Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype, Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Saphenous Vein Graft Atherosclerosis in Iranian Patients.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interactions among Angiotensin-I converting enzyme genotype, insertion/deletion polymorphism and atherosclerosis of vein grafts in Iranian patients, and characterize their clinical and demographic profile.In this cross-sectional study, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery more than five years ago, were included for angiographic analysis. Atherosclerosis was determined by quantitative angiography and adjusted Gensini score. The gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction.A total of 102 patients participated in this study. Eighty-four patients were male. The frequency distribution of DD, ID and II polymorphism were 23.6%, 62.7% and 13.7% respectively. There were no differences among genotypic groups in age, sex, number of risk factors, number of vein grafts and months since bypass surgery. According to adjusted Gensini score [0.18±0.12 (II) vs. 0.11±0.09 (ID) and 0.1±0.09 (DD) P=0.021] the II genotype was associated with severity of vein graft atherosclerosis.Although there are conflicting results about gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and the degree of venous bypass graft degeneration, this study suggests an association between ACE genotype II and atherosclerosis of saphenous vein grafts, however, large samples considering clinical, demographic and ethnic profile are necessary to confirm these results.
Project description:Venous bypass grafts are useful treatments for obstructive coronary artery disease. However, their usefulness is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Genetic engineering of venous bypass grafts that prevented atherosclerosis could improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes. We used a rabbit model of jugular vein-to-carotid interposition grafting to develop gene therapy for vein-graft atherosclerosis. Rabbit veins were easily transduced in situ with a first-generation adenoviral vector; however, most transgene expression (?80%) was lost within 3 days after arterial grafting. This rapid loss of transgene expression was not prevented by transducing veins after grafting or by prolonged ex vivo transduction. However, delaying vein-graft transduction for 28 days (after the vein had adapted to the arterial circulation) prevented this early loss of transgene expression. We used the delayed transduction approach to test the durability of expression of a therapeutic transgene (apolipoprotein A-I) expressed from a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector. HDAd DNA and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA were easily detectable in transduced vein grafts. Vector DNA and mRNA declined by 4 weeks, and then persisted stably for at least 6 months. Delaying transduction for 28 days after grafting permitted initiation of vein-graft neointimal growth and medial thickening before gene transfer. However, vein-graft lumen diameter was not compromised, because of gradual outward remodeling of grafted veins. Our data highlight the promise of HDAd-mediated gene therapy, delivered to arterialized vein grafts, for preventing vein-graft atherosclerosis.
Project description:Coronary artery bypass vein grafts are a mainstay of therapy for human atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the long-term patency of vein grafts is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Gene therapy, directed at the vein graft wall, is a promising approach for preventing vein graft atherosclerosis. Because helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) efficiently transduces grafted veins and confers long-term transgene expression, HDAd is an excellent candidate for delivery of vein graft-targeted gene therapy. We developed a model of vein graft atherosclerosis in fat-fed rabbits and demonstrated long-term (?20 weeks) persistence of HDAd genomes after graft transduction. This model enables quantitation of vein graft hemodynamics, wall structure, lipid accumulation, cellularity, vector persistence, and inflammatory markers on a single graft. Time-course experiments identified 12 weeks after transduction as an optimal time to measure efficacy of gene therapy on the critical variables of lipid and macrophage accumulation. We also used chow-fed rabbits to test whether HDAd infusion in vein grafts promotes intimal growth and inflammation. HDAd did not increase intimal growth, but had moderate-yet significant-pro-inflammatory effects. The vein graft atherosclerosis model will be useful for testing HDAd-mediated gene therapy; however, pro-inflammatory effects of HdAd remain a concern in developing HDAd as a therapy for vein graft disease.
Project description:This study examines whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms: ACE (encoding for angiotensin converting enzyme) c.2306-117_404 I/D, AGTR1 (encoding for angiotensin II type-1 receptor) c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 (encoding for aldosterone synthase) c.-344C>T are associated with the extension of coronary atherosclerosis in a group of 647 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. The extension of CAD was evaluated using the Gensini score. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR and RFLP assays. The associations between genotypes and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon test. The population has been divided into groups defined by: sex, smoking habit, past myocardial infarction, BMI (>, ? 25), age (>, ? 55), diabetes mellitus, level of total cholesterol (>, ? 200 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (>, ? 130 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (>, ? 40 mg/dl), triglycerides (>, ? 150 mg/dl). Significant associations between the ACE c.2306-117_404 I/D polymorphism and the Gensini score in men with high total cholesterol levels (P(Kruskal-Wallis)?=?0.008; P(adjusted)?=?0.009), high level of LDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis)?=?0.016; P(adjusted)?=?0.028) and low level of HDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis)?=?0.04; P(adjusted)?=?0.055) have been found. No association between the AGTR1 c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 c.-344C>T and the Gensini score has been found. These results suggest that men who carry ACE c.2306-117_404 DD genotype and have high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels may be predisposed to the development of more severe CAD.
