Elevated Genome-Wide Instability in Yeast Mutants Lacking RNase H Activity.
ABSTRACT: Two types of RNA:DNA associations can lead to genome instability: the formation of R-loops during transcription and the incorporation of ribonucleotide monophosphates (rNMPs) into DNA during replication. Both ribonuclease (RNase) H1 and RNase H2 degrade the RNA component of R-loops, whereas only RNase H2 can remove one or a few rNMPs from DNA. We performed high-resolution mapping of mitotic recombination events throughout the yeast genome in diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking RNase H1 (rnh1?), RNase H2 (rnh201?), or both RNase H1 and RNase H2 (rnh1? rnh201?). We found little effect on recombination in the rnh1? strain, but elevated recombination in both the rnh201? and the double-mutant strains; levels of recombination in the double mutant were ?50% higher than in the rnh201 single-mutant strain. An rnh201? mutant that additionally contained a mutation that reduces rNMP incorporation by DNA polymerase ? (pol2-M644L) had a level of instability similar to that observed in the presence of wild-type Pol ?. This result suggests that the elevated recombination observed in the absence of only RNase H2 is primarily a consequence of R-loops rather than misincorporated rNMPs.
Project description:In <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>, genome stability depends on RNases H1 and H2, which remove ribonucleotides from DNA and eliminate RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). In <i>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</i>, RNase H enzymes were reported to process RNA-DNA hybrids produced at a double-strand break (DSB) generated by I-PpoI meganuclease. However, it is unclear if RNase H is generally required for efficient DSB repair in fission yeast, or whether it has other genome protection roles. Here, we show that <i>S. pombe rnh1? rnh201?</i> cells, which lack the RNase H enzymes, accumulate R-loops and activate DNA damage checkpoints. Their viability requires critical DSB repair proteins and Mus81, which resolves DNA junctions formed during repair of broken replication forks. "Dirty" DSBs generated by ionizing radiation, as well as a "clean" DSB at a broken replication fork, are efficiently repaired in the absence of RNase H. RNA-DNA hybrids are not detected at a reparable DSB formed by fork collapse. We conclude that unprocessed R-loops collapse replication forks in <i>rnh1? rnh201?</i> cells, but RNase H is not generally required for efficient DSB repair.
Project description:Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) protects genome integrity by its dual roles of resolving transcription-related R-loops and ribonucleotides incorporated in DNA during replication. To unlink these two functions, we generated a Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 mutant that can resolve R-loops but cannot cleave single ribonucleotides in DNA. This mutant definitively correlates the 2-5 bp deletions observed in rnh201? strains with single rNMPs in DNA. It also establishes a connection between R-loops and Sgs1-mediated replication reinitiation at stalled forks and identifies R-loops uniquely processed by RNase H2. In mouse, deletion of any of the genes coding for RNase H2 results in embryonic lethality, and in humans, RNase H2 hypomorphic mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a neuroinflammatory disorder. To determine the contribution of R-loops and rNMP in DNA to the defects observed in AGS, we characterized in yeast an AGS-related mutation, which is impaired in processing both substrates, but has sufficient R-loop degradation activity to complement the defects of rnh201? sgs1? strains. However, this AGS-related mutation accumulates 2-5 bp deletions at a very similar rate as the deletion strain.
