Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland.
ABSTRACT: Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases.
Project description:Meat quality has an important genetic component and can be modified by the fatty acid (FA) composition and the amount of fat contained in adipose tissue and muscle. The present study aimed to find genomic regions associated with the FA composition in backfat and muscle (longissimus dorsi) in 439 pigs with three different genetic backgrounds but having the Iberian breed in common. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed between 38,424 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the pig genome and 60 phenotypic traits related to backfat and muscle FA composition. Nine significant associated regions were found in backfat on the Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC): SSC1, SSC2, SSC4, SSC6, SSC8, SSC10, SSC12, and SSC16. For the intramuscular fat, six significant associated regions were identified on SSC4, SSC13, SSC14, and SSC17. A total of 52 candidate genes were proposed to explain the variation in backfat and muscle FA composition traits. GWAS were also reanalysed including SNPs on five candidate genes (ELOVL6, ELOVL7, FADS2, FASN, and SCD). Regions and molecular markers described in our study may be useful for meat quality selection of commercial pig breeds, although several polymorphisms were breed-specific, and further analysis would be needed to evaluate possible causal mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Besides having an impact on human health, the porcine muscle fatty acid profile determines meat quality and taste. The RNA-Seq technologies allowed us to explore the pig muscle transcriptome with an unprecedented detail. The aim of this study was to identify differentially-expressed genes between two groups of 6 sows belonging to an Iberian × Landrace backcross with extreme phenotypes according to FA profile. RESULTS:We sequenced the muscle transcriptome acquiring 787.5 M of 75 bp paired-end reads. About 85.1% of reads were mapped to the reference genome. Of the total reads, 79.1% were located in exons, 6.0% in introns and 14.9% in intergenic regions, indicating expressed regions not annotated in the reference genome. We identified a 34.5% of the intergenic regions as interspersed repetitive regions. We predicted a total of 2,372 putative proteins. Pathway analysis with 131 differentially-expressed genes revealed that the most statistically-significant metabolic pathways were related with lipid metabolism. Moreover, 18 of the differentially-expressed genes were located in genomic regions associated with IMF composition in an independent GWAS study in the same genetic background. Thus, our results indicate that the lipid metabolism of FAs is differently modulated when the FA composition in muscle differs. For instance, a high content of PUFA may reduce FA and glucose uptake resulting in an inhibition of the lipogenesis. These results are consistent with previous studies of our group analysing the liver and the adipose tissue transcriptomes providing a view of each of the main organs involved in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS:The results obtained in the muscle transcriptome analysis increase the knowledge of the gene regulation of IMF deposition, FA profile and meat quality, in terms of taste and nutritional value. Besides, our results may be important in terms of human health.
Project description:Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are ruminants adapted to a high-fibre diet. There is increasing interest in the role that gut microbes play in the digestion and utilization of these specialized diets but only limited data available on the gut microbiome of high-Arctic animals. In this study, we metabarcoded the 16S rRNA region of faecal samples from muskoxen of Northeast Greenland, Northwest Greenland and Norway, and quantified the effects of physiological and temporal factors on bacterial composition. We found significant effects of body mass, year of sampling and location on the gut bacterial communities of North East Greenland muskoxen. These effects were however dwarfed by the effects of location, emphasizing the importance of the local ecology on the gut bacterial community. Habitat alterations and rising temperatures may therefore have a considerable impact on muskoxen health and reproductive success. Moreover, muskoxen are hunted and consumed in Greenland, Canada and Alaska; therefore, this study also screened for potential zoonoses of food safety interest. A total of 13 potentially zoonotic genera were identified, including the genera Erysipelothrix and Yersinia implicated in recent mass die-offs of the muskoxen themselves.
Project description:Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) from saturated FA. Mice with whole-body or skin-specific deletion of SCD1 are resistant to obesity. Here, we show that mice lacking SCD1 in adipose and/or liver are not protected from either genetic- (agouti; A(y)/a) or diet-induced obesity (DIO) despite a robust reduction in SCD1 MUFA products in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue. Adipose SCD1 deletion had no effect on glucose or insulin tolerance or on hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Interestingly, lack of SCD1 from liver lowered the MUFA levels of adipose tissue and vice versa, as reflected by the changes in FA composition. Simultaneous deletion of SCD1 from liver and adipose resulted in a synergistic lowering of tissue MUFA levels, especially in the A(y)/a model in which glucose tolerance was also improved. Lastly, we found that liver and plasma TG show nearly identical genotype-dependent differences in FA composition, indicating that FA composition of plasma TG is predictive for hepatic SCD1 activity and TG FA composition. The current study suggests that SCD1 deletion from adipose and/or liver is insufficient to elicit protection from obesity, but it supports the existence of extensive lipid cross-talk between liver and adipose tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fatty acids (FA) play a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases; in the context of livestock species, their profile also impacts on meat quality for healthy human consumption. Molecular pathways controlling lipid metabolism are highly interconnected and are not fully understood. Elucidating these molecular processes will aid technological development towards improvement of pork meat quality and increased knowledge of FA metabolism, underpinning metabolic diseases in humans. RESULTS: The results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across 15 phenotypes were subjected to an Association Weight Matrix (AWM) approach to predict a network of 1,096 genes related to intramuscular FA composition in pigs. To identify the key regulators of FA metabolism, we focused on the minimal set of transcription factors (TF) that the explored the majority of the network topology. Pathway and network analyses pointed towards a trio of TF as key regulators of FA metabolism: NCOA2, FHL2 and EP300. Promoter sequence analyses confirmed that these TF have binding sites for some well-know regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. For the first time in a non-model species, some of the co-associations observed at the genetic level were validated through co-expression at the transcriptomic level based on real-time PCR of 40 genes in adipose tissue, and a further 55 genes in liver. In particular, liver expression of NCOA2 and EP300 differed between pig breeds (Iberian and Landrace) extreme in terms of fat deposition. Highly clustered co-expression networks in both liver and adipose tissues were observed. EP300 and NCOA2 showed centrality parameters above average in the both networks. Over all genes, co-expression analyses confirmed 28.9% of the AWM predicted gene-gene interactions in liver and 33.0% in adipose tissue. The magnitude of this validation varied across genes, with up to 60.8% of the connections of NCOA2 in adipose tissue being validated via co-expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results recapitulate the known transcriptional regulation of FA metabolism, predict gene interactions that can be experimentally validated, and suggest that genetic variants mapped to EP300, FHL2, and NCOA2 modulate lipid metabolism and control energy homeostasis in pigs.
