Nosocomial emerging of (VIM1) carbapenemase-producing isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in North of Iran.
ABSTRACT: The rapid emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae poses a considerable threat to the care of hospitalized patients and to public health. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) and VIM-1 gene in multidrug-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae.50 isolates of non - duplicated K. pneumoniae cultured from patients at intensive care units were tested for their susceptibilities to 13 different antibiotics using microbroth dilution assay. Isolates showing resistance to at least one of the carbapenems were checked for production of metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs) using imipenem-EDTA synergy tests. PCR was used to detect the gene encoding VIM-1 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL).Of 50 clinical isolates, 26 (52%) were resistant to imipenem in disk diffusion method. Using imipenem-EDTA synergy tests, production of MBL was detected in 15 (30%) isolates. PCR assay showed that 15 isolates were positive for VIM and these included 10 and 5 isolates showing positive and negative results in phenotypic method of MBL detection test respectively. Amikacin was found as the most effective antibiotic against the MBL producers in this study.The emergence of bla(VIM-1) producing K. pneumoniae in North of Iran is concerning. Microorganisms producing bla(VIM-1) constitute the prevalent multidrug-resistant population of K. pneumoniae in that region.
Project description:Seventeen Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates carrying the bla(VIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase gene were collected in the intensive care units of three hospitals in Athens, Greece, in 2002. They exhibited various carbapenem resistance levels (Etest MICs of imipenem ranged from 4 to 32 microg/ml). All isolates gave positive results by the imipenem-EDTA synergy Etest. The isolates were classified into four main types by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; the majority of the isolates (5 and 10 isolates) belonged to two types. The bla(VIM-1) gene cassette was part of the variable region of a class 1 integron that also included aac6, dhfrI, and aadA. This structure was carried by transferable plasmids.
Project description:Background and Objectives:New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) is a newly emerging metallo-ß-lactamases, which can destroy all ?-lactams including carbapenems. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1-production in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods:In a cross-sectional study, 181 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from clinical samples of patients, who referred to Shahid Beheshi hospital in Kashan during November 2013 and October 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using disk diffusion method, according to CLSI guidelines. Metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) production was identified among imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates using imipenem-EDTA double disk synergy test (EDTA-IMP DDST). PCR method and sequencing were used to detect integron Class 1 and blaNDM-1 gene. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software Version 16. Results:Of the 181 K. pneumoniae isolates, 36 (19.9 %) were imipenem-resistant strains. A total of 28 out of 36 (77.7%) imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were identified as MBL producer strains. Also, 150 (82.9%) K. pneumoniae isolates carried intI1 gene, and 20 (11.1%) K. pneumoniae isolates harbored blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion:Our study revealed a high frequency of MBL production and the presence of blaNDM-1 among K. pneumoniae strains, especially among hospitalized patients, which is alarming. Moreover, the presence of Class 1 integrons in all multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates highlights the risk of rapid spread of the resistance genes, especially in clinical settings.
Project description:A microdilution test measuring imipenem MICs in the presence or absence of a mixture of EDTA plus 1,10-phenanthroline was developed and tested on 190 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, including 18 VIM- and 4 IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producers. The chelator mixture reduced by fourfold or more the imipenem MICs for MBL producers, while a lower effect or no effect was usually observed with MBL nonproducers.
Project description:Accurate detection of metallo-?-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. became very important with the increasing prevalence of carbapenem-nonsusceptible clinical isolates. The performance of phenotypic MBL detection methods may depend on the types of MBL and the characteristics of the isolates. A high false-positive rate is a problem with EDTA-based MBL detection methods. We evaluated the performance of double-disk potentiation tests (DDPTs) and disk potentiation tests (DPTs) with dipicolinic acid (DPA) using 44 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. producing IMP-1-like, VIM-2-like, and SIM-1 type MBLs. Also, we characterized P. aeruginosa isolates with positive imipenem (IPM)-DPA DDPT, but negative meropenem (MEM)-DPA DDPT, and determined possibility of improving a DDPT by using MacConkey agar. Among five different DDPT methods, the IPM-DPA 250-?g method showed the highest sensitivity (97.7%) and specificity (100%). Among four DPT tests, the highest sensitivity (100%) was shown by the IPM-EDTA 1,900-?g disk method, but the specificity was very low (11.4%). Five of six P. aeruginosa isolates with false-negative DDPTs with MEM-DPA 250-?g disks carried bla(IMP-6,) and the high level resistance to MEM (MIC ? 512 ?g/ml) was reduced by the presence of phenylalanine arginine ?-naphtylamide. Improvement of DDPTs was observed when MacConkey agar was used instead of Mueller-Hinton agar. In conclusion, DPA is a better MBL inhibitor than EDTA for detection of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. with IMP-1-like, VIM-2-like, and SIM-1-type MBLs. In DPA DDPTs, IPM disks perform better than MEM disks when the isolates are highly resistant to MEM due to the overexpression of efflux pumps.
