Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population.
ABSTRACT: The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4-6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact.
Project description:Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is widely disseminated as a nasal colonizer of conventionally raised livestock and of humans subjected to occupational exposure. Reports on contamination of raw meat raise the question as to whether occupationally exposed food handlers are at particular risk of nasal colonization by LA-MRSA. Here, we report the results from a cross-sectional study on nasal S. aureus/MRSA colonization of butchers, meat sellers, and cooks in Germany. We sampled 286 butchers and meat sellers in 26 butcheries and 319 cooks handling meat in 16 professional canteen kitchens. Swabs were processed on both blood agar plates and MRSA-selective plates. MRSA were confirmed by PCR for mec genes and by broth microdilution. All isolates were subjected to molecular typing. PCR for markers useful to differentiate human-adapted and animal-adapted subpopulations was performed due to the presence of clonal complexes known to occur in both livestock and humans (CC5, CC7, CC8, CC9, and CC398). Only two participants (0.33%) were colonized by MRSA (Hospital-associated MRSA ST22). Nasal colonization by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was detected in 16.6% of cooks and in 26.2% of butchers and meat sellers. Among 16 of the isolates attributed to CC7, three were negative for the immune evasion gene cluster, suggesting an animal origin. Isolates attributed to CC5, CC8, and CC398 were negative for markers typical of animal-adapted subpopulations. The occupational handling of raw meat and raw meat products was not associated with nasal colonization by LA-MRSA.
Project description:Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST)398 is a livestock associated (LA) lineage with zoonotic potential, especially in humans with live pig contact. The objective of this study was to characterize two S. aureus strains of lineage ST398 (one methicillin-resistant (MRSA), one methicillin-susceptible (MSSA)) isolated from the same nasal sample of a patient admitted in the Intensive-Care Unit of a Spanish Hospital, and with previous occupational exposure to live pigs, by whole-genome-sequencing (WGS). The sample was obtained during routine surveillance for MRSA colonization. Purified genomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 and processed using conventional bioinformatics software. The two isolates recovered were both S. aureus t011/ST398 and showed similar resistance-phenotypes, other than methicillin susceptibility. The possession of antibiotic resistance genes was the same, except for the mecA-gene located in SCCmecV in the MRSA isolate. The MSSA isolate harbored remnants of a SCCmec following the deletion of 17342bp from a recombination between two putative primases. Both isolates belonged to the livestock-associated clade as defined by three canonical single-nucleotide-polymorphisms, and neither possessed the human immune evasion cluster genes, chp, scn, or sak. The core genome alignment showed a similarity of 99.6%, and both isolates harbored the same mobile genetic elements. The two nasal ST398 isolates recovered from the patient with previous occupational exposure to pigs appeared to have a livestock origin and could represent different evolutionary steps of animal-human interface lineage. The MSSA strain was formed as a result of the loss of the mecA gene from the livestock-associated-MRSA lineage.
Project description:We investigated the prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), Leptospira and Ascaris suum (A. suum) seropositivity, and of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Austrian practising veterinarians, and assessed the association with occupational swine livestock exposure. The 261 participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, intensity of occupational swine livestock contact and glove use during handling animals and their secretions. Participants' blood samples were tested for HEV, Leptospira and A. suum seropositivity and nasal swabs cultured for MRSA. We compared swine veterinarians (defined as >3 swine livestock visits/week) to non-swine veterinarians (?3 swine livestock visits/week) with regard to the outcomes through calculating prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Furthermore, the relationship between occupational swine livestock contact and the study outcomes was examined by age (</?55 years) and glove usage. The prevalence of nasal MRSA colonization was 13.4% (95% CI: 9.3-17.6), of HEV seropositivity 20.8% (95% CI: 15.8-25.7) and A. suum seropositivity 44% (95% CI: 37.7-50.2). The highest anti-leptospiral antibodies titres were 1:200 (L. hebdomadis) and 1:100 (L. autumnalis, L. caicola) found in three non-swine veterinarians. Compared to non-swine veterinarians, swine veterinarians were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.0-2.3) times more likely HEV seropositive and A. suum seropositive, respectively, and 4.8 (95%CI: 2.5; 9.3) times more likely nasally colonized with MRSA. Among glove-using veterinarians, occupational swine contact was no longer a determinant for HEV seropositivity (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-2.9). Similar was found for A. suum seropositivity, which was no longer associated with occupational swine livestock contact in the subgroup of glove using, ?55-year-old veterinarians (PR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.4-3.3). Our findings indicate that >3 occupational swine livestock visits per week is associated with HEV and A. suum seropositivity and nasal MRSA colonization and that glove use may play a putative preventive role in acquiring HEV and A. suum. Further analytical epidemiological studies have to prove the causality of these associations.
