Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population.
ABSTRACT: The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49?803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and 105 domestic pigs (DP; 11 breeds). High levels of genetic variation were observed in Sardinia (80.9% of the total number of polymorphisms), which can be only in part associated to recent genetic introgression. Both Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering approach revealed that the Sardinian WB population is highly differentiated from the other European populations (FST=0.126-0.138), and from DP (FST=0.169). Such evidences were mostly unaffected by an uneven sample size, although clustering results in reference populations changed when the number of individuals was standardized. Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) pattern and distribution in Sardinian WB are consistent with a past expansion following a bottleneck (small ROHs) and recent population substructuring (highly homozygous individuals). The observed effect of a non-random selection of Sardinian individuals on diversity, FST and ROH estimates, stressed the importance of sampling design in the study of structured or introgressed populations. Our results support the heterogeneity and distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and prompt further investigations on its origins and conservation status.
Project description:In ascomycete fungi, hyphal cells are separated by perforate septa, which allow cell-to-cell communication. To protect against extensive wound-induced damage, septal pores are sealed by peroxisome-derived Woronin bodies (WBs). The mechanism underpinning WB movement is unknown, but cytoplasmic bulk flow may "flush" WBs into the pore. However, some studies suggest a controlled and active mechanism of WB movement. Indeed, in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici cellular ATP prevents WBs from pore sealing in unwounded cells. Thus, cells appear to exert active control over WB closure. Here, we summarize our current understanding of WB-based pore sealing in ascomycete fungi.
Project description:Septa of filamentous ascomycetes are perforated by septal pores that allow communication between individual hyphal compartments. Upon injury, septal pores are plugged rapidly by Woronin bodies (WBs), thereby preventing extensive cytoplasmic bleeding. The mechanism by which WBs translocate into the pore is not known, but it has been suggested that wound-induced cytoplasmic bleeding "flushes" WBs into the septal opening. Alternatively, contraction of septum-associated tethering proteins may pull WBs into the septal pore. Here, we investigate WB dynamics in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Ultrastructural studies showed that 3.4 ± 0.2 WBs reside on each side of a septum and that single WBs of 128.5 ± 3.6 nm in diameter seal the septal pore (41 ± 1.5 nm). Live cell imaging of green fluorescent ZtHex1, a major protein in WBs, and the integral plasma membrane protein ZtSso1 confirms WB translocation into the septal pore. This was associated with the occasional formation of a plasma membrane "balloon," extruding into the dead cell, suggesting that the plasma membrane rapidly seals the wounded septal pore wound. Minor amounts of fluorescent ZtHex1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) appeared associated with the "ballooning" plasma membrane, indicating that cytoplasmic ZtHex1-eGFP is recruited to the extending plasma membrane. Surprisingly, in ~15% of all cases, WBs moved from the ruptured cell into the septal pore. This translocation against the cytoplasmic flow suggests that an active mechanism drives WB plugging. Indeed, treatment of unwounded and intact cells with the respiration inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone induced WB translocation into the pores. Moreover, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone treatment recruited cytoplasmic ZtHex1-eGFP to the lateral plasma membrane of the cells. Thus, keeping the WBs out of the septal pores, in Z. tritici, is an ATP-dependent process.