Project description:Eukaryotic RNases H2 have dual functions in initiating the removal of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) incorporated by DNA polymerases during DNA synthesis and in cleaving the RNA moiety of RNA/DNA hybrids formed during transcription and retrotransposition. The other major cellular RNase H, RNase H1, shares the hybrid processing activity, but not all substrates. After RNase H2 incision at the rNMPs in DNA the Ribonucleotide Excision Repair (RER) pathway completes the removal, restoring dsDNA. The development of the RNase H2-RED (Ribonucleotide Excision Defective) mutant enzyme, which can process RNA/DNA hybrids but is unable to cleave rNMPs embedded in DNA has unlinked the two activities and illuminated the roles of RNase H2 in cellular metabolism. Studies mostly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have shown both activities of RNase H2 are necessary to maintain genome integrity and that RNase H1 and H2 have overlapping as well as distinct RNA/DNA hybrid substrates. In mouse RNase H2-RED confirmed that rNMPs in DNA during embryogenesis induce lethality in a p53-dependent DNA damage response. In mammalian cell cultures, RNase H2-RED helped identifying DNA lesions produced by Top1 cleavage at rNMPs and led to determine that RNase H2 participates in the retrotransposition of LINE-1 elements. In this review, we summarize the studies and conclusions reached by utilization of RNase H2-RED enzyme in different model systems.
Project description:Cells carrying deletions of genes encoding H-class ribonucleases display elevated rates of chromosome instability. The role of these enzymes is to remove RNA-DNA associations including persistent mRNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) formed during transcription, and ribonucleotides incorporated into DNA during replication. RNases H1 and H2 can degrade the RNA component of R-loops, but only RNase H2 can initiate accurate ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). In order to examine the specific contributions of these activities to chromosome stability, we measured rates of loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains carrying the rnh201-RED separation-of-function allele, encoding a version of RNase H2 that is RER-defective, but partly retains its other activity. The LOH rate in rnh201-RED was intermediate between RNH201 and rnh201?. In strains carrying a mutant version of DNA polymerase ? (pol2-M644G) that incorporates more ribonucleotides than normal, the LOH rate in rnh201-RED was as high as the rate measured in rnh201?. Topoisomerase 1 cleavage at sites of ribonucleotide incorporation has been recently shown to produce DNA double strand breaks. Accordingly, in both the POL2 and pol2-M644G backgrounds, the LOH elevation in rnh201-RED was suppressed by top1?. In contrast, in strains that incorporate fewer ribonucleotides (pol2-M644L) the LOH rate in rnh201-RED was low and independent of topoisomerase 1. These results suggest that both R-loop removal and RER contribute substantially to chromosome stability, and that their relative contributions may be variable across different regions of the genome. In this scenario, a prominent contribution of R-loop removal may be expected at highly transcribed regions, whereas RER may play a greater role at hotspots of ribonucleotide incorporation.
Project description:Ribonucleotides can become embedded in DNA from insertion by DNA polymerases, failure to remove Okazaki fragment primers, R-loops that can prime replication, and RNA/cDNA-mediated recombination. RNA:DNA hybrids are removed by RNase H enzymes. Single rNMPs in DNA are removed by RNase H2 and if they remain on the leading strand, can lead to mutagenesis in a Top1-dependent pathway. rNMPs in DNA can also stimulate genome instability, among which are homologous recombination gene conversion events. We previously found that, similar to the rNMP-stimulated mutagenesis, rNMP-stimulated recombination was also Top1-dependent. However, in contrast to mutagenesis, we report here that recombination is not stimulated by rNMPs incorporated by the replicative polymerase epsilon. Instead, recombination seems to be stimulated by multiple contiguous rNMPs, which may arise from R-loops or replication priming events.