Project description:New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1(NDM-1) is a novel type of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) which inactivates all β-lactam antibiotics except aztreonam. Enterobacteriaceae expressing NDM-1 have been identified worldwide. The aim of this study was to detect MBLs in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from patients hospitalized in one of the university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran.Of the 112 isolates obtained from various clinical samples, 49 were selected for carbapenemase detection based on their reduced susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem according to the disc diffusion method. These isolates were screened for carbapenemase and MBL production using the Modiﬁed Hodge Test (MHT) and Epsilometer test (E-test) MBL strips. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on all 49 isolates using specific primers to detect genes encoding IMP (active on imipenem), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase), SPM-1 (Sao Paulo metallo-β-lactamase) and NDM-1.Among 49 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 32 (65.3 %) were positive for MHT and 6 (12.2 %) were found positive for blaNDM-1. Other MBL genes were not detected.This is the second report on the detection of blaNDM-1 in Iran since it was first reported by Shahcheraghi and colleagues in 2012. This study indicated that resistance to carbapenems and isolation of bacteria producing NDM-1 is increasing. Therefore, the rapid detection of isolates expressing NDM-1 is essential to control their spread. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 205-209.
Project description:Background:Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii has become a major concern for treating physicians. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metallo ?-lactamase (MBL) genes (bla VIM , and bla IMP) among isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii . Methods:Fifty non-repetitive carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by disk diffusion method. MICs were determined by E test method. The resistant strains were tested for the production of carbapenemases by the Modified Hodge Test (MHT) followed by EDTA-disk synergy test was performed for metallo-?-lactamases (MBL) phenotypic detection. Detection of bla VIM , and bla IMP was performed by PCR followed by sequencing. Results:All isolates had a multidrug resistant profile, and were all resistant to all antibiotics including the carbapenems but remained susceptible to colistin. Among these isolates, Carbapenemase production was confirmed by the Modified Hodge test for 42 (84%) isolates. Phenotypic method showed the production of MBL in 15 (30%) isolates. PCR techniques revealed that out of 50 isolates, 13 (26%) were positive for bla VIM and all were negative for bla IMP . Conclusion:Our study concludes that the high prevalence of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter species with MBL production is one of the main concerns in our country and this situation needs strict infection control measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Carbapenems are important drugs used for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, however metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) are able to efficiently hydrolyze these classes of drugs. Immediate detection of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa is necessary in order to accurately treat infections caused by this organism. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of MBL producing P. aeruginosa in burn and non-burn patients by two phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare phenotypic tests with PCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 223 non-duplicate strains of P. aeruginosa were collected from three teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and E-test methods. Combined disk (CD) test, MBL E-test and PCR were performed for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. RESULTS: Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 58.7% were resistant to imipenem while 31.8%, 13.5% and 74.4% were resistant to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem, respectively. Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 44.4% were multidrug resistant and 13.45% were resistant to all of the carbapenems. The CD test with doripenem disk / 750 μg ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) had the highest efficiency compared to the other phenotypic tests. bla IMP and bla VIM genes were detected in 11.7% and 0.4% of isolates, respectively. bla SPM and bla NDM genes were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological and regional evaluation of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa through simple and inexpensive methods should be considered for effective treatment of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections.
Project description:Carbapenem resistance due to acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is considered to be more serious than other resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum plants on IMP-producing P.aeruginosa strains. This experimental study was carried out on hospitalized burn patients during 2011 and 2012. Antibiotics and extracts susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. MBL detection was performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Using Combination Disk Diffusion test method, it was found that among 83 imipenem resistant P.aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) were MBL producers. PCR and sequencing methods proved that these isolates were positive for blaIMP-1 genes, whereas none were positive for bla(VIM) genes. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients with MBL-producing Pseudomonas infection was 4/48 (8.3%). It was shown that Zataria multiflora and Carum copticum extracts had a high antibacterial effect on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains in 6.25 mg/ml concentration. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients is very high. In our study, all MBL-producing isolates carry the blaIMP-1 gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa, and in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of Z. multiflora and C. copticum have high antibacterial effects on ß-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains.
Project description:Scandinavia is considered a region with a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. However, the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria is increasing, including metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates identified in Norway (n = 4) and Sweden (n = 9) from 1999 to 2007 were characterized. Two international clonal complexes (CC), CC111 (n = 8) and CC235 (n = 2), previously associated with MBL-producing isolates, were dominant. CC111 isolates (ST111/229; serotype O12; bla(VIM-2)) included clonally related isolates identified in Skåne County, Sweden (n = 6), and two isolates associated with importation from Greece and Denmark. In all CC111 isolates, bla(VIM-2) was located in integron In59.2 or In59 variants. The two CC235 isolates (ST235/ST230; serotype O11; bla(VIM-4)) were imported from Greece and Cyprus, were possibly clonally related, and carried bla(VIM-4) in two different integron structures. Three isolates imported from Ghana (ST233; serotype O6; bla(VIM-2)), Tunisia (ST654; serotype O11; bla(VIM-2)), and Thailand (ST260; serotype O6; bla(IMP-14)) were clonally unrelated. ST233 was part of a new CC (CC233) that included other MBL-producing isolates, while ST654 could also be part of a new CC associated with MBL producers. In the isolates imported from Ghana and Tunisia, bla(VIM-2) was part of unusual integron structures lacking the 3' conserved segment and associated with transposons. The bla(VIM) gene was found to be located on the chromosome in all isolates. Known risk factors for acquisition of MBL were reported for all patients except one. The findings suggest that both import of successful international clones and local clonal expansion contribute to the emergence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in Scandinavia.
Project description:VIM-27 metallo-β-lactamase, an Ala(57) → Ser variant of VIM-1, was identified in three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to sequence type 147. bla(VIM-27) was part of a class 1 integron carried by non-self-transferable plasmids. Kinetic parameters and MIC determinations indicated that VIM-27 hydrolyzed most β-lactams, especially imipenem and cefoxitin, less effectively than VIM-1.