Adapted personalized cognitive counseling for episodic substance-using men who have sex with men: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Episodic drug use and binge drinking are associated with HIV risk among substance-using men who have sex with men (SUMSM), yet no evidence-based interventions exist for these men. We adapted personalized cognitive counseling (PCC) to address self-justifications for high-risk sex among HIV-negative, episodic SUMSM, then randomized men to PCC (n = 162) with HIV testing or control (n = 164) with HIV testing alone. No significant between-group differences were found in the three primary study outcomes: number of unprotected anal intercourse events (UAI), number of UAI partners, and UAI with three most recent non-primary partners. In a planned subgroup analysis of non-substance dependent men, there were significant reductions in UAI with most recent non-primary partners among PCC participants (RR = 0.56; 95 %CI 0.34-0.92; P = 0.02). We did not find evidence that PCC reduced sexual risk behaviors overall, but observed significant reductions in UAI events among non-dependent SUMSM. PCC may be beneficial among SUMSM screening negative for substance dependence.
Project description:Non-dependent alcohol and substance use patterns are prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few effective interventions to reduce their substance use are available for these men. We evaluated whether an adapted brief counseling intervention aimed at reducing HIV risk behavior was associated with secondary benefits of reducing substance use among episodic substance-using MSM (SUMSM).326 episodic SUMSM were randomized to brief Personalized Cognitive Counseling (PCC) intervention with rapid HIV testing or to rapid HIV testing only control. Both arms followed over 6 months. Trends in substance use were examined using GEE Poisson models with robust standard errors by arm. Reductions in frequency of use were examined using ordered logistic regression.In intent-to-treat analyses, compared to men who received rapid HIV testing only, we found men randomized to PCC with rapid HIV testing were more likely to report abstaining from alcohol consumption (RR=0.93; 95% CI=0.89-0.97), marijuana use (RR=0.84; 95% CI=0.73-0.98), and erectile dysfunction drug use (EDD; RR=0.51; 95% CI=0.33-0.79) over the 6-month follow-up. PCC was also significantly associated with reductions in frequency of alcohol intoxication (OR=0.58; 95% CI=0.36-0.90) over follow-up. Furthermore, we found PCC was associated with significant reductions in number of unprotected anal intercourse events while under the influence of methamphetamine (RR=0.26; 95% CI=0.08-0.84).The addition of adapted PCC to rapid HIV testing may have benefits in increasing abstinence from certain classes of substances previously associated with HIV risk, including alcohol and EDD; and reducing alcohol intoxication frequency and high-risk sexual behaviors concurrent with methamphetamine use.
Project description:Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is a major pathway towards secondary HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). We explored the socio-cultural environment and individual beliefs and experiences conducive to UAI in the context of Southern China.We employed an ethnographic approach utilizing a socio-ecological framework to conduct repeated in-depth interviews with thirty one newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM as well as participant observations in Shenzhen based healthcare settings, MSM venues and NGO offices.Some men (6/31) reported continuing to practice UAI after an initial diagnosis of being HIV positive. For MSM who had existing lovers or stable partners, the fear of losing partners in a context of non-serostatus disclosure was testified to be a major concern. MSM with casual partners reported that anonymous sexual encounters and moral judgments played a significant role in their sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneously, self-reported negative emotional and psychological status, perception and idiosyncratic risk interpretation, as well as substance abuse informed the intrapersonal context for UAI.UAI among these HIV positive MSM was embedded in an intrapersonal context, related to partner type, shaped by anonymous sexual encounters, psychological status, and moral judgments. It is important that prevention and intervention for secondary HIV transmission among newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM in China take into account these contextual factors.
Project description:Episodic (less than weekly) drug use and binge drinking increase HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet no evidence-based interventions exist for these men. We describe an adaptation process of the Personalized Cognitive Counseling (PCC) intervention for utilization with high-risk, HIV-negative episodic, substance-using MSM. Participants (N?=?59) were racially diverse, and reported unprotected anal intercourse and concurrent binge drinking (85%), use of poppers (36%), methamphetamine (20%) and cocaine (12%). Semi-structured interviews with 20 episodic, substance-using MSM elicited sexual narratives for engaging in unprotected anal intercourse while using alcohol or drugs. Emergent qualitative themes were translated into self-justifications and included in a revised PCC self-justification elicitation instrument (SJEI). The adapted SJEI was pretested with 19 episodic, substance-using MSM, and the final adapted PCC was pilot-tested for acceptability and feasibility with 20 episodic, substance-using MSM. This process can be used as a roadmap for adapting PCC for other high-risk populations of MSM.
