Mitochondrial targeting sequence variants of the CHCHD2 gene are a risk for Lewy body disorders.
ABSTRACT: To assess the role of CHCHD2 variants in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and Lewy body disease (LBD) in Caucasian populations.All exons of the CHCHD2 gene were sequenced in a US Caucasian patient-control series (878 PD, 610 LBD, and 717 controls). Subsequently, exons 1 and 2 were sequenced in an Irish series (355 PD and 365 controls) and a Polish series (394 PD and 350 controls). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies were performed on pathologic LBD cases with rare CHCHD2 variants.We identified 9 rare exonic variants of unknown significance. These variants were more frequent in the combined group of PD and LBD patients compared to controls (0.6% vs 0.1%, p = 0.013). In addition, the presence of any rare variant was more common in patients with LBD (2.5% vs 1.0%, p = 0.050) compared to controls. Eight of these 9 variants were located within the gene's mitochondrial targeting sequence.Although the role of variants of the CHCHD2 gene in PD and LBD remains to be further elucidated, the rare variants in the mitochondrial targeting sequence may be a risk factor for Lewy body disorders, which may link CHCHD2 to other genetic forms of parkinsonism with mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, a novel mutation in exon 24 of DNAJC13 gene (p.Asn855Ser, rs387907571) has been reported to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) in a multi-incident Mennonite family. METHODS:In the present study the mutation containing exon of the DNAJC13 gene has been sequenced in a Caucasian series consisting of 1938 patients with clinical PD and 838 with pathologically diagnosed Lewy body disease (LBD). RESULTS:Our sequence analysis did not identify any coding variants in exon 24 of DNAJC13. Two previously described variants in intron 23 (rs200204728 and rs2369796) were observed. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that the region surrounding the DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser substitution is highly conserved and mutations in this exon are not a common cause of PD or LBD among Caucasian populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rare variants in the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 10 gene (LRP10) have recently been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). OBJECTIVE:We searched for LRP10 variants in a new series of brain donors with dementia and Lewy pathology (LP) at autopsy, or dementia and parkinsonism without LP but with various other neurodegenerative pathologies. METHODS:Sanger sequencing of LRP10 was performed in 233 donors collected by the Netherlands Brain Bank. RESULTS:Rare, possibly pathogenic heterozygous LRP10 variants were present in three patients: p.Gly453Ser in a patient with mixed Alzheimer's disease (AD)/Lewy body disease (LBD), p.Arg151Cys in a DLB patient, and p.Gly326Asp in an AD patient without LP. All three patients had a positive family history for dementia or PD. CONCLUSION:Rare LRP10 variants are present in some patients with dementia and different brain pathologies including DLB, mixed AD/LBD, and AD. These findings suggest a role for LRP10 across a broad neurodegenerative spectrum.
Project description:To assess the importance of MAPT variant p.A152T in the risk of synucleinopathies.In this case-control study, we screened a large global series of patients and controls, and assessed associations between p.A152T and disease risk. We included 3,229 patients with clinical Parkinson disease (PD), 442 with clinical dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 181 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), 832 with pathologically confirmed Lewy body disease (LBD), and 2,456 healthy controls.The minor allele frequencies (MAF) in clinical PD cases (0.28%) and in controls (0.2%) were not found to be significantly different (odds ratio [OR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-2.98, p = 0.42). However, a significant association was observed with clinical DLB (MAF 0.68%, OR 5.76, 95% CI 1.62-20.51, p = 0.007) and LBD (MAF 0.42%, OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.04-12.17, p = 0.04). Additionally, p.A152T was more common in patients with MSA compared to controls (MAF 0.55%, OR 4.68, 95% CI 0.85-25.72, p = 0.08) but this was not statistically significant and therefore should be interpreted with caution.Overall, our findings suggest that MAPT p.A152T is a rare low penetrance variant likely associated with DLB that may be influenced by coexisting LBD and AD pathology. Given the rare nature of the variant, further studies with greater sample size are warranted and will help to fully explain the role of p.A152T in the pathogenesis of the synucleinopathies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have established common genetic risk factors for clinical Parkinson's disease (PD); however, associations between these risk factors and quantitative neuropathologic markers of disease severity have not been well-studied. This study evaluated associations of nominated variants from the most recent PD GWAS meta-analysis with Lewy body disease (LBD) subtype (brainstem, transitional, or diffuse) and pathologic burden of LB pathology as measured by LB counts in five cortical regions in a series of LBD cases. METHODS:547 autopsy-confirmed cases of LBD were included and genotyped for 29 different GWAS-nominated PD risk variants. LB counts were measured in middle frontal (MF), superior temporal (ST), inferior parietal (IP), cingulate (CG), and parahippocampal (PH) gyri. RESULTS:None of the variants examined were significantly associated with LB counts in any brain region or with LBD subtype after correcting for multiple testing. Nominally significant (P < 0.05) associations with LB counts where the direction of association was in agreement with that observed in the PD GWAS meta-analysis were observed for variants in BCKDK/STX1B (MF, ST, IP) and SNCA (ST). Additionally, MIR4697 and BCKDK/STX1B variants were nominally associated with LBD subtype. CONCLUSION:The lack of a significant association between PD GWAS variants and severity of LB pathology is consistent with the generally subtle association odds ratios that have been observed in disease-risk analysis. These results also suggest that genetic factors other than the susceptibility loci may determine quantitative neuropathologic outcomes in patients with LBD.
