Differential Ly6C Expression after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Identifies Unique Macrophage Populations.
ABSTRACT: Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell type implicated in injury, repair, and fibrosis after AKI, but the macrophage population associated with each phase is unclear. In this study, we used a renal bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model to identify unique monocyte/macrophage populations by differential expression of Ly6C in CD11b(+) cells and to define the function of these cells in the pathophysiology of disease on the basis of microarray gene signatures and reduction strategies. Macrophage populations were isolated from kidney homogenates by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for whole genome microarray analysis. The CD11b(+)/Ly6C(high) population associated with the onset of renal injury and increase in proinflammatory cytokines, whereas the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(intermediate) population peaked during kidney repair. The CD11b(+)/Ly6C(low) population emerged with developing renal fibrosis. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses identified gene signatures unique to each population. The CD11b(+)/Ly6C(intermediate) population had a distinct phenotype of wound healing, confirmed by results of studies inhibiting the macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor,whereas the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(low) population had a profibrotic phenotype. All populations, including the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(high) population, carried differential inflammatory signatures. The expression of M2-specific markers was detected in both the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(intermediate) and CD11b(+)/Ly6C(low) populations, suggesting these in vivo populations do not fit into the traditional classifications defined by in vitro systems. Results of this study in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model allow phenotype and function to be assigned to CD11b(+)/Ly6C(+) monocyte/macrophage populations in the pathophysiology of disease after AKI.
Project description:Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell type implicated in injury, repair, and fibrosis after AKI, but the macrophage population associated with each phase is unclear.results of this study in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model allow phenotype and function to be assigned to CD11b+/Ly6C+ monocyte/macrophage populations in the pathophysiology of disease after AKI. we used a renal bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model to identify unique monocyte/macrophage populations by differential expression of Ly6C in CD11b+ cells and to define the function of these cells in the pathophysiology of disease on the basis of microarray gene signatures and reduction strategies Macrophage populations were sorted by Flow Cytometry into low and intermediate populations by Itgam(Cd11b) and Ly6c markers. The cells obtained in 5 weeks sham, 5 weeks IR, 9 day sham, and 9 day IR with 6 samples per group (3 int and 3 low). Cells were sorted in 350ul of RLT lysing buffer and kept at -80c until RNA extraction.Sample amplification, fragmentation, hybridization,washing and scanning were performed according to validated Affymetrix protocol in a CLIA certified lab.
Project description:Macrophages play an important role in renal injury and repair after acute kidney injury (AKI) and the subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) that often results. However, as macrophages have a high degree of plasticity and heterogeneity, the function(s) of macrophage subtypes in AKI-to-CKD progression are not fully understood. Here, we focused on Ly6C- macrophages, which are derived from the embryonic yolk sac and post-development become resident in the kidneys. We found that C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) deficiency, which blocks the migration of Ly6C+ macrophages from the bone marrow to the sites of injury, alleviated ischemia-induced AKI in mice. Unexpectedly, though, CCR2 deficiency worsened the subsequent renal fibrosis, which was marked by notable intra-renal infiltration of Ly6C- macrophages. These Ly6C- macrophages were greater in number in both the acute and chronic phases after ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in kidneys of wild type (WT) mice, and we showed them to be derived from the bone marrow by bone marrow chimerism. Clodronate Liposomes (CLs)-mediated depletion of renal Ly6C- macrophages in CCR2-/- mice or in WT mice after I/R alleviated the renal injury and fibrosis. On the contrary, adoptive transfer of Ly6C- macrophages from injured kidneys of WT mice into immune-deficient mice was sufficient to induce renal injury and fibrosis. Transcriptome sequencing of Ly6C- macrophages from injured kidneys revealed that they secreted various cytokines and growth factors, which were associated with the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. This transdifferentiation effect was further supported by in vitro studies showing that Ly6C- macrophages induced the secretion of extracellular matrix proteins from co-cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, the presence of bone marrow-derived Ly6C- macrophages after ischemia induces AKI and worsens subsequent CKD.