Project description:Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are recognized signature of recessive inheritance. Contributions of ROHs to the genetic architecture of coronary artery disease and regulation of gene expression in cells relevant to atherosclerosis are not known. Our combined analysis of 24,320 individuals from 11 populations of white European ethnicity showed an association between coronary artery disease and both the count and the size of ROHs. Individuals with coronary artery disease had approximately 0.63 (95% CI: 0.4-0.8) excess of ROHs when compared to coronary-artery-disease-free control subjects (p = 1.49 × 10(-9)). The average total length of ROHs was approximately 1,046.92 (95% CI: 634.4-1,459.5) kb greater in individuals with coronary artery disease than control subjects (p = 6.61 × 10(-7)). None of the identified individual ROHs was associated with coronary artery disease after correction for multiple testing. However, in aggregate burden analysis, ROHs favoring increased risk of coronary artery disease were much more common than those showing the opposite direction of association with coronary artery disease (p = 2.69 × 10(-33)). Individual ROHs showed significant associations with monocyte and macrophage expression of genes in their close proximity-subjects with several individual ROHs showed significant differences in the expression of 44 mRNAs in monocytes and 17 mRNAs in macrophages when compared to subjects without those ROHs. This study provides evidence for an excess of homozygosity in coronary artery disease in outbred populations and suggest the potential biological relevance of ROHs in cells of importance to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Eukaryotic organelles evolve to support the lifestyle of evolutionarily related organisms. In the fungi, filamentous Ascomycetes possess dense-core organelles called Woronin bodies (WBs). These organelles originate from peroxisomes and perform an adaptive function to seal septal pores in response to cellular wounding. Here, we identify Leashin, an organellar tether required for WB inheritance, and associate it with evolutionary variation in the subcellular pattern of WB distribution. In Neurospora, the leashin (lah) locus encodes two related adjacent genes. N-terminal sequences of LAH-1 bind WBs via the WB-specific membrane protein WSC, and C-terminal sequences are required for WB inheritance by cell cortex association. LAH-2 is localized to the hyphal apex and septal pore rim and plays a role in colonial growth. In most species, WBs are tethered directly to the pore rim, however, Neurospora and relatives have evolved a delocalized pattern of cortex association. Using a new method for the construction of chromosomally encoded fusion proteins, marker fusion tagging (MFT), we show that a LAH-1/LAH-2 fusion can reproduce the ancestral pattern in Neurospora. Our results identify the link between the WB and cell cortex and suggest that splitting of leashin played a key role in the adaptive evolution of organelle localization.
Project description:Water bodies (WBs), such as lakes, ponds, and impoundments, provide essential ecosystem services for human society, yet their characteristics and changes over large areas remain elusive. Here we used unprecedented data layers derived from all Landsat images available between 1984 and 2015 to understand the overall characteristics and changes of WBs between 2 epochs (i.e., 1984 to 1999 and 2000 to 2015) in China. Results show that the abundance estimate of WBs greater than 1 km2 and the total WB surface area were 0.3 to 1.5 times and 0.2 to 0.5 times more than the previous estimates, respectively. The size-abundance and shoreline-area relationships of WBs in China conformed to the classic power scaling law, in contradiction to most previous studies. WB changes with various occurrence probabilities show widespread coexistence of disappearance of existent and emergence of new WBs across China driven primarily by human activities and climate change. Our results highlight the importance of using appropriate long-term satellite data to reveal the true properties and dynamics of WBs over large areas, which is essential for developing scaling theories and understanding the relative impacts of human activities and climate change on water resources in the world.
Project description:Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a common microdeletion syndrome characterized by a 1.5Mb deletion in 7q11.23. The phenotype of WBS has been well described in populations of European descent with not as much attention given to other ethnicities. In this study, individuals with WBS from diverse populations were assessed clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical data and images from 137 individuals with WBS were found in 19 countries with an average age of 11 years and female gender of 45%. The most common clinical phenotype elements were periorbital fullness and intellectual disability which were present in greater than 90% of our cohort. Additionally, 75% or greater of all individuals with WBS had malar flattening, long philtrum, wide mouth, and small jaw. Using facial analysis technology, we compared 286 Asian, African, Caucasian, and Latin American individuals with WBS with 286 gender and age matched controls and found that the accuracy to discriminate between WBS and controls was 0.90 when the entire cohort was evaluated concurrently. The test accuracy of the facial recognition technology increased significantly when the cohort was analyzed by specific ethnic population (P-value?<?0.001 for all comparisons), with accuracies for Caucasian, African, Asian, and Latin American groups of 0.92, 0.96, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively. In summary, we present consistent clinical findings from global populations with WBS and demonstrate how facial analysis technology can support clinicians in making accurate WBS diagnoses.