Project description:Although exact causes of Parkinson disease (PD) remain enigmatic, mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly appreciated as a key determinant of dopaminergic neuron susceptibility in both familial and sporadic PD. Two genes associated with recessive, early-onset PD encode the ubiquitin (Ub) kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ub ligase PRKN/PARK2/Parkin, which together orchestrate a protective mitochondrial quality control (mitoQC) pathway. Upon stress, both enzymes cooperatively identify and decorate damaged mitochondria with phosphorylated poly-Ub (p-S65-Ub) chains. This specific label is subsequently recognized by autophagy receptors that further facilitate mitochondrial degradation in lysosomes (mitophagy). Here, we analyzed human post-mortem brain specimens and identified distinct pools of p-S65-Ub-positive structures that partially colocalized with markers of mitochondria, autophagy, lysosomes and/or granulovacuolar degeneration bodies. We further quantified levels and distribution of the 'mitophagy tag' in 2 large cohorts of brain samples from normal aging and Lewy body disease (LBD) cases using unbiased digital pathology. Somatic p-S65-Ub structures independently increased with age and disease in distinct brain regions and enhanced levels in LBD brain were age- and Braak tangle stage-dependent. Additionally, we observed significant correlations of p-S65-Ub with LBs and neurofibrillary tangle levels in disease. The degree of co-existing p-S65-Ub signals and pathological PD hallmarks increased in the pre-mature stage, but decreased in the late stage of LB or tangle aggregation. Altogether, our study provides further evidence for a potential pathogenic overlap among different forms of PD and suggests that p-S65-Ub can serve as a biomarker for mitochondrial damage in aging and disease. ABBREVIATIONS:BLBD: brainstem predominant Lewy body disease; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone; DLB: dementia with Lewy bodies; DLBD: diffuse neocortical Lewy body disease; EOPD: early-onset Parkinson disease; GVB: granulovacuolar degeneration body; LB: Lewy body; LBD: Lewy body disease; mitoQC: mitochondrial quality control; nbM: nucleus basalis of Meynert; PD: Parkinson disease; PDD: Parkinson disease with dementia; p-S65-Ub: PINK1-phosphorylated serine 65 ubiquitin; SN: substantia nigra; TLBD: transitional Lewy body disease; Ub: ubiquitin.