Project description:Monocyte/macrophage polarization in skeletal muscle regeneration is ill defined. We used CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice to transiently deplete monocytes/macrophages at multiple stages before and after muscle injury induced by cardiotoxin. Fat accumulation within regenerated muscle was maximal when ablation occurred at the same time as cardiotoxin-induced injury. Early ablation (day 1 after cardiotoxin) resulted in the smallest regenerated myofiber size together with increased residual necrotic myofibers and fat accumulation. However, muscle regeneration after late (day 4) ablation was similar to controls. Levels of inflammatory cells in injured muscle following early ablation and associated with impaired muscle regeneration were determined by flow cytometry. Delayed, but exaggerated, monocyte [CD11b(+)(CD90/B220/CD49b/NK1.1/Ly6G)(-)(F4/80/I-Ab/CD11c)(-)Ly6C(+/-)] accumulation occurred; interestingly, Ly6C(+) and Ly6C(-) monocytes were present concurrently in ablated animals and control mice. In addition to monocytes, proinflammatory, Ly6C(+) macrophage accumulation following early ablation was delayed compared to controls. In both groups, CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells exhibited minimal expression of the M2 markers CD206 and CD301. Nevertheless, early ablation delayed and decreased the transient accumulation of CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(-)CD301(-) macrophages; in control animals, the later tissue accumulation of these cells appeared to correspond to that of anti-inflammatory macrophages, determined by cytokine production and arginase activity. In summary, impairments in muscle regeneration were associated with exaggerated monocyte recruitment and reduced Ly6C(-) macrophages; the switch of macrophage/monocyte subsets is critical to muscle regeneration.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major risk factor in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain unclear. We examined the alteration of macrophage phenotypes during an extended recovery period following ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and determine their roles in the development of fibrosis.The left renal pedicle of mice was clamped for 40 min. To deplete monocyte/macrophage, liposome clodronate was injected or CD11b-DTR and CD11c-DTR transgenic mice were used.Throughout the phase of IRI recovery, M2-phenotype macrophages made up the predominant macrophage subset. On day 28, renal fibrosis was clearly shown with increased type IV collagen and TGF-?. The depletion of macrophages induced by the liposome clodronate injection improved renal fibrosis with a reduction of kidney IL-6, type IV collagen, and TGF-? levels. Additionally, the adoptive transfer of the M2c macrophages partially reversed the beneficial effect of macrophage depletion, whereas the adoptive transfer of the M1 macrophages did not. M2 macrophages isolated from the kidneys during the recovery phase expressed 2.5 fold higher levels of TGF-? than the M1 macrophages. The injection of the diphtheria toxin into CD11b or CD11c-DTR transgenic mice resulted in lesser depletion or no change in M2 macrophages and had little impact on renal fibrosis.Although M2 macrophages are known to be indispensible for short-term recovery, they are thought to be main culprit in the development of renal fibrosis following IRI.
Project description:Cardiac macrophages are known from various activities, therefore we presume that microRNAs (miRNAs) produced or released by macrophages in cardiac tissue have impact on myocardial remodeling in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aim to assess the cardiac macrophage miRNA profile by selecting those miRNA molecules that potentially exhibit regulatory functions in MetS-related cardiac remodeling. Cardiac tissue macrophages from control and db/db mice (an animal model of MetS) were counted and sorted with flow cytometry, which yielded two populations: CD45<sup>+</sup>CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD64<sup>+</sup>Ly6C<sup>hi</sup> and CD45<sup>+</sup>CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD64<sup>+</sup>Ly6C<sup>low</sup>. Total RNA was then isolated, and miRNA expression profiles were evaluated with Next Generation Sequencing. We successfully sequenced 1400 miRNAs in both macrophage populations: CD45<sup>+</sup>CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD64<sup>+</sup>Ly6C<sup>hi</sup> and CD45<sup>+</sup>CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD64<sup>+</sup>Ly6C<sup>low</sup>. Among the 1400 miRNAs, about 150 showed different expression levels in control and db/db mice and between these two subpopulations. At least 15 miRNAs are possibly associated with MetS pathology in cardiac tissue due to direct or indirect regulation of the expression of miRNAs for proteins involved in angiogenesis, fibrosis, or inflammation. In this paper, for the first time we describe the miRNA transcription profile in two distinct macrophage populations in MetS-affected cardiac tissue. Although the results are preliminary, the presented data provide a foundation for further studies on intercellular cross-talk/molecular mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of MetS-related cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Immature myeloid cells in bone marrow are a heterogeneous population of cells that, under normal conditions, provide tissues with protective cell types such as granulocytes and macrophages. Under certain pathological conditions, myeloid cell homeostasis is altered and immature forms of these cells appear in tissues. Murine immature myeloid cells that express CD11b and Ly6C or Ly6G (two isoforms of Gr-1) have been associated with immunosuppression in cancer (in the form of myeloid-derived suppressor cells) and, more recently, infection. Here, we found that CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) and CD11b(+) Ly6C(int) Ly6G(+) cells accumulated and persisted in tissues of mice infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Recruitment of CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) but not CD11b(+) Ly6C(int) Ly6G(+) cells from bone marrow into infected tissues depended on chemokine receptor CCR2. The CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells exhibited a mononuclear morphology, whereas the CD11b(+) Ly6C(int) Ly6G(+) cells exhibited a polymorphonuclear or band-shaped nuclear morphology. The CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells following ex vivo culture and could present antigen to T cells in vitro. However, significant proliferation of T cells was observed only when the ability of the CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells to produce nitric oxide was blocked. CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells recruited in response to S. Typhimurium infection could also present antigen to T cells in vivo, but increasing their numbers by adoptive transfer did not cause a corresponding increase in T cell response. Thus, CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) immature myeloid cells recruited in response to S. Typhimurium infection exhibit protective and immunosuppressive properties that may influence the outcome of infection.