Project description:Practising unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with high numbers of partners is associated with increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Our aim was to describe factors associated with UAI with multiple partners in a large sample of MSM from 38 European countries recruited for an online survey in 2010.Data are from the European Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men Internet Survey (EMIS). The analysis was restricted to men who reported any anal sex with a non-steady partner in the past 12 months, and who were either never diagnosed with HIV, or who had been diagnosed with HIV more than 12 months ago, reported a detectable viral load and did not exclusively serosort (n = 91,477). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare men reporting UAI with four or more (4+) non-steady partners to two comparison groups: a) no UAI with non-steady partners, and b) UAI with 1-3 non-steady partners.Overall, 9.6% of the study population reported UAI with 4+ partners in the past 12 months. In both models, factors consistently associated with this behaviour were: having been diagnosed with HIV, lower educational levels, use of nitrite inhalants, drugs associated with sex and parties, or erectile dysfunction drugs in the past 4 weeks, using sex-on-site venues in the past 4 weeks, buying or selling sex in the past 12 months, having experienced physical violence due to sexual attraction to men in the past 12 months, reporting sexual happiness, being out to all or almost all of one's acquaintances, and knowing that ART reduces HIV transmissibility.Effective antiretroviral treatment drastically reduces HIV transmission for men diagnosed with HIV, irrespective of partner numbers. Apart from reducing partner numbers or increasing condom use no other recommendations are currently in place to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and onward transmission for HIV-negative men practicing UAI with multiple partners. A range of factors were identified as associated with UAI with four or more partners which allow the strengthening and targeting of prevention strategies to reduce HIV transmission risks resulting from condomless anal intercourse with multiple partners.
Project description:Partnership type is an important factor associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and subsequent risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). We examined the association of partnership type with UAI among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (TGW) in Lima, Peru, recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI.We report data from a cross-sectional analysis of MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012. We surveyed participants regarding UAI with up to their three most recent sexual partners according to partner type. Multivariable Generalized Estimate Equating (GEE) models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for UAI according to partner type.Among 339 MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI (mean age: 30.6 years, SD 9.0), 65.5% self-identified as homosexual/gay, 16.0% as bisexual, 15.2% as male-to-female transgender, and 3.3% as heterosexual. Participants provided information on 893 recent male or TGW partners with whom they had engaged in insertive or receptive anal intercourse: 28.9% stable partners, 56.4% non-stable/non-transactional partners (i.e. casual or anonymous), and 14.7% transactional partners (i.e. transactional sex client or sex worker). Unprotected anal intercourse was reported with 41.3% of all partners. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with UAI included partnership type (non-stable/non-transactional partner APR 0.73, [95% CI 0.59-0.91], transactional partner APR 0.53 [0.36-0.78], p<0.05) and the number of previous sexual encounters with the partner (>10 encounters APR 1.43 [1.06-1.92], p<0.05).UAI was more commonly reported for stable partners and in partnerships with >10 sexual encounters, suggesting UAI is more prevalent in partnerships with a greater degree of interpersonal commitment. Further research assessing partner-level factors and behavior is critical for improving HIV and/or STI prevention efforts among Peruvian MSM and TGW.
Project description:Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the largest HIV risk group in the United States. Sexual concurrency catalyzes HIV transmission in populations by increasing the indirect exposure of one's sex partners to one another. Although individual-level (egocentric) designs have demonstrated a high prevalence of concurrency among MSM respondents, methods are lacking for understanding the exposure implications for partners (dyads) reported in such studies.A new technique for manipulating egocentrically collected partnership timing data to measure the degree to which respondents' patterns of concurrency and serial monogamy resulted in the indirect exposure of respondents' partners to other partners was developed. Two outcomes were constructed for each partner: any concurrent or serially monogamous exposure to another partner (any exposure) and any concurrent exposure to another partner, irrespective of serial monogamy (any concurrent exposure). Reports of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) were incorporated to construct the outcomes of 'any UAI exposure' and 'any concurrent UAI exposure.' This method was applied to an online study of MSM aged ?18 years, with comparisons made by partner's race-ethnicity, age, type, and meeting location.Among 4060 repeat partners of 2449 MSM, 73% had any exposure in the previous 6 months; 58% had any concurrent exposure. Among UAI partners, 37% had concurrent UAI exposure. Black UAI partners were more likely than whites to have any concurrent UAI exposure [unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.34 (1.05 to 1.70)], as were casual UAI partners relative to main partners [unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 4.37 (3.58 to 5.35)]. In adjusted models, black UAI partners were significantly more likely to have any UAI exposure, but not concurrent UAI exposure. Casual UAI partners remained more exposed by both outcomes.Sex partners of MSM, particularly casual and black non-Hispanic partners, face a high degree of exposure to other partners.
