Functional dichotomy in the 16S rRNA (m1A1408) methyltransferase family and control of catalytic activity via a novel tryptophan mediated loop reorganization.
ABSTRACT: Methylation of the bacterial small ribosomal subunit (16S) rRNA on the N1 position of A1408 confers exceptionally high-level resistance to a broad spectrum of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Here, we present a detailed structural and functional analysis of the Catenulisporales acidiphilia 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase ('CacKam'). The apo CacKam structure closely resembles other m(1)A1408 methyltransferases within its conserved SAM-binding fold but the region linking core ? strands 6 and 7 (the '?6/7 linker') has a unique, extended structure that partially occludes the putative 16S rRNA binding surface, and sequesters the conserved and functionally critical W203 outside of the CacKam active site. Substitution of conserved residues in the SAM binding pocket reveals a functional dichotomy in the 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family, with two apparently distinct molecular mechanisms coupling cosubstrate/ substrate binding to catalytic activity. Our results additionally suggest that CacKam exploits the W203-mediated remodeling of the ?6/7 linker as a novel mechanism to control 30S substrate recognition and enzymatic turnover.
Project description:X-ray crystal structures were determined of the broad-spectrum aminoglycoside-resistance A1408 16S rRNA methyltransferases KamB and NpmA, from the aminoglycoside-producer Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius and human pathogenic Escherichia coli, respectively. Consistent with their common function, both are Class I methyltransferases with additional highly conserved structural motifs that embellish the core SAM-binding fold. In overall structure, the A1408 rRNA methyltransferase were found to be most similar to a second family of Class I methyltransferases of distinct substrate specificity (m(7)G46 tRNA). Critical residues for A1408 rRNA methyltransferase activity were experimentally defined using protein mutagenesis and bacterial growth assays with kanamycin. Essential residues for SAM coenzyme binding and an extended protein surface that likely interacts with the 30S ribosomal subunit were thus revealed. The structures also suggest potential mechanisms of A1408 target nucleotide selection and positioning. We propose that a dynamic extended loop structure that is positioned adjacent to both the bound SAM and a functionally critical structural motif may mediate concerted conformational changes in rRNA and protein that underpin the specificity of target selection and activation of methyltransferase activity. These new structures provide important new insights that may provide a starting point for strategies to inhibit these emerging causes of pathogenic bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides.
Project description:Methylation of bacterial 16S rRNA within the ribosomal decoding center confers exceptionally high resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. This resistance mechanism is exploited by aminoglycoside producers for self-protection while functionally equivalent methyltransferases have been acquired by human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of the Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 aminoglycoside resistance-conferring methyltransferase Kmr. Our results demonstrate that Kmr is a 16S rRNA methyltransferase acting at residue A1408 to confer a canonical aminoglycoside resistance spectrum in Escherichia coli. Kmr possesses a class I methyltransferase core fold but with dramatic differences in the regions which augment this structure to confer substrate specificity in functionally related enzymes. Most strikingly, the region linking core β-strands 6 and 7, which forms part of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding pocket and contributes to base flipping by the m(1)A1408 methyltransferase NpmA, is disordered in Kmr, correlating with an exceptionally weak affinity for SAM. Kmr is unexpectedly insensitive to substitutions of residues critical for activity of other 16S rRNA (A1408) methyltransferases and also to the effects of by-product inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Collectively, our results indicate that adoption of a catalytically competent Kmr conformation and binding of the obligatory cosubstrate SAM must be induced by interaction with the 30S subunit substrate.
Project description:The pathogen-associated 16S rRNA methyltransferase NpmA catalyzes m1A1408 modification to block the action of structurally diverse aminoglycoside antibiotics. Here, we describe the development of a fluorescence polarization binding assay and its use, together with complementary functional assays, to dissect the mechanism of NpmA substrate recognition. These studies reveal that electrostatic interactions made by the NpmA ?2/3 linker collectively are critical for docking of NpmA on a conserved 16S rRNA tertiary surface. In contrast, other NpmA regions (?5/?6 and ?6/?7 linkers) contain several residues critical for optimal positioning of A1408 but are largely dispensable for 30S binding. Our data support a model for NpmA action in which 30S binding and adoption of a catalytically competent state are distinct: docking on 16S rRNA via the ?2/3 linker necessarily precedes functionally critical 30S substrate-driven conformational changes elsewhere in NpmA. This model is also consistent with catalysis being completely positional in nature, as the most significant effects on activity arise from changes that impact binding or stabilization of the flipped A1408 conformation. Our results provide a molecular framework for aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferase action that may serve as a functional paradigm for related enzymes and a starting point for development of inhibitors of these resistance determinants.