Project description:Mature myeloid cells (macrophages and CD11b(+) dendritic cells) form a prominent component of neuroinflammatory infiltrates in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mechanism by which these cells are replenished during relapsing and chronic neuroinflammation is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that CD11b(+)CD62L(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes with colony-forming potential are mobilized into the bloodstream by a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent pathway immediately before EAE relapses. Circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes traffic across the blood-brain barrier, up-regulate proinflammatory molecules, and differentiate into central nervous system dendritic cells and macrophages. Enrichment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the circulating pool is associated with an earlier onset and increased severity of clinical EAE. Our studies indicate that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven release of Ly6C(hi) precursors from the bone marrow prevents exhaustion of central nervous system myeloid populations during relapsing or chronic autoimmune demyelination, suggesting a novel pathway for therapeutic targeting.
Project description:Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b(+) infiltrating Ly6G(+) granulocytic and Ly6G(-) monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G(+) cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G(-) cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80(+)) and immature (F4/80(-)) pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi) macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C(lo)) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3(+) macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-?, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs.
Project description:In early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), complement component C3 can be observed in drusen, which is the accumulation of material beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. The complement pathways, via the activation of C3, can upregulate the expression of cytokines and their receptors and the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, both of which play an important role in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in exudative AMD. Laser-induced CNV lesions were found to be significantly smaller in C3(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the proportions of intraocular granulocytes, CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi) and CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(lo) cells, were lower in C3(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice as early as day 1 after laser injury, and the proportions of granulocytes and three macrophage/monocyte subsets were significantly lower on day 3. In contrast, C3(-/-) mice had more granulocytes and CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi) cells in peripheral blood than wild-type mice after injury. Further, the expression levels of Vegfa164 were upregulated in intraocular Ly6C(hi) macrophages/monocytes of C3(-/-) mice, but not as much as in wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that despite a more pronounced induction of systemic inflammation, inhibition of complement factor C3 suppresses CNV by decreasing the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lesion.
Project description:Renal tubule epithelia represent the primary site of damage in acute kidney injury (AKI), a process initiated and propagated by the infiltration of macrophages. Here we investigated the role of resident renal macrophages and dendritic cells in recovery from AKI after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury or a novel diphtheria toxin-induced (DT-induced) model of selective proximal tubule injury in mice. DT-induced AKI was characterized by marked renal proximal tubular cell apoptosis. In both models, macrophage/dendritic cell depletion during the recovery phase increased functional and histologic injury and delayed regeneration. After I/R-induced AKI, there was an early increase in renal macrophages derived from circulating inflammatory (M1) monocytes, followed by accumulation of renal macrophages/dendritic cells with a wound-healing (M2) phenotype. In contrast, DT-induced AKI only generated an increase in M2 cells. In both models, increases in M2 cells resulted largely from in situ proliferation in the kidney. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) signaling blocked macrophage/dendritic cell proliferation, decreased M2 polarization, and inhibited recovery. These findings demonstrated that CSF-1-mediated expansion and polarization of resident renal macrophages/dendritic cells is an important mechanism mediating renal tubule epithelial regeneration after AKI.