Project description:Although efficacy is unknown, many men who have sex with men (MSM) attempt to reduce HIV risk by adapting condom use, partner selection, or sexual position to the partner's HIV serostatus. We assessed the association of seroadaptive practices with HIV acquisition.We pooled data on North American MSM from four longitudinal HIV-prevention studies. Sexual behaviors reported during each six-month interval were assigned sequentially to one of six mutually exclusive risk categories: (1) no unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), (2) having a single negative partner, (3) being an exclusive top (only insertive anal sex), (4) serosorting (multiple partners, all HIV negative), (5) seropositioning (only insertive anal sex with potentially discordant partners), and (6) UAI with no seroadaptive practices. HIV antibody testing was conducted at the end of each interval. We used Cox models to evaluate the independent association of each category with HIV acquisition, controlling for number of partners, age, race, drug use, and intervention assignment. 12,277 participants contributed to 60,162 six-month intervals with 663 HIV seroconversions. No UAI was reported in 47.4% of intervals, UAI with some seroadaptive practices in 31.8%, and UAI with no seroadaptive practices in 20.4%. All seroadaptive practices were associated with a lower risk, compared to UAI with no seroadaptive practices. However, compared to no UAI, serosorting carried twice the risk (HR?=?2.03, 95%CI:1.51-2.73), whereas seropositioning was similar in risk (HR?=?0.85, 95%CI:0.50-1.44), and UAI with a single negative partner and as an exclusive top were both associated with a lower risk (HR?=?0.56, 95%CI:0.32-0.96 and HR?=?0.55, 95%CI:0.36-0.84, respectively).Seroadaptive practices appear protective when compared with UAI with no seroadaptive practices, but serosorting appears to be twice as risky as no UAI. Condom use and limiting number of partners should be advocated as first-line prevention strategies, but seroadaptive practices may be considered harm-reduction for men at greatest risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to assess the prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted including online databases like "Wanfang", Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed and manual searches. Analyses using random-effects models were performed to estimate the prevalence of UAI among MSM in China. RESULTS: Sixty-two articles reporting eighty-two studies were selected. The pooled prevalence rates of UAI with any male partner, with regular male partners, with non-regular male partners, with casual male partners, and with commercial male partners among MSM were 53%(95%CI: 51-56%), 45%(95%CI: 39-51%), 34%(95%CI: 24-45%), 33%(95%CI: 30-36%), 12% (95%CI: 5-26%), respectively. A cumulative meta-analysis found that the pooled UAI prevalence decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of UAI with male partners among MSM in China presents a decreasing trend over the past decade, the concomitant rise in HIV prevalence and incidence indicates that current prevention intervention efforts are insufficient to effectively contain the spread of HIV. Therefore, the persistently high prevalence of risky sexual behaviors underscores the need for innovative and effective prevention strategies among MSM.
Project description:Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the largest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk group in the United States. Sexual concurrency may contribute to high HIV incidence or to racial/ethnic HIV disparities among MSM. Limited information is available on concurrency and racial/ethnic differences among MSM or on the extent to which MSM engage in concurrent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI).Data are from baseline responses in a prospective online study of MSM aged 18 years or older, having 1 or more male sex partners in the past 12 months, and recruited from social networking Web sites. Pairwise sexual concurrency and UAI in the previous 6 months among up to 5 recent partners was measured, using an interactive questionnaire. Period prevalences of concurrency and concurrent UAI were computed and compared across racial/ethnic groups at the individual and triad (a respondent and 2 sex partners) levels.A total of 2940 MSM reported on 8911 partnerships; 45% indicated concurrent partnerships, and 16% indicated concurrent UAI in the previous 6 months. Respondents were more likely to have UAI with 2 partners when they were concurrent, compared to serially monogamous (odds ratio, 1.93, 95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.14). No significant differences in levels of individual concurrency or concurrency among triads were found between non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men.Concurrency and concurrent UAI in the previous 6 months was common. Although there were no differences by race/ethnicity, the high levels of concurrency and concurrent UAI may be catalyzing the transmission of HIV among MSM in general.
Project description:China faces a serious HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), and a large proportion of new infections are attributed to their regular male sex partners (RP). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between intimate relationship characteristics and HIV-related behaviors among MSM with RP in Guangzhou, China.A convenience-sampling method was used in data collection. A total of 608 MSM were screened, of whom 406 HIV negative MSM with at least one RP in the past six months were used for data analysis. Three-step logistic regressions were used to analyze the data.The prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with regular male sex partners, non-regular male sex partners, and concurrent UAI in the past six months was 53.9%, 23.6%, 20.7%, respectively. Variables associated with UAI with regular male sex partners included expectations for this relationship (adjusted odds ratio in multiple forward stepwise logistic regression, ORm?=?1.66) and open communication about the sexual relationship (ORm?=?1.79), while expectations for the relationship (ORm?=?0.46 to 0.54) and conflicts of interest (ORm?=?5.46 to 5.97) were associated with concurrent UAI and UAI with non-regular male sex partners.Intimate relationship characteristics were related to HIV-related risk behaviors. Future HIV prevention interventions should take MSM couples into consideration, include a focus on the quality of their intimate relationships, and encourage open communication about their sexual relationships.