Project description:Woronin bodies (WBs) are dense-core organelles that are found exclusively in filamentous fungi and that seal the septal pore in response to wounding. These organelles consist of a membrane-bound protein matrix comprised of the HEX protein and, although they form from peroxisomes, their biogenesis is poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, we identify Woronin sorting complex (WSC), a PMP22/MPV17-related membrane protein with dual functions in WB biogenesis. WSC localizes to large peroxisome membranes where it self-assembles into detergent-resistant oligomers that envelop HEX assemblies, producing asymmetrical nascent WBs. In a reaction requiring WSC, these structures are delivered to the cell cortex, which permits partitioning of the nascent WB and WB inheritance. Our findings suggest that WSC and HEX collaborate and control distinct aspects of WB biogenesis and that cortical association depends on WSC, which in turn depends on HEX. This dependency helps order events across the organellar membrane, permitting the peroxisome to produce a second organelle with a distinct composition and intracellular distribution.
Project description:Evolutionarily significant selective sweeps may result in long stretches of homozygous polymorphisms in individuals from outbred populations. We developed whole-genome homozygosity association (WGHA) methodology to characterize this phenomenon in healthy individuals and to use this genomic feature to identify genetic risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ). Applying WGHA to 178 SCZ cases and 144 healthy controls genotyped at 500,000 markers, we found that runs of homozygosity (ROHs), ranging in size from 200 kb to 15 mb, were common in unrelated Caucasians. Properties of common ROHs in healthy subjects, including chromosomal location and presence of nonancestral haplotypes, converged with prior reports identifying regions under selective pressure. This interpretation was further supported by analysis of multiethnic HapMap samples genotyped with the same markers. ROHs were significantly more common in SCZ cases, and a set of nine ROHs significantly differentiated cases from controls. Four of these 9 "risk ROHs" contained or neighbored genes associated with SCZ (NOS1AP, ATF2, NSF, and PIK3C3). Several of these risk ROHs were very rare in healthy subjects, suggesting that recessive effects of relatively high penetrance may explain a proportion of the genetic liability for SCZ. Other risk ROHs feature haplotypes that are also common in healthy individuals, possibly indicating a source of balancing selection.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) help to understand the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on breast cancer (BC) progression and survival. We performed multiple analyses on data from a previously conducted GWAS for the influence of individual SNPs, runs of homozygosity (ROHs) and inbreeding on BC survival. (I.) The association of individual SNPs indicated no differences in the proportions of homozygous individuals among short-time survivors (STSs) and long-time survivors (LTSs). (II.) The analysis revealed differences among the populations for the number of ROHs per person and the total and average length of ROHs per person and among LTSs and STSs for the number of ROHs per person. (III.) Common ROHs at particular genomic positions were nominally more frequent among LTSs than in STSs. Common ROHs showed significant evidence for natural selection (iHS, Tajima's D, Fay-Wu's H). Most regions could be linked to genes related to BC progression or treatment. (IV.) Results were supported by a higher level of inbreeding among LTSs. Our results showed that an increased level of homozygosity may result in a preference of individuals during BC treatment. Although common ROHs were short, variants within ROHs might favor survival of BC and may function in a recessive manner.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A Bayesian approach based on a Dirichlet process (DP) prior is useful for inferring genetic population structures because it can infer the number of populations and the assignment of individuals simultaneously. However, the properties of the DP prior method are not well understood, and therefore, the use of this method is relatively uncommon. We characterized the DP prior method to increase its practical use.<h4>Results</h4>First, we evaluated the usefulness of the sequentially-allocated merge-split (SAMS) sampler, which is a technique for improving the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. Although this sampler has been implemented in a preceding program, HWLER, its effectiveness has not been investigated. We showed that this sampler was effective for population structure analysis. Implementation of this sampler was useful with regard to the accuracy of inference and computational time. Second, we examined the effect of a hyperparameter for the prior distribution of allele frequencies and showed that the specification of this parameter was important and could be resolved by considering the parameter as a variable. Third, we compared the DP prior method with other Bayesian clustering methods and showed that the DP prior method was suitable for data sets with unbalanced sample sizes among populations. In contrast, although current popular algorithms for population structure analysis, such as those implemented in STRUCTURE, were suitable for data sets with uniform sample sizes, inferences with these algorithms for unbalanced sample sizes tended to be less accurate than those with the DP prior method.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The clustering method based on the DP prior was found to be useful because it can infer the number of populations and simultaneously assign individuals into populations, and it is suitable for data sets with unbalanced sample sizes among populations. Here we presented a novel program, DPART, that implements the SAMS sampler and can consider the hyperparameter for the prior distribution of allele frequencies to be a variable.