Project description:Venous grafts are often used to bypass occlusive atherosclerotic lesions; however, poor patency leads to vein graft disease. Deficiency of TLR4, an inflammatory regulator, reduces vein graft disease. Here, we investigate the effects of the accessory molecule and TLR4 analogue RadioProtective 105 (RP105) on vein graft disease. RP105 deficiency resulted in a 90% increase in vein graft lesion area compared to controls. In a hypercholesterolemic setting (LDLr(-/-)/RP105(-/-) versus LDLr(-/-) mice), which is of importance as vein graft disease is usually characterized by excessive atherosclerosis, total lesion area was not affected. However we did observe an increased number of unstable lesions and intraplaque hemorrhage upon RP105 deficiency. In both setups, lesional macrophage content, and lesional CCL2 was increased. In vitro, RP105(-/-) smooth muscle cells and mast cells secreted higher levels of CCL2. In conclusion, aggravated vein graft disease caused by RP105 deficiency results from an increased local inflammatory response.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Inflammation is a key driver of excessive neointimal hyperplasia within vein grafts. Recent work demonstrates that specialized proresolving lipid mediators biosynthesized from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as resolvin D1 (RvD1), actively orchestrate the process of inflammation resolution. We investigated the effects of local perivascular delivery of RvD1 in a rabbit vein graft model. METHODS:Ipsilateral jugular veins were implanted as carotid interposition grafts through an anastomotic cuff technique in New Zealand white rabbits (3-4 kg; N = 80). RvD1 (1 ?g) was delivered to the vein bypass grafts in a perivascular fashion, using either 25% Pluronic F127 gel (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo) or a thin bilayered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film. No treatment (bypass only) and vehicle-loaded Pluronic gels or PLGA films served as controls. Delivery of RvD1 to venous tissue was evaluated 3 days later by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Total leukocyte infiltration, macrophage infiltration, and cell proliferation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Elastin and trichrome staining was performed on grafts harvested at 28 days after bypass to evaluate neointimal hyperplasia and vein graft remodeling. RESULTS:Perivascular treatments did not influence rates of graft thrombosis (23%), major wound complications (4%), or death (3%). Leukocyte (CD45) and macrophage (RAM11) infiltration was significantly reduced in the RvD1 treatment groups vs controls at 3 days (60%-72% reduction; P < .01). Cellular proliferation (Ki67 index) was also significantly lower in RvD1-treated vs control grafts at 3 days (40%-50% reduction; P < .01). Treatment of vein grafts with RvD1-loaded gels reduced neointimal thickness at 28 days by 61% vs bypass only (P < .001) and by 63% vs vehicle gel (P < .001). RvD1-loaded PLGA films reduced neointimal formation at 28 days by 50% vs bypass only (P < .001). RvD1 treatment was also associated with reduced collagen deposition in vein grafts at 28 days. CONCLUSIONS:Local perivascular delivery of RvD1 attenuates vein graft hyperplasia without associated toxicity in a rabbit carotid bypass model. This effect appears to be mediated by both reduced leukocyte recruitment and decreased cell proliferation within the graft. Perivascular PLGA films may also impart protection through biomechanical scaffolding in this venous arterialization model. Our studies provide further support for the potential therapeutic role of specialized proresolving lipid mediators such as D-series resolvins in modulating vascular injury and repair.
Project description:In coronary artery bypass surgery, the patency of arterial grafts is higher than that of venous grafts because of vein-graft disease, which involves excessive proliferation of venous smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and subsequent accelerated atherosclerosis. We studied the function of TR3 nuclear orphan receptor (TR3) in the early response of SMCs to mechanical strain, a major initiator of vein-graft disease. We demonstrate that TR3 expression is induced in human saphenous vein segments exposed ex vivo to whole-blood perfusion under arterial pressure. Cultured venous SMCs challenged by cyclic stretch displayed TR3 induction and enhanced DNA synthesis, whereas SMCs derived from the internal mammary artery remained quiescent. Small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TR3 and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of TR3 in venous SMCs enhanced and abolished stretch-induced DNA synthesis, respectively. Accordingly, in organ cultures of wild-type murine vessel segments exposed to cyclic stretch, p27(Kip1) was down-regulated, whereas expression of this cell cycle inhibitor was unaffected by cyclic stretch in TR3-transgenic vessels, concordant with a lower proliferative response. Finally, stretch-mediated proliferation was inhibited by 6-mercaptopurine, an agonist of TR3. In conclusion, TR3 represents inhibitory mechanisms to restrict venous SMC proliferation and may contribute to prevention of vein-graft disease.
Project description:Purpose:To evaluate the frequencies of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in Iraqi hemodialysis patients and to examine the association between this polymorphism and serum erythropoietin and hemoglobin levels.. Methods:In this study, 70 chronic renal failure Iraqi patients on maintenance hemodialysis (patient group) and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were genotyped for angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of this polymorphism in these subjects were also evaluated.. Results:The distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes between groups was similar, and the ID genotype was the most frequent, followed by DD and II genotypes (50%, 37%, and 13%). The control group had a nonsignificant difference in serum erythropoietin levels among different angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes, while patients with ID and DD genotypes displayed significant elevation in serum erythropoietin with time. No significant differences in hemoglobin levels were observed in patient and control groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between serum erythropoietin and hemoglobin in the control group with different angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes, while a nonsignificant negative correlation was observed in the patient group throughout the study. . Conclusions:Chronic kidney disease did not significantly alter angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes, and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism had a significant effect on serum erythropoietin levels and a nonsignificant effect on hemoglobin levels. .
Project description:Atherosclerosis underlies aortic aneurysm (AA) and atherosclerotic stenosis (AS). Kallikrein-1 (KLK1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are 2 key molecules in kallikrein-kinin systems and renin-angiotensin systems, respectively, which are responsible for maintaining vascular balance and stability, playing important roles in atherosclerosis. We aimed to assess the involvement of single nucleotide polymorphism rs5516 in KLK1 as well as the insertion/deletion rs4646994 polymorphism in ACE in the development of AA and AS.We enrolled Chinese Han patients with AA (N = 408) and AS (N = 432), as well as healthy controls (N = 408). Clinical and demographic characteristics were assessed. Genotypes were analyzed with recessive and dominant models.The rs5516 G allele of KLK1 was significantly associated with AA (P < 0.001), and the D allele of ACE was significantly associated with both AA (P < 0.001) and AS (P < 0.001). The GG and DD genotypes were significantly associated with both AA (P = 0.013) and AS (P < 0.001) in a recessive model, and were synergistic with hypertension in AA patients, but not in AS. Patients with CC/DD, CG/ID, or GG/II genotypes, which were synergistic with hypertension, had a greater risk of developing AA, while CC/DD, CG/DD, GG/ID, or GG/DD genotypes, which were not synergistic with hypertension, contributed to the development of AS.The KLK1 rs5516 G allele is closely associated with AA, and the ACE D allele is closely related to AA and AS.
Project description:After vascular interventions, unidentified mechanisms disrupt the homeostasis of a focal narrowing to initiate an intimal thickening response. We hypothesize that perturbations in the hemodynamic microenvironment are the initiating event for this disruption of homeostasis and intimal thickening in vein bypass grafts. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between local flow perturbations and its influence on the vein graft architecture.An external ligature was used to create an 80% focal midgraft stenosis in bilateral rabbit carotid vein grafts. A unilateral distal ligation created a ninefold difference in flow rate between high-flow and low-flow grafts. Ten vein grafts were harvested at 28 days and serially sectioned for morphologic evaluation and vein graft reconstruction. Computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed to examine the hemodynamic environment within these complex flow regions.The largest intimal thickening occurred exclusively within the region immediately distal to the maximum stenosis in high-flow grafts, which was characterized by persistent flow separation and reversal for the entire cardiac cycle. In regions of low to moderate shear stress (<5 Pa), the typical inverse correlation between intimal thickness and wall shear was observed.Regions of vein bypass grafts exposed to persistent flow reversal are most at risk for intimal thickening and loss of lumen.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition that, when associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular events, can be influenced by genetic variants and determine more severe coronary atherosclerosis.To examine the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the extension and severity of coronary disease in subjects with MS and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Patients (n = 116, 68% males) aged 56 (9) years, with criteria for MS, were prospectively enrolled to the study during the hospitalization period after an ACS. Clinical and laboratory parameters, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, adiponectin, endothelial function, and the Gensini score were assessed. Polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), methylenotetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, followed by the identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP, and a genetic score was calculated. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used, as appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05.Polymorphisms of PON-1, MTHFR and ENOS were not in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The DD genotype of LPL was associated with higher severity and greater extension of coronary lesions. Genetic score tended to be higher in patients with Gensini score < P50 (13.7 ± 1.5 vs. 13.0 ± 1.6, p = 0.066), with an inverse correlation between genetic and Gensini scores (R = -0.194, p = 0.078).The LPL polymorphism contributed to the severity of coronary disease in patients with MS and recent ACS. Combined polymorphisms were associated with the extension of coronary disease, and the lower the genetic score the more severe the disease.