Project description:The global dissemination, potential activity in diverse species and broad resistance spectrum conferred by the aminoglycoside-resistance ribosomal RNA methyltransferases make them a significant potential new threat to the efficacy of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. The N1 methylation of adenosine 1408 (m(1)A1408) confers resistance to structurally diverse aminoglycosides, including kanamycin, neomycin and apramycin. The limited analyses to date of the enzymes responsible have identified common features but also potential differences in their molecular details of action. Therefore, with the goal of expanding the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family as a platform for developing a more complete mechanistic understanding, we report here the cloning, expression and functional analyses of four hypothetical aminoglycoside-resistance rRNA methyltransferases from recent genome sequences of diverse bacterial species. Each of the genes produced a soluble, folded protein with a secondary structure, as determined from circular dichroism (CD) spectra, consistent with enzymes for which high-resolution structures are available. For each enzyme, antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays revealed a resistance spectrum characteristic of the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferases and the modified nucleotide was confirmed by reverse transcription as A1408. In common with other family members, higher binding affinity for the methylation reaction by-product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than the cosubstrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) was observed for three methyltransferases, while one unexpectedly showed no measurable affinity for SAH. Collectively, these results confirm that each hypothetical enzyme is a functional 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase but also point to further potential mechanistic variation within this enzyme family.
Project description:We have isolated a multiple-aminoglycoside-resistant Escherichia coli strain, strain ARS3, and have been the first to identify a novel plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methyltransferase, NpmA. This new enzyme shared a relatively low level of identity (30%) to the chromosomally encoded 16S rRNA methyltransferase (KamA) of Streptomyces tenjimariensis, an actinomycete aminoglycoside producer. The introduction of a recombinant plasmid carrying npmA could confer on E. coli consistent resistance to both 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamines, such as amikacin and gentamicin, and 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamines, including neomycin and ribostamycin. The histidine-tagged NpmA elucidated methyltransferase activity against 30S ribosomal subunits but not against 50S subunits and the naked 16S rRNA molecule in vitro. We further confirmed that NpmA is an adenine N-1 methyltransferase specific for the A1408 position at the A site of 16S rRNA. Drug footprinting data indicated that binding of aminoglycosides to the target site was apparently interrupted by methylation at the A1408 position. These observations demonstrate that NpmA is a novel plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methyltransferase that provides a panaminoglycoside-resistant nature through interference with the binding of aminoglycosides toward the A site of 16S rRNA through N-1 methylation at position A1408.
Project description:Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit (30S) of bacteria and disrupt protein translation. NpmA, a structurally well-characterized methyltransferase identified in an E. coli clinical isolate, catalyzes methylation of 30S at A1408 of the 16S rRNA and confers aminoglycoside resistance. Using sucrose cushion centrifugation and isothermal titration calorimetry, we first confirmed the binding between NpmA and 30S. Next, we performed amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDXMS) of apo NpmA and in the presence and absence of SAM/SAH. We observed that ligand binding resulted in time-dependent differences in deuterium exchange not only at the ligand-binding pocket (D25-D55 and A86-E112) but also in distal regions (F62-F82 and Y113-S144) of NpmA. These results provide insights into methylation group donor cofactor-mediated allostery in NpmA in the ligand-bound states, which could not be observed in the static endpoint crystal structures. We predict that the two distal sites in NpmA form part of the allosteric sites that importantly are part of the main 16S rRNA binding interface. Thus HDXMS helped uncover allosteric communication relays that couple SAM/SAH binding sites with the ribosome-binding site. This highlights how HDXMS together with X-ray crystallography can provide important allosteric insights in protein-ligand complexes.