Project description:Mutations of coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 (CHCHD2) and 10 (CHCHD10) have been found to be linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and/or frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTD). CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 proteins, which are homologous proteins with 54% identity in amino acid sequence, belong to the mitochondrial coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain protein family. A series of studies reveals that these twin proteins form a multimodal complex, producing a variety of pathophysiology by the disease-causing variants of these proteins. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the physiological and pathological roles of twin proteins, CHCHD2 and CHCHD10, in neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Mutations in the GBA gene occur in 7% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and are a well-established susceptibility factor for PD, which is characterized by Lewy body disease (LBD) neuropathologic changes (LBDNCs). We sought to determine whether GBA influences risk of dementia with LBDNCs, Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (ADNCs), or both.We screened the entire GBA coding region for mutations in controls and in subjects with dementia and LBDNCs and no or low levels of ADNCs (pure dementia with Lewy bodies [pDLB]), LBDNCs and high-level ADNCs (LBD-AD), and high-level ADNCs but without LBDNCs (AD).Among white subjects, pathogenic GBA mutations were identified in 6 of 79 pDLB cases (7.6%), 8 of 222 LBD-AD cases (3.6%), 2 of 243 AD cases (0.8%), and 3 of 381 controls (0.8%). Subjects with pDLB and LBD-AD were more likely to carry mutations than controls (pDLB: odds ratio [OR] = 7.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-31.9; p = 0.006; LBD-AD: OR = 4.6; CI = 1.2-17.6; p = 0.025), but there was no significant difference in frequencies between the AD and control groups (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.2-6.6; p = 0.92). There was a highly significant trend test across groups (?(2)(1) = 19.3; p = 1.1 × 10(-5)), with the likelihood of carrying a GBA mutation increasing in the following direction: control/AD < LBD-AD < pDLB.GBA is a susceptibility gene across the LBD spectrum, but not in AD, and appears to convey a higher risk for PD and pDLB than for LBD-AD. PD and pDLB might be more similar to one another in genetic determinants and pathophysiology than either disease is to LBD-AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To date, several studies have suggested that genes involved in monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute to unrelated sporadic cases, but there is limited evidence in the Chinese population. METHODS:We performed a systematic analysis of 12 autosomal-dominant PD (AD-PD) genes (SNCA, LRRK2, GIGYF2, VPS35, EIF4G1, DNAJC13, CHCHD2, HTRA2, NR4A2, RIC3, TMEM230, and UCHL1) using panel sequencing and database filtration in a case-control study of a cohort of 391 Chinese sporadic PD patients and unrelated controls. We evaluated the association between candidate variants and sporadic PD using gene-based analysis. RESULTS:Overall, 18 rare variants were discovered in 18.8% (36/191) of the index patients. In addition to previously reported pathogenic mutations (LRRK2 p.Arg1441His and p.Ala419Val), another four unknown variants were found in LRRK2, which also contribute to PD risk (p = 0.002; odds ratio (OR) = 7.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.76-34.93). The cumulative frequency of undetermined rare variants was significantly higher in PD patients (14.1%) than in controls (3.5%) (p = 0.0002; OR=4.54, 95% CI = 1.93-10.69). CONCLUSION:Our results confirm the strong impact of LRRK2 on the risk of sporadic PD, and also provide considerable evidence of the existence of additional undetermined rare variants in AD-PD genes that contribute to the genetic etiology of sporadic PD in a Chinese cohort.
Project description:Mutations in paralogous mitochondrial proteins CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 cause autosomal dominant Parkinson Disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Frontotemporal Dementia (ALS/FTD), respectively. Using newly generated CHCHD2, CHCHD10 and CHCHD2/10 double knockout cell lines, we find that the proteins are partially functionally redundant, similarly distributed throughout the mitochondrial cristae, and form heterodimers. Unexpectedly, we also find that CHCHD2/CHCHD10 heterodimerization increases in response to mitochondrial stress. This increase is driven by differences in the proteins' stability and mutual affinity: CHCHD2 is preferentially stabilized by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and CHCHD10 oligomerization depends on CHCHD2 expression. Exploiting the dependence of CHCHD10 oligomerization on CHCHD2, we developed a heterodimer incorporation assay and demonstrate that CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 with disease-causing mutations readily form heterodimers. As we also find that both proteins are highly expressed in human Substantia nigra and cortical pyramidal neurons, mutant CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 may directly interact with their wild-type paralogs in the context of PD and ALS/FTD pathogenesis. Together, these findings demonstrate that differences in the stability and mutual affinity of CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 regulate their heterodimerization in response to mitochondrial distress, revealing an unanticipated link between PD and ALS/FTD pathogenesis.
Project description:Mutations in CHCHD2 have been identified in some Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. To understand the physiological and pathological roles of CHCHD2, we manipulated the expression of CHCHD2 in Drosophila and mammalian cells. The loss of CHCHD2 in Drosophila causes abnormal matrix structures and impaired oxygen respiration in mitochondria, leading to oxidative stress, dopaminergic neuron loss and motor dysfunction with age. These PD-associated phenotypes are rescued by the overexpression of the translation inhibitor 4E-BP and by the introduction of human CHCHD2 but not its PD-associated mutants. CHCHD2 is upregulated by various mitochondrial stresses, including the destabilization of mitochondrial genomes and unfolded protein stress, in Drosophila. CHCHD2 binds to cytochrome c along with a member of the Bax inhibitor-1 superfamily, MICS1, and modulated cell death signalling, suggesting that CHCHD2 dynamically regulates the functions of cytochrome c in both oxidative phosphorylation and cell death in response to mitochondrial stress.