Project description:Two types of RNA:DNA associations can lead to genome instability: the formation of R-loops during transcription and the incorporation of ribonucleotide monophosphates (rNMPs) into DNA during replication. Both ribonuclease (RNase) H1 and RNase H2 degrade the RNA component of R-loops, whereas only RNase H2 can remove one or a few rNMPs from DNA. We performed high-resolution mapping of mitotic recombination events throughout the yeast genome in diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking RNase H1 (rnh1Δ), RNase H2 (rnh201Δ), or both RNase H1 and RNase H2 (rnh1Δ rnh201Δ). We found little effect on recombination in the rnh1Δ strain, but elevated recombination in both the rnh201Δ and the double-mutant strains; levels of recombination in the double mutant were about 50% higher than in the rnh201 single-mutant strain. An rnh201Δ mutant that additionally contained a mutation that reduces rNMP incorporation by DNA polymerase ε (pol2-M644L) had a level of instability similar to that observed in the presence of wild-type Polε. This result suggests that the elevated recombination observed in the absence of only RNase H2 is primarily a consequence of R loops rather than misincorporated rNMPs. The details of these experiments are in press in Genetics This diploid S.cerevisiae strain used here is a hybrid between W303-1A and YJM789. The backgrounds are diverged by about 50,000 polymorphisms that are surveyed by custom CGH microarrays containing SNP-specific probes (St. Charles et al., 2012; Genetics 190: 1267-1284; PMID 22267500). The whole genome array surveyed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events throughout the genome of in wild type, pol2-M644L, rnh1Δ, rnh201Δ, rnh201Δ pol2-M644L, and rnh1Δ rnh201Δ mutant backgrounds in 10, 12, 10, 19, 17, and 22 samples, respectively. The names of these strains are KO_198,KO_234, KO_73, KO_75, KO_244, and KO_5, respectively. Another assay was performed mapping reciprocal crossover events on the right arm of chromosome IV in the rnh201Δ (strains KO_135 and KO188) and the rnh1Δrnh201Δ (strain KO_132) mutant backgrounds. A reporter system with a wild type ADE2 on the end of chromosome IV allowed us to detect crossovers by seeing a red-white sectored colony. Each reciprocal event was mapped by doing a microarray specific for the right arm of chromosome IV (St. Charles and Petes, 2013; PLoS Genet. 1267-1284 PMCID PMC3616911) on the red and white sides of sectors. 21 sectors were analyzed for the rnh201Δ mutant while 14 were analyzed for the rnh1Δ rnh201Δ mutant. We mapped crossovers on the right arm of chromosome IV in the rnh201Δ mutant in four different diploid isolates: KO135_5 (1R/1W, 2R/2W, 4R/4W, 5R/5W, 12R/12W, and 13R/13W), KO_135_6 (1R/1W, 4R/4W, 5R/5W, 7R/7W, 9R/9W, 11R/11W, 13R/13W, and 17R/17W), KO 188_1 (1R/1W, and 4R/4W), and KO188_2 (6R/6W, 7R/7W, 11R/11W, and 12R/12W). We mapped crossovers on the right arm of chromosome IV in the rnh1Δ rnh201Δ mutant in two different diploid isolates: KO_132_31 (2R/2W, 6R/6W, 8R/8W, 15R/15W, 17R/17W, 21R/21W, 22R/22W, and 24R/24W) and KO_132_29 (3R/3W, 7R/7W, 18R/18W, 24R/24W, and 34R/34W).
Project description:During DNA synthesis in vitro using dNTP and rNTP concentrations present in vivo, yeast replicative DNA polymerases ?, ? and ? (Pols ?, ? and ?) stably incorporate rNTPs into DNA. rNTPs are also incorporated during replication in vivo, and they are repaired in an RNase H2-dependent manner. In strains encoding a mutator allele of Pol ? (pol2-M644G), failure to remove rNMPs from DNA due to deletion of the RNH201 gene encoding the catalytic subunit of RNase H2, results in deletion of 2-5 base pairs in short repetitive sequences. Deletion rates depend on the orientation of the reporter gene relative to a nearby replication origin, suggesting that mutations result from rNMPs incorporated during replication. Here we demonstrate that 2-5 base pair deletion mutagenesis also strongly increases in rnh201? strains encoding wild type DNA polymerases. As in the pol2-M644G strains, the deletions occur at repetitive sequences and are orientation-dependent, suggesting that mismatches involving misaligned strands arise that could be subject to mismatch repair. Unexpectedly however, 2-5 base pair deletion rates resulting from loss of RNH201 in the pol2-M644G strain are unaffected by concomitant loss of MSH3, MSH6, or both. It could be that the mismatch repair machinery is unable to repair mismatches resulting from unrepaired rNMPs incorporated into DNA by M644G Pol ?, but this possibility is belied by the observation that Msh2-Msh6 can bind to a ribonucleotide-containing mismatch. Alternatively, following incorporation of rNMPs by M644G Pol ? during replication, the conversion of unrepaired rNMPs into mutations may occur outside the context of replication, e.g., during the repair of nicks resulting from rNMPs in DNA. The results make interesting predictions that can be tested.