The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students.
ABSTRACT: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students.The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed.About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices.Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.
Project description:The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18-23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509) and urban (n = 510) settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard's silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26) was used to evaluate participants' risk of disordered eating. Minutes per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Significant linear correlates were included in a series of regressions run separately for urban and rural participants. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships between variables. Urban females were more likely to be overweight and obese than rural females (p = 0.02), and had a greater desire to be thinner (p = 0.02). In both groups, being overweight or obese was positively associated with a desire to be thinner (p<0.01), and negatively associated with a desire to be fatter (p<0.01). Having a disordered eating attitude was associated with body image dissatisfaction in the urban group (? = 1.27, p<0.01, CI: 0.38; 2.16), but only with a desire to be fatter in the rural group (? = 0.63, p = 0.04, CI: 0.03; 1.23). In the SEM model, body image dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating (? = 0.63), as well as higher MVPA participation (p<0.01). These factors were directly associated with a decreased risk of disordered eating attitude, and with a decreased desire to be thinner. Findings indicate a shift in both settings towards more Westernised ideals. Physical activity may provide a means to promote a healthy body image, while reducing the risk of disordered eating. Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both rural and urban women, this study provides insights for future interventions aimed at decreasing adiposity in a healthy way.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate whether there was any difference in eating pattern, abnormal eating behaviour, obesity and the number of food addiction symptoms according to food addiction presence. A total sample of 851 healthy subjects living in Ankara (n = 360 male, n = 491 female) aged 19-65 years were included in this cross-sectional survey. Data on demographic information, 24-hour dietary recalls, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and anthropometric measurements were collected through face-to-face interviews. Overall, 11.4% of participants were identified as "food addicted" (F: 13.0%; M: 9.2%). Subjects meeting criteria for 'food addiction' had higher body mass index (35.1% were obese and 3.1% were underweight), compared to subjects without food addiction (13.1% were obese and 10.2% were underweight) (p<0.05). Abnormal eating attitudes estimated with EAT-26 were determined as 45.5% in males, 37.5% in females and 40.2% in total, among subjects with food addiction. Daily energy, protein and fat intakes were significantly higher in food addicted females, compared to non-addicted females (p<0.05). Participants with food addiction reported significantly more problems with foods, which contain high amounts of fat and sugar, compared to the participants without food addiction. Food addiction behaviour should be considered as a part of efforts towards reducing food related problems involving obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Existing initiatives to promote healthy eating remain largely ineffective as individuals struggle to adhere to dietary recommendations. Therefore, challenging the strategies currently used is of significant importance. Recent studies have indicated the potential of an approach oriented towards eating pleasure to promote the consumption of healthy foods.<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of this study was to compare perceptions and the potential effect of pleasure-oriented and health-oriented messages promoting healthy eating among French-Canadians.<h4>Methods</h4>Two leaflets similar in all respects, except for the message orientation (pleasure or health), were developed. Perceived message orientation and effectiveness, perceptions towards healthy eating as well as emotions, attitude towards healthy eating, and intention to eat healthily were evaluated. A total of 100 adults (50% women; mean ± SD age 45.1 ± 13.0 y) were randomly assigned to read 1 of the 2 leaflets (pleasure: <i>n</i> = 50; health: <i>n</i> = 50). Questionnaires were completed online and data were also collected at a visit made to the Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods.<h4>Results</h4>The difference in message orientation (pleasure compared with health) was well perceived by participants (<i>P </i>? 0.01). The pleasure-oriented message was successful in inducing the perception that eating healthy can be pleasurable (pre- compared with post-reading; <i>P </i>= 0.01). Perceived message effectiveness and induced emotions in response to reading were similar between leaflets. Both messages significantly improved global attitude towards healthy eating (<i>P </i>? 0.01) and increased intention to eat healthily (<i>P </i>< 0.001). Additional analyses showed that the affective attitude towards healthy eating increased more after reading the pleasure leaflet than the health leaflet (<i>P </i>= 0.05), whereas the health message tended to improve cognitive attitude more than the pleasure leaflet (<i>P </i>= 0.06).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest that the leaflets would be appropriate to promote healthy eating through 2 distinct approaches (health and pleasure paradigms) and propose that different effects on attitude could be observed from these 2 approaches.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent among adolescents. Understanding how these behaviors link to body mass index (BMI) across different stages of development and over an extended period may provide insight for designing interventions around eating and weight. This study had two objectives: (1) to assess the distribution of disordered eating behaviors and develop a global score of disordered eating behaviors among adolescents and (2) to examine the association between the number of disordered eating behaviors in adolescence and BMI trajectory over 15 years.<h4>Methods</h4>Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults (EAT), a longitudinal study of weight-related health and behavior comprising four waves (EAT-I to EAT-IV), measured seven disordered eating behaviors (importance of weight and shape, frequent dieting, extreme unhealthy weight control behaviors, overeating, distress about overeating, loss of control while overeating, and frequency of overeating and loss of control) at baseline (N = 1,230, ages 11 to 18 years, 1998-1999). These behaviors were summed to create a disordered eating behavior score. BMI was self-reported at all four waves (up to age 27-33 years at EAT-IV). Repeated measures with random slope and intercept examined the association between disordered eating behaviors and BMI trajectories over 15 years.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, 50.7% and 33.7% of females and males endorsed disordered eating behaviors. Throughout 15 years of follow-up, sociodemographic-adjusted BMI was higher among adolescents who engaged in disordered eating behaviors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for baseline BMI (p < .05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among adolescents, regardless of the type of disordered eating behaviors, engagement in disordered eating behavior predicted higher BMI in a dose-response fashion.
Project description:The goal of the present article was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood.Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls' childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership.The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories.Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating.
Project description:Background: We aimed to find the difference between girls with clinical features of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), divided into two groups: Overweight/obesity (Ov/Ob) and normal weight (N), related to diet, disordered eating attitudes (DEA), metabolic and hormonal differences, and to identify the risk factors of being overweight or obese. Methods: Seventy-eight adolescents with PCOS, aged 14-18 years, were divided into Ov/Ob and N groups. Patients underwent blood tests for determination of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, DHEA-S, estradiol, of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), fasting glucose, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile. Nutrition was evaluated using a 3-day food record. To examine the level of DEA, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was used. We defined an EAT-26 score ?20 as positive for DEA. Logistic regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors of being overweight and obese. Results: An increase of 10 g in plant protein intake decreased the probability of being overweight and of obesity (OR = 0.54; p = 0.036). EAT-26 score ?20 was correlated with a 7-fold (OR = 6.88; p = 0.02) increased odds of being overweight or of obesity. Conclusion: Being overweight and obesity in adolescents with PCOS may be associated with DEA and the type and amount of protein intake.
Project description:Athletes are often at a greater risk for disordered eating development due to their perfectionistic tendencies, as well as physical performance- and appearance-related demands of various sports in which they compete. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of independent contributions of perfectionism and body satisfaction on dieting behaviour among male and female athletes. Two-hundred-eighty (192 male; 88 female) athletes provided their answers on the Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26), Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PANPS) and modified Body Image Satisfaction Scale from Body Image and Body Change Inventory. No gender or sport type differences were observed in dieting behaviour and body satisfaction was the only significant predictor of dieting for female athletes. Mediation analysis demonstrated that body satisfaction is a mediator between both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and dieting. These findings emphasize the important role that body satisfaction has in disordered eating development in female athletes.
Project description:This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.