Project description:The 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase enzymes that modify nucleosides in the drug binding site to provide self-resistance in aminoglycoside-producing micro-organisms have been proposed to comprise two distinct groups of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent RNA enzymes, namely the Kgm and Kam families. Here, the nucleoside methylation sites for three Kgm family methyltransferases, Sgm from Micromonospora zionensis, GrmA from Micromonospora echinospora and Krm from Frankia sp. Ccl3, were experimentally determined as G1405 by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. These results significantly extend the list of securely characterized G1405 modifying enzymes and experimentally validate their grouping into a single enzyme family. Heterologous expression of the KamB methyltransferase from Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius experimentally confirmed the requirement for an additional 60 amino acids on the deduced KamB N-terminus to produce an active methyltransferase acting at A1408, as previously suggested by an in silico analysis. Finally, the modifications at G1405 and A1408, were shown to confer partially overlapping but distinct resistance profiles in Escherichia coli. Collectively, these data provide a more secure and systematic basis for classification of new aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferases from producers and pathogenic bacteria on the basis of their sequences and resistance profiles.
Project description:NpmA, a methyltransferase that confers resistance to aminoglycosides was identified in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. It belongs to the kanamycin-apramycin methyltransferase (Kam) family and specifically methylates the 16S rRNA at the N1 position of A1408. We determined the structures of apo-NpmA and its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.4, 2.7 and 1.68 Å, respectively. We generated a number of NpmA variants with alanine substitutions and studied their ability to bind the cofactor, to methylate A1408 in the 30S subunit, and to confer resistance to kanamycin in vivo. Residues D30, W107 and W197 were found to be essential. We have also analyzed the interactions between NpmA and the 30S subunit by footprinting experiments and computational docking. Helices 24, 42 and 44 were found to be the main NpmA-binding site. Both experimental and theoretical analyses suggest that NpmA flips out the target nucleotide A1408 to carry out the methylation. NpmA is plasmid-encoded and can be transferred between pathogenic bacteria; therefore it poses a threat to the successful use of aminoglycosides in clinical practice. The results presented here will assist in the development of specific NpmA inhibitors that could restore the potential of aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Project description:The aminoglycoside resistance conferred by an N1-methylation of A1408 in 16S rRNA by a novel plasmid-mediated methyltransferase NpmA can be a future health threat. In the present study, we have determined crystal structures of the bacterial ribosomal decoding A site with an A1408m1A antibiotic-resistance mutation both in the presence and absence of aminoglycosides. G418 and paromomycin both possessing a 6'-OH group specifically bind to the mutant A site and disturb its function as a molecular switch in the decoding process. On the other hand, binding of gentamicin with a 6'-NH3+ group to the mutant A site could not be observed in the present crystal structure. These observations agree with the minimum inhibitory concentration of aminoglycosides against Escherichia coli. In addition, one of our crystal structures suggests a possible conformational change of A1408 during the N1-methylation reaction by NpmA. The structural information obtained explains how bacteria acquire resistance against aminoglycosides along with a minimum of fitness cost by the N1-methylation of A1408 and provides novel information for designing the next-generation aminoglycoside.
Project description:Aminoglycosides are potent, broad spectrum, ribosome-targeting antibacterials whose clinical efficacy is seriously threatened by multiple resistance mechanisms. Here, we report the structural basis for 30S recognition by the novel plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside-resistance rRNA methyltransferase A (NpmA). These studies are supported by biochemical and functional assays that define the molecular features necessary for NpmA to catalyze m(1)A1408 modification and confer resistance. The requirement for the mature 30S as a substrate for NpmA is clearly explained by its recognition of four disparate 16S rRNA helices brought into proximity by 30S assembly. Our structure captures a "precatalytic state" in which multiple structural reorganizations orient functionally critical residues to flip A1408 from helix 44 and position it precisely in a remodeled active site for methylation. Our findings provide a new molecular framework for the activity of aminoglycoside-resistance rRNA methyltransferases that may serve as a functional paradigm for other modification enzymes acting late in 30S biogenesis.