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 resolves RNA-DNA hybrids formed during transcription and it incises DNA at single ribonucleotides incorporated during nuclear DNA replication. To distinguish between the roles of these two activities in maintenance of genome stability, here we investigate the phenotypes of a mutant of yeast RNase H2 (rnh201-RED; ribonucleotide excision defective) that retains activity on RNA-DNA hybrids but is unable to cleave single ribonucleotides that are stably incorporated into the genome. The rnh201-RED mutant was expressed in wild type yeast or in a strain that also encodes a mutant allele of DNA polymerase ? (pol2-M644G) that enhances ribonucleotide incorporation during DNA replication. Similar to a strain that completely lacks RNase H2 (rnh201?), the pol2-M644G rnh201-RED strain exhibits replication stress and checkpoint activation. Moreover, like its null mutant counterpart, the double mutant pol2-M644G rnh201-RED strain and the single mutant rnh201-RED strain delete 2-5 base pairs in repetitive sequences at a high rate that is topoisomerase 1-dependent. The results highlight an important role for RNase H2 in maintaining genome integrity by removing single ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication.
Project description:The chemical identity and integrity of the genome is challenged by the incorporation of ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) in place of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) during replication. Misincorporation is limited by the selectivity of DNA replicases. We show that accumulation of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) in the genome causes replication stress and has toxic consequences, particularly in the absence of RNase H1 and RNase H2, which remove rNMPs. We demonstrate that postreplication repair (PRR) pathways-MMS2-dependent template switch and Pol ?-dependent bypass-are crucial for tolerating the presence of rNMPs in the chromosomes; indeed, we show that Pol ? efficiently replicates over 1-4 rNMPs. Moreover, cells lacking RNase H accumulate mono- and polyubiquitylated PCNA and have a constitutively activated PRR. Our findings describe a crucial function for RNase H1, RNase H2, template switch, and translesion DNA synthesis in overcoming rNTPs misincorporated during DNA replication, and may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.
Project description:Retrotransposons can represent half of eukaryotic genomes. Retrotransposon dysregulation destabilizes genomes and has been linked to various human diseases. Emerging regulators of retromobility include RNA–DNA hybrid-containing structures known as R-loops. Accumulation of these structures at the transposons of yeast 1 (Ty1) elements has been shown to increase Ty1 retromobility through an unknown mechanism. Here, via a targeted genetic screen, we identified the rnh1? rad27? yeast mutant, which lacked both the Ty1 inhibitor Rad27 and the RNA–DNA hybrid suppressor Rnh1. The mutant exhibited elevated levels of Ty1 cDNA-associated RNA–DNA hybrids that promoted Ty1 mobility. Moreover, in this rnh1? rad27? mutant, but not in the double RNase H mutant rnh1? rnh201?, RNA–DNA hybrids preferentially existed as duplex nucleic acid structures and increased Ty1 mobility in a Rad52-dependent manner. The data indicate that in cells lacking RNA–DNA hybrid and Ty1 repressors, elevated levels of RNA-cDNA hybrids, which are associated with duplex nucleic acid structures, boost Ty1 mobility via a Rad52-dependent mechanism. In contrast, in cells lacking RNA–DNA hybrid repressors alone, elevated levels of RNA-cDNA hybrids, which are associated with triplex nucleic acid structures, boost Ty1 mobility via a Rad52-independent process. We propose that duplex and triplex RNA–DNA hybrids promote transposon mobility via Rad52-dependent or -independent mechanisms.