Spectral splitting photovoltaics using perovskite and wideband dye-sensitized solar cells.
ABSTRACT: The extension of the light absorption of photovoltaics into the near-infrared region is important to increase the energy conversion efficiency. Although the progress of the lead halide perovskite solar cells is remarkable, and high conversion efficiency of >20% has been reached, their absorption limit on the long-wavelength side is ?800?nm. To further enhance the conversion efficiency of perovskite-based photovoltaics, a hybridized system with near-infrared photovoltaics is a useful approach. Here we report a panchromatic sensitizer, coded DX3, that exhibits a broad response into the near-infrared, up to ?1100 nm, and a photocurrent density exceeding 30?mA?cm(-2) in simulated air mass 1.5 standard solar radiation. Using the DX3-based dye-sensitized solar cell in conjunction with a perovskite cell that harvests visible light, the hybridized mesoscopic photovoltaics achieved a conversion efficiency of 21.5% using a system of spectral splitting.
Project description:Solar hydrogen and electricity are promising high energy-density renewable sources. Although photochemistry or photovoltaics are attractive routes, special challenge arises in sunlight conversion efficiency. To improve efficiency, various semiconductor materials have been proposed with selective sunlight absorption. Here, we reported a hybrid system synergizing photo-thermochemical hydrogen and photovoltaics, harvesting full-spectrum sunlight in a cascade manner. A simple suspension of Au-TiO<sub>2</sub> in water/methanol serves as a spectrum selector, absorbing ultraviolet-visible and infrared energy for rapid photo-thermochemical hydrogen production. The transmitted visible and near-infrared energy fits the photovoltaic bandgap and retains the high efficiency of a commercial photovoltaic cell under different solar concentration values. The experimental design achieved an overall efficiency of 4.2% under 12 suns solar concentration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a reduced energy loss in full-spectrum energy conversion into hydrogen and electricity. Such simple integration of photo-thermochemical hydrogen and photovoltaics would create a pathway toward cascading use of sunlight energy.
Project description:In this paper, Er3+-Yb3+-Li+ tri-doped TiO2 (UC-TiO2) was prepared by an addition of Li+ to Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped TiO2. The UC-TiO2 presented an enhanced up-conversion emission compared with Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped TiO2. The UC-TiO2 was applied to the perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cells without UC-TiO2 was 14.0%, while the PCE of the solar cells with UC-TiO2 was increased to 16.5%, which presented an increase of 19%. The results suggested that UC-TiO2 is an effective up-conversion material. And this study provided a route to expand the spectral absorption of perovskite solar cells from visible light to near-infrared using up-conversion materials.
Project description:Conventional electrodes in typical photodetectors only conduct electrical signals and introduce high optical reflection, impacting the optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency. The created surface solar harvester with a multi-functional folded electrode (MFFE) realizes both a three-dimensional Schottky junction with a larger light detecting area as well as low optical reflection from 300 nm (ultra-violet light) to 1100 nm (near-infrared light) broadly without an additional anti-reflection layer. The MFFE needs silicon etching following the lithography process. The metal silver was deposited over structured silicon, completing the whole device simply. According to the experimental results, the width ratio of the bottom side to the top side in MFFE was 15.75, and it showed an optical reflection of 5-7% within the major solar spectrum of AM1.5G by the gradient refractive index effect and the multi-scattering phenomenon simultaneously. While the perovskite materials were deposited over the MFFE structure of the solar harvester, the three-dimensional electrode with lower optical reflection benefitted the perovskite solar cell with a larger detecting area and an additional anti-reflection function to absorb solar energy more efficiently. In this concept, because of the thin stacked film in the perovskite solar cell, the solar energy could be harvested by the prepared Schottky junction of the solar harvester again, except for the optical absorption of the perovskite materials. Moreover, the perovskite materials deposited over the MFFE structure could not absorb near-infrared (NIR) energies to become transparent. The NIR light could be harvested by the light detecting junction of the solar harvester to generate effective photocurrent output additionally for extending the detection capability of perovskite solar cell further. In this work, the concept of integration of a conventional perovskite solar cell with a silicon-based solar harvester having an MFFE structure was proposed and is expected to harvest broadband light energies under low optical reflection and enhance the solar energy conversion efficiency.
Project description:In this article, we present a new paradigm for organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell using NiO inorganic metal oxide nanocrystalline as p-type electrode material and realized the first mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) heterojunction photovoltaic device. The photo-induced transient absorption spectroscopy results verified that the architecture is an effective p-type sensitized junction, which is the first inorganic p-type, metal oxide contact material for perovskite-based solar cell. Power conversion efficiency of 9.51% was achieved under AM 1.5 G illumination, which significantly surpassed the reported conventional p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The replacement of the organic hole transport materials by a p-type metal oxide has the advantages to provide robust device architecture for further development of all-inorganic perovskite-based thin-film solar cells and tandem photovoltaics.
Project description:This work reports on a compositionally graded heterojunction for photovoltaic application by cooperating fluorine-doped carbon quantum dots (FCQDs in short) into the CsPbI<sub>2.5</sub>Br<sub>0.5</sub> inorganic perovskite layer. Using this CsPbI<sub>2.5</sub>Br<sub>0.5</sub>/FCQDs graded heterojunction in conjunction with low-temperature-processed carbon electrode, a power conversion efficiency of 13.53% for 1 cm<sup>2</sup> all-inorganic perovskite solar cell can be achieved at AM 1.5G solar irradiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the highest efficiency reported for carbon electrode based all-inorganic perovskite solar cells so far, and the first report of 1 cm<sup>2</sup> carbon counter electrode based inorganic perovskite solar cell with PCE exceeding 13%. Moreover, the inorganic perovskite/carbon quantum dot graded heterojunction photovoltaics maintained over 90% of their initial efficiency after thermal aging at 85° for 1056 hours. This conception of constructing inorganic perovskite/FCQDs graded heterojunction offers a feasible pathway to develop efficient and stable photovoltaics for scale-up and practical applications.