Project description:Nasal colonization by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor for hospital- and community-acquired infections. A key factor required for nasal colonization is a cell surface-exposed zwitterionic glycopolymer, termed wall teichoic acid (WTA). However, the precise mechanisms that govern WTA-mediated nasal colonization have remained elusive. Here, we report that WTA GlcNAcylation is a pivotal requirement for WTA-dependent attachment of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and emerging livestock-associated MRSA to human nasal epithelial cells, even under conditions simulating the nutrient composition and dynamic flow of nasal secretions. Depending on the S. aureus strain, WTA O-GlcNAcylation occurs in either ? or ? configuration, which have similar capacities to mediate attachment to human nasal epithelial cells, suggesting that many S. aureus strains maintain redundant pathways to ensure appropriate WTA glycosylation. Strikingly, a lack of WTA glycosylation significantly abrogated the ability of MRSA to colonize cotton rat nares in vivo. These results indicate that WTA glycosylation modulates S. aureus nasal colonization and may help to develop new strategies for eradicating S. aureus nasal colonization in the future.Nasal colonization by the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for severe endogenous infections and contributes to the spread of this microbe in hospitals and the community. Here, we show that wall teichoic acid (WTA) O-GlcNAcylation is a key factor required for S. aureus nasal colonization. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for the capacity of WTA to modulate S. aureus nasal colonization and may stimulate research activities to establish valuable strategies to eradicate S. aureus nasal colonization in high-risk hospitalized patients and in the general community.
Project description:New human pathogens can emerge from the livestock-human interface and spread into human populations through many pathways including livestock products. Occupational contact with livestock is a risk factor for exposure to those pathogens and may cause further spreading of those pathogens in the community. The current study used whole genome sequencing to explore nasal Staphylococcus aureus obtained from hog slaughterhouse workers and their community members, all of whom resided in a livestock-dense region in rural North Carolina. Sequence data were analyzed for lineage distribution, pathogenicity-related genomic features, and mobile genetic elements. We observed evidence of nasal S. aureus differences between hog workers and non-workers. Nasal S. aureus from hog workers showed a greater lineage diversity than nasal S. aureus from community residents. Hog worker isolates were less likely to carry the ?Sa3 prophage and human-specific immune evasion cluster genes than community resident isolates (?Sa3 prophage: 54.5% vs. 91.7%, Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) corrected p = 0.035; immune evasion cluster genes: 66.7% vs. 100%, BH p = 0.021). Hog worker isolates had a lower prevalence and diversity of enterotoxins than community resident isolates, particularly lacking the enterotoxin gene cluster (39.4% vs. 70.8%, BH p = 0.125). Moreover, hog worker isolates harbored more diverse antibiotic resistance genes, with a higher prevalence of carriage of multiple resistance genes, than community resident isolates (75.8% vs. 29.2%, BH p = 0.021). Phylogenetic analysis of all ST5 isolates, the most abundant lineage in the collection, further supported separation of isolates from hog workers and non-workers. Together, our observations suggest impact of occupational contact with livestock on nasal S. aureus colonization and highlight the need for further research on the complex epidemiology of S. aureus at the livestock-human interface.
Project description:The natural history of contemporary Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization was evaluated in community children during a 1-year period. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus nasal carriage was more persistent than methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal carriage, which was usually self-limited. Children with persistent staphylococcal colonization often carried identical strains. Identification of persistent methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriers might inform strategies for decolonization and reduction of staphylococcal transmission.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14?days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina.Workers anticipating at least 24?h away from work were enrolled June-August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2-7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn.Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49?h; range >0-96?h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates.Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96?h away from work.
Project description:Population-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. We examined the prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of S. aureus in the general population in Northeast Germany. Nasal swabs were obtained from 3,891 adults in the large-scale population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND). Isolates were characterized using spa genotyping, as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiling. We observed an S. aureus prevalence of 27.2%. Nasal S. aureus carriage was associated with male sex and inversely correlated with age. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 0.95% of the colonizing S. aureus strains. MRSA carriage was associated with frequent visits to hospitals, nursing homes, or retirement homes within the previous 24 months. All MRSA strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most MRSA isolates belonged to the pandemic European hospital-acquired MRSA sequence type 22 (HA-MRSA-ST22) lineage. We also detected one livestock-associated MRSA ST398 (LA-MRSA-ST398) isolate, as well as six livestock-associated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (LA-MSSA) isolates (clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC97, and CC398). spa typing revealed a diverse but also highly clonal S. aureus population structure. We identified a total of 357 spa types, which were grouped into 30 CCs or sequence types. The major seven CCs (CC30, CC45, CC15, CC8, CC7, CC22, and CC25) included 75% of all isolates. Virulence gene patterns were strongly linked to the clonal background. In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA prevalences and the molecular diversity of S. aureus in Northeast Germany are consistent with those of other European countries. The detection of HA-MRSA and LA-MRSA within the general population indicates possible transmission from hospitals and livestock, respectively, and should be closely monitored.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07-5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71-14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus.