Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter.
ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 ). The ibid data is part of author?s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 ) that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer.
Project description:Background and objective:The Pro12Ala (exon 2) and His447His (exon 6) polymorphisms of PPAR-?, and Gly972Arg polymorphism of IRS-1 have been implicated in insulin resistance (IR) and adiposity. Our aim was to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods:Fifty-three PCOS women and 26 control women underwent a clinical and biochemical evaluation, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated. Results:Frequencies of PPAR-? polymorphisms did not differ from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Instead, the IRS-1 Gly972Arg allele was significantly more frequent in the PCOS group compared to controls. The most frequent allelic combinations were IRS1+/exon2-/exon6- (which prevailed in PCOS) and IRS-1-/exon2-/exon6- (which prevailed in controls). Among PCOS women, compared with the wild type patients, carriers of the Gly972Arg IRS-1 allele had lower E2 levels, while carriers of the Pro12Ala PPAR-? (exon 2) allele had lower free testosterone levels. No other significant relationships were noted. When compared with the wild type, in PCOS group IR and beta-cell function were: (i) trendwise greater in carriers of the variant IRS-1 allele; (ii) trendwise lower in carriers of the variant PPAR-? exon 6 allele; (iii) significantly lower in carriers of the variant PPAR-? exon 2 allele. Conclusions:Our data support the protective influence of PPAR-?-exon 2 and exon 6 variants on IR and beta cell function, whereas IRS-1 polymorphism is associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile. However, these associations do not fully explain the high metabolic risk associated with PCOS.
Project description:Hepatic insulin resistance is a critical component in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In many cases, insulin resistance in liver is associated with reduced expression of both major insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2. To investigate the specific functions of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in regulating liver function in vivo, we developed an adenovirus-mediated RNA interference technique in which short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are used to knock down IRS-1, IRS-2, or both, by 70-80% in livers of WT mice. The knockdown of IRS-1 resulted in an upregulation of the gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6 phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, as well as a marked increase in hepatic nuclear factor-4 alpha. Decreased IRS-1 was also associated with a decrease in glucokinase expression and a trend toward increased blood glucose, whereas knockdown of IRS-2 resulted in the upregulation of lipogenic enzymes SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase, as well as increased hepatic lipid accumulation. The concomitant injection of IRS-1 and IRS-2 adenoviral shRNAs resulted in systemic insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. The alterations in the dual-knockdown mice were associated with defective Akt activation and Foxo1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hepatic IRS-1 and IRS-2 have complementary roles in the control of hepatic metabolism, with IRS-1 more closely linked to glucose homeostasis and IRS-2 more closely linked to lipid metabolism.
Project description:To investigate the role of insulin-receptor substrate-1 (Irs-1) in the regulation of bone metabolism, we generated Irs-1-deficient mice (Irs1smla/smla). Using the highly sensitive miRNA array, we screened the differentially expressed miRNAs of 2-month-old Irs-1smla/smla mice, Irs-1+/smla mice and Irs-1+/+ mice. Three prediction algorithms (TargetScanS, miRanda, and PicTar) were used to identify the target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and dual luciferase reporter assay results showed that miR-342-3p is a specific regulator of collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2), which will give new insights in disclosing the mechanism of diabetic osteopathy. Overall design: In this study, one sample from each type (Irs-1smla/smla mice, Irs-1+/smla mice and Irs-1+/+ mice) were used to acquire the miRNA expression profiling and the function of the abundant miRNAs in the diabetic osteopathy were analyzed by bioinformatic methods, finally, miR-342-3p was experimentally validated to be a regulator of collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2), an important molecule in the diabetic osteopathy.