Project description:Artificial photosynthesis, mimicking nature in its efforts to store solar energy, has received considerable attention from the research community. Most of these attempts target the production of H2 as a fuel and our group recently demonstrated solar-to-hydrogen conversion at 12.3% efficiency. Here, in an effort to take this approach closer to real photosynthesis, which is based on the conversion of CO2, we demonstrate the efficient reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide driven solely by simulated sunlight using water as the electron source. Employing series-connected perovskite photovoltaics and high-performance catalyst electrodes, we reach a solar-to-CO efficiency exceeding 6.5%, which represents a new benchmark in sunlight-driven CO2 conversion. Considering hydrogen as a secondary product, an efficiency exceeding 7% is observed. Furthermore, this study represents one of the first demonstrations of extended, stable operation of perovskite photovoltaics, whose large open-circuit voltage is shown to be particularly suited for this process.
Project description:A near-infrared-harvesting n-type porphyrin-based acceptor for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) was developed. The n-type acceptor, PDI-PZn-PDI, was designed by connecting a zinc porphyrin (PZn) core to two perylenediimide (PDI) wings through ethyne bridges. A narrow bandgap of 1.27 eV was achieved through the extended ?-conjugation and intramolecular charge transfer between the strongly electron-donating PZn core and the electron-accepting PDI wings. A bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structured photovoltaic device fabricated from PDI-PZn-PDI with PTB7-Th exhibited panchromatic photon-to-current conversion from 350 to 900 nm. A power conversion efficiency of 5.25% with a remarkably low Eloss of 0.54 eV was achieved by optimizing the nanomorphology of the BHJ films by adding pyridine and by controlling the ZnO/BHJ interfacial properties.
Project description:Low-dimensional hybrid perovskite materials offer significantly improved stability as well as an extensive compositional space to explore. However, they suffer from poor photovoltaic performance as compared to the 3D perovskite materials because of poor charge-transport properties. Herein, we present the concept of internal dye-sensitized hybrid perovskite compounds involving five novel low-dimensional perovskite-type materials 1-5 incorporating triarylmethane, phenazinium and near-infrared (NIR) cyanine cationic dyes, respectively. The synthesis characterization and theoretical analysis of these compounds are presented. Theoretical calculations provide interesting insights into the effects of these dyes on the band structure of the low-dimensional anionic metal-halides and especially highlight compound 1 as a promising photovoltaic candidate. Solar cell investigation of devices based on 1 were conducted. The results show an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of about 0.1%, which is among the highest reported for a 1D material despite the use of undoped Spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transport material (HTM). Incident photon-to-electron efficiency (IPCE) spectra confirm the contribution of the dye to the overall photocurrent of the solar cell. Moreover, examination of solar cell devices based on the bismuth-based compound 5 resulted in PCEs in the range of 0.1%. This illustrates the potential of this concept to be exploited for lead-free photovoltaics. Finally automated robotized screening of low-dimensional hybrid perovskite materials through the screening robot PROTEUS has emerged as a powerful tool in the search for novel perovskite-like materials. Our work highlights that the use of cationic dyes could induce interesting sensitizing properties to low-dimensional metal-halide chains and may therefore provide inspiration and new design strategies for the synthesis of new lead-free photovoltaic materials.
Project description:Compositional grading has been widely exploited in highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se<sub>2</sub>, CdTe, GaAs, quantum dot solar cells, and this strategy has the potential to improve the performance of emerging perovskite solar cells. However, realizing and maintaining compositionally graded perovskite absorber from solution processing is challenging. Moreover, the operational stability of graded perovskite solar cells under long-term heat/light soaking has not been demonstrated. In this study, a facile partial ion-exchange approach is reported to achieve compositionally graded perovskite absorber layers. Incorporating compositional grading improves charge collection and suppresses interface recombination, enabling to fabricate near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 16.8% in substrate configuration, and demonstrate 22.7% tandem efficiency with 3.3% absolute gain when mechanically stacked on a Cu(In,Ga)Se<sub>2</sub> bottom cell. Non-encapsulated graded perovskite device retains over 93% of its initial efficiency after 1000 h operation at maximum power point at 60 °C under equivalent 1 sun illumination. The results open an avenue in exploring partial ion-exchange to design graded perovskite solar cells with improved efficiency and stability.
Project description:We report on a new metal halide perovskite photovoltaic cell that exhibits both very high solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and intense electroluminescence. We produce the perovskite films in a single step from a solution containing a mixture of FAI, PbI2, MABr, and PbBr2 (where FA stands for formamidinium cations and MA stands for methylammonium cations). Using mesoporous TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron- and hole-specific contacts, respectively, we fabricate perovskite solar cells that achieve a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 20.8% for a PbI2/FAI molar ratio of 1.05 in the precursor solution. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data reveals that the excess PbI2 content incorporated into such a film is about 3 weight percent. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements show that the small excess of PbI2 suppresses nonradiative charge carrier recombination. This in turn augments the external electroluminescence quantum efficiency to values of about 0.5%, a record for perovskite photovoltaics approaching that of the best silicon solar cells. Correspondingly, the open-circuit photovoltage reaches 1.18 V under AM 1.5 sunlight.