Project description:Conjugated linoleic acid was detected in rabbit caecotrophs, due to the presence of microbial lipid activity in rabbit cecum. However, the effect of CLA as a functional food in growing rabbit is not well established. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of CLA on production, meat quality, and its nutrigenomic effect on edible parts of rabbit carcass including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Therefore, seventy five weaned V-Line male rabbits, 30 days old, were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments receiving either basal control diet, diet supplemented with 0.5% (CLAL), or 1% CLA (CLAH). Total experimental period (63 d) was segmented into 7 days adaptation and 56 days experimental period. Dietary supplementation of CLA did not alter growth performance, however, the fat percentage of longissimus lumborum muscle was decreased, with an increase in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were not increased in CLA treated groups. There was tissue specific sensing of CLA, since subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of PPARA was downregulated, however, CPT1A tended to be upregulated in liver of CLAL group only (P = 0.09). In skeletal muscle, FASN and PPARG were upregulated in CLAH group only (P ?0.01). Marked cytoplasmic vacuolation was noticed in liver of CLAH group without altering hepatocyte structure. Adipocyte size was decreased in CLA fed groups, in a dose dependent manner (P <0.01). Cell proliferation determined by PCNA was lower (P <0.01) in adipose tissue of CLA groups. Our data indicate that dietary supplementation of CLA (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) at a dose of 0.5% in growing rabbit diet produce rabbit meat rich in PUFA and lower fat % without altering growth performance and hepatocyte structure.
Project description:In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.
Project description:Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.
Project description:Fatty acid (FA) metabolism is tightly regulated across several tissues and impacts insulin sensitivity. CD36 facilitates cellular FA uptake, and CD36 genetic variants associate with lipid abnormalities and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to gain insight regarding the in vivo metabolic influence of muscle and adipose tissue CD36. For this, we determined the relationships between CD36 alternative transcripts, which can reflect tissue-specific CD36 regulation, and measures of FA metabolism and insulin resistance.The relative abundance of alternative CD36 transcripts in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from 53 nondiabetic obese subjects was measured and related to insulin sensitivity and FA metabolism assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and isotopic tracers for glucose and FA.Transcript 1C, one of two major transcripts in adipose tissue, that is restricted to adipocytes predicted systemic and tissue (adipose, liver, and muscle) insulin sensitivity, suggesting adipocyte CD36 protects against insulin resistance. Transcripts 1B and 1A, the major transcripts in skeletal muscle, correlated with FA disposal rate and triglyceride clearance, supporting importance of muscle CD36 in clearance of circulating FA. Additionally, the common CD36 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1761667 selectively influenced CD36 transcripts and exacerbated insulin resistance of glucose disposal by muscle.Alternative CD36 transcripts differentially influence tissue CD36 and consequently FA homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Adipocyte CD36 appears to be metabolically protective, and its selective upregulation might have therapeutic potential in insulin resistance.
Project description:IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism has been described as the causal mutation of a maternally imprinted QTL for muscle growth and fat deposition in pigs. The objective of the current work was to study the association between the IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism and the IGF2 gene expression and its effect on fatty acid composition in adipose tissue in different pig genetic backgrounds. A cis-eQTL region associated with the IGF2 mRNA expression in adipose tissue was identified in an eGWAS with 355 animals. The IGF2 gene was located in this genomic interval and IGF2g.3072G>A was the most significant SNP, explaining a 25% of the gene expression variance. Significant associations between IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism and oleic (C18:1(n-9); p-value = 4.18x10-07), hexadecanoic (C16:1(n-9); p-value = 4.04x10-07), linoleic (C18:2(n-6); p-value = 6.44x10-09), α-linoleic (C18:3(n-3); p-value = 3.30x10-06), arachidonic (C20:4(n-6); p-value = 9.82x10-08) FAs and the MUFA/PUFA ratio (p-value = 2.51x10-9) measured in backfat were identified. Animals carrying the A allele showed an increase in IGF2 gene expression and higher PUFA and lower MUFA content. However, in additional studies was observed that there could be other proximal genetic variants affecting FA composition in adipose tissue. Finally, no differences in the IGF2 gene expression in adipose tissue were found between heterozygous animals classified according to the IGF2:g.3072G>A allele inherited from the father (APGM or AMGP). However, pyrosequencing analysis revealed that there is imprinting of the IGF2 gene in muscle and adipose tissues, with stronger differences among the paternally and maternally inherited alleles in muscle. Our results suggested that IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism plays an important role in the regulation of IGF2 gene expression and can be involved in the fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. In both cases, further studies are still needed to deepen the mechanism of regulation of IGF2 gene expression in adipose tissue and the IGF2 role in FA composition.