Project description:Insulin signaling is coordinated by insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). Many insulin responses, especially for blood glucose metabolism, are mediated primarily through Irs-1 and Irs-2. Irs-1 knockout mice show growth retardation and insulin signaling defects, which can be compensated by other IRSs in vivo; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we presented an Irs-1 truncated mutated mouse (Irs-1-/-) with growth retardation and subcutaneous adipocyte atrophy. Irs-1-/- mice exhibited mild insulin resistance, as demonstrated by the insulin tolerance test. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and phosphorylated Protein Kinase B (PKB/AKT) expression were elevated in liver, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous adipocytes in Irs-1 deficiency. In addition, the expression of IRS-2 and its phosphorylated version were clearly elevated in liver and skeletal muscle. With miRNA microarray analysis, we found miR-33 was down-regulated in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of Irs-1-/- mice, while its target gene Irs-2 was up-regulated in vitro studies. In addition, miR-33 was down-regulated in the presence of Irs-1 and which was up-regulated in fasting status. What's more, miR-33 restored its expression in re-feeding status. Meanwhile, miR-33 levels decreased and Irs-2 levels increased in liver, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous adipocytes of Irs-1-/- mice. In primary cultured liver cells transfected with an miR-33 inhibitor, the expression of IRS-2, PI3K, and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) increased while the opposite results were observed in the presence of an miR-33 mimic. Therefore, decreased miR-33 levels can up-regulate IRS-2 expression, which appears to compensate for the defects of the insulin signaling pathway in Irs-1 deficient mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Insulin signals, via the regulation of key enzyme expression, both suppress gluconeogenesis and enhance lipid synthesis in the liver. Animal studies have revealed insulin signaling favoring gluconeogenesis suppression to be selectively impaired in steatotic livers. However, whether, and if so how, such selective insulin resistance occurs in human steatotic livers remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate selective insulin resistance in human livers with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). SUBJECTS/METHODS:We examined mRNA expressions of key molecules for insulin signaling, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in human liver biopsy samples obtained from 51 non-diabetic subjects: 9 healthy controls and 42 NAFLD patients, and analyzed associations of these molecules with each other and with detailed pathological and clinical biochemistry data. RESULTS:In NAFLD patients, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 expression was decreased, while those of key enzymes for gluconeogenesis were increased. These alterations of IRS-2 and gluconeogenesis enzymes were induced both in simple steatosis (SS) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while these expression levels did not differ between SS and NASH. Furthermore, alterations in the expressions of IRS-2 and gluconeogenesis enzymes showed strong negative correlations and were concurrently induced in the early histological stage of NAFLD. In contrast, fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression was not decreased in NAFLD, despite IRS-2 downregulation, but correlated strongly with IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, no histological scores were associated with these molecules. Thus, IRS-1 signaling, which is not impaired in NAFLD, appears to modulate FAS expression. CONCLUSION:These analyses revealed that selective insulin resistance is present in human NAFLD livers and occurs in its early phases. The effect of insulin, during the IRS step, on gene expressions for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis are apparently distinct and preferential downregulation of IRS-2 may contribute to selective resistance to the suppressive effects of insulin on gluconeogenesis.
Project description:Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1-/- and IRS-2-/- mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins.
Project description:The insulin signaling pathway is critical in regulating glucose levels and is associated with diabetes, obesity, and longevity. A tyrosine phosphorylation cascade creates docking sites for protein interactions, initiating subsequent propagation of the signal throughout the cell. The phosphotyrosine interactome of this medically important pathway has not yet been studied comprehensively. We therefore applied quantitative interaction proteomics to exhaustively profile all potential phosphotyrosine-dependent interaction sites in its key players. We targeted and compared insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) as central distributors of the insulin signal, the insulin receptor, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, and the insulin receptor-related receptor. Using the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach with phosphorylated versus non-phosphorylated bait peptides, we found phosphorylation-specific interaction partners for 52 out of 109 investigated sites. In addition, doubly and triply phosphorylated motifs provided insight into the combinatorial effects of phosphorylation events in close proximity to each other. Our results retrieve known interactions and substantially broaden the spectrum of potential interaction partners of IRS-1 and IRS-2. A large number of common interactors rationalize their extensive functional redundancy. However, several proteins involved in signaling and metabolism interact differentially with IRS-1 and IRS-2 and thus provide leads into their different physiological roles. Differences in interactions at the receptor level are reflected in multisite recruitment of SHP2 by the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and limited but exclusive interactions with the IRR. In common with other recent reports, our data furthermore hint at non-SH2 or phosphotyrosine-binding domain-mediated phosphotyrosine binding.
Project description:IRS-1 serine phosphorylation is often elevated in insulin resistance models, but confirmation in vivo in humans is lacking. We therefore analysed IRS-1 phosphorylation in human muscle in vivo.We used HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)-MS/MS to quantify IRS-1 phosphorylation basally and after insulin infusion in vastus lateralis muscle from lean healthy, obese non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic volunteers.Basal Ser323 phosphorylation was increased in type 2 diabetic patients (2.1?±?0.43, p???0.05, fold change vs lean controls). Thr495 phosphorylation was decreased in type 2 diabetic patients (p???0.05). Insulin increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser527 (1.4?±?0.17, p???0.01, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal) and Ser531 (1.3?±?0.16, p???0.01, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal) in the lean controls and suppressed phosphorylation at Ser348 (0.56?±?0.11, p???0.01, fold change, 240 min after insulin infusion vs basal), Thr446 (0.64?±?0.16, p???0.05, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal), Ser1100 (0.77?±?0.22, p???0.05, fold change, 240 min after insulin infusion vs basal) and Ser1142 (1.3?±?0.2, p???0.05, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal).We conclude that, unlike some aspects of insulin signalling, the ability of insulin to increase or suppress certain IRS-1 phosphorylation sites is intact in insulin resistance. However, some IRS-1 phosphorylation sites do not respond to insulin, whereas other Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites are either increased or decreased in insulin resistance.
Project description:Muscle atrophy occurs under various catabolic conditions, including insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, or increased levels of glucocorticoids. This results from reduced levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), leading to decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and thereby activation of FoxO transcription factors. However, the precise mechanism of reduced IRS-1 under a catabolic condition is unknown. Here, we report that C1-Ten is a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) of IRS-1 that acts as a mediator to reduce IRS-1 under a catabolic condition, resulting in muscle atrophy. C1-Ten preferentially dephosphorylated Y612 of IRS-1, which accelerated IRS-1 degradation. These findings suggest a novel type of IRS-1 degradation mechanism which is dependent on C1-Ten and extends our understanding of the molecular mechanism of muscle atrophy under catabolic conditions. C1-Ten expression is increased by catabolic glucocorticoid and decreased by anabolic insulin. Reflecting these hormonal regulations, the muscle C1-Ten is upregulated in atrophy but downregulated in hypertrophy. This reveals a previously unidentified role of C1-Ten as a relevant PTPase contributing to skeletal muscle atrophy.
Project description:IRS proteins are cellular adaptor molecules that mediate many of the key metabolic actions of insulin. When tyrosine is phosphorylated by the activated insulin receptor, IRS proteins recruit downstream effectors, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase, in order to elicit cellular responses such as glucose uptake, lipid metabolism and cell proliferation. There are two main IRS proteins in humans (IRS1 and IRS2), both of which are widely expressed. Given their central role in the insulin signalling pathway, it is not surprising that male mice lacking Irs1 or Irs2 present with elevated blood glucose or type 2 diabetes, respectively. For reasons yet to be identified, female Irs2 (-/-) mice do not develop type 2 diabetes. A number of organs are affected by complications of diabetes; macrovascular complications include stroke and coronary artery disease, while nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy fall into the category of microvascular complications. Given the serious consequences of these complications on patient morbidity and mortality, it is essential to identify the molecular pathogenesis underlying diabetic complications, with a view to improving therapeutic intervention and patient outcomes. A number of recently published papers have converged on the hypothesis that the loss of insulin signalling and IRS proteins is instrumental to the development and/or progression of diabetic complications. This review will summarise some highlights from the published work in which this hypothesis is discussed.