. Our data suggest that GRASP65 cleavage promotes Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis via release of C-terminal fragments that act at the mitochondria, and we identify Bcl-X(L) as a candidate apoptotic binding partner for GRASP65.
Project description:Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 65 kDa (GRASP65) and Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa (GRASP55) were originally identified as Golgi stacking proteins; however, subsequent GRASP knockdown experiments yielded inconsistent results with respect to the Golgi structure, indicating a limitation of RNAi-based depletion. In this study, we have applied the recently developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology to knock out GRASP55 and GRASP65, individually or in combination, in HeLa and HEK293 cells. We show that double knockout of GRASP proteins disperses the Golgi stack into single cisternae and tubulovesicular structures, accelerates protein trafficking, and impairs accurate glycosylation of proteins and lipids. These results demonstrate a critical role for GRASPs in maintaining the stacked structure of the Golgi, which is required for accurate posttranslational modifications in the Golgi. Additionally, the GRASP knockout cell lines developed in this study will be useful tools for studying the role of GRASP proteins in other important cellular processes.
Project description:The mammalian Golgi complex is comprised of a ribbon of stacked cisternal membranes often located in the pericentriolar region of the cell. Here, we report that during apoptosis the Golgi ribbon is fragmented into dispersed clusters of tubulo-vesicular membranes. We have found that fragmentation is caspase dependent and identified GRASP65 (Golgi reassembly and stacking protein of 65 kD) as a novel caspase substrate. GRASP65 is cleaved specifically by caspase-3 at conserved sites in its membrane distal COOH terminus at an early stage of the execution phase. Expression of a caspase-resistant form of GRASP65 partially preserved cisternal stacking and inhibited breakdown of the Golgi ribbon in apoptotic cells. Our results suggest that GRASP65 is an important structural component required for maintenance of Golgi apparatus integrity.
Project description:To detect specific partners of the small Golgi-localized GTPase rab1b we generated rab1b mutants and used them as bait proteins in yeast two-hybrid screens. We isolated several specifically interacting clones. Two of them encode large protein fragments highly homologous to rat GM130 and to human Golgin95. The full-length human GM130 cDNA was cloned and its interaction with rab1b was characterized in detail by yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays. Here we report for the first time that the rab1b protein interacts specifically with GM130 in a GTP-dependent manner and therefore needs the hypervariable regions of the N- and C-termini. We mapped the rab1b binding site of GM130 and provide evidence that it is different to the previously described p115 and Grasp65 binding sites of the GM130 protein.
Project description:The mammalian Golgi protein GRASP65 is required in assays that reconstitute cisternal stacking and vesicle tethering. Attached to membranes by an N-terminal myristoyl group, it recruits the coiled-coil protein GM130. The relevance of this system to budding yeasts has been unclear, as they lack an obvious orthologue of GM130, and their only GRASP65 relative (Grh1) lacks a myristoylation site and has even been suggested to act in a mitotic checkpoint. In this study, we show that Grh1 has an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is N-terminally acetylated and mediates association with the cis-Golgi. We find that Grh1 forms a complex with a previously uncharacterized coiled-coil protein, Ydl099w (Bug1). In addition, Grh1 interacts with the Sec23/24 component of the COPII coat. Neither Grh1 nor Bug1 are essential for growth, but biochemical assays and genetic interactions with known mediators of vesicle tethering (Uso1 and Ypt1) suggest that the Grh1-Bug1 complex contributes to a redundant network of interactions that mediates consumption of COPII vesicles and formation of the cis-Golgi.