Cytoskeletal Expression and Remodeling in Pluripotent Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Many emerging cell-based therapies are based on pluripotent stem cells, though complete understanding of the properties of these cells is lacking. In these cells, much is still unknown about the cytoskeletal network, which governs the mechanoresponse. The objective of this study was to determine the cytoskeletal state in undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells and remodeling with differentiation. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), as well as the original un-reprogrammed embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), were evaluated for expression of cytoskeletal markers. We found that pluripotent stem cells overall have a less developed cytoskeleton compared to fibroblasts. Gene and protein expression of smooth muscle cell actin, vimentin, lamin A, and nestin were markedly lower for ESCs than MEFs. Whereas, iPSC samples were heterogeneous with most cells expressing patterns of cytoskeletal proteins similar to ESCs with a small subpopulation similar to MEFs. This indicates that dedifferentiation during reprogramming is associated with cytoskeletal remodeling to a less developed state. In differentiation studies, it was found that shear stress-mediated differentiation resulted in an increase in expression of cytoskeletal intermediate filaments in ESCs, but not in iPSC samples. In the embryoid body model of spontaneous differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, however, both ESCs and iPSCs had similar gene expression for cytoskeletal proteins during early differentiation. With further differentiation, however, gene levels were significantly higher for iPSCs compared to ESCs. These results indicate that reprogrammed iPSCs more readily reacquire cytoskeletal proteins compared to the ESCs that need to form the network de novo. The strategic selection of the parental phenotype is thus critical not only in the context of reprogramming but also the ultimate functionality of the iPSC-differentiated cell population. Overall, this increased characterization of the cytoskeleton in pluripotent stem cells will allow for the better understanding and design of stem cell-based therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Reprogrammed cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESCs), are similar in many respects to natural embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, previous studies have demonstrated that iPSCs retain a gene expression signature that is unique from that of ESCs, including differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression, while NT-ESCs are more faithfully reprogrammed cells and have better developmental potential compared with iPSCs. RESULTS: We focused on miRNA expression and explored the difference between ESCs and reprogrammed cells, especially ESCs and NT-ESCs. We also compared the distinct expression patterns among iPSCs, NT-ESCs and NT-iPSCs. The results demonstrated that reprogrammed cells (iPSCs and NT-ESCs) have unique miRNA expression patterns compared with ESCs. The comparison of differently reprogrammed cells (NT-ESCs, NT-iPSCs and iPSCs) suggests that several miRNAs have key roles in the distinct developmental potential of reprogrammed cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that miRNAs play a part in the difference between ESCs and reprogrammed cells, as well as between MEFs and pluripotent cells. The variation of miRNA expression in reprogrammed cells derived using different reprogramming strategies suggests different characteristics induced by nuclear transfer and iPSC generation, as well as different developmental potential among NT-ESCs, iPSCs and NT-iPSCs.
Project description:Pluripotent genomes are folded in a topological hierarchy that reorganizes during differentiation. The extent to which chromatin architecture is reconfigured during somatic cell reprogramming is poorly understood. Here we integrate fine-resolution architecture maps with epigenetic marks and gene expression in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and NPC-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We find that most pluripotency genes reconnect to target enhancers during reprogramming. Unexpectedly, some NPC interactions around pluripotency genes persist in our iPSC clone. Pluripotency genes engaged in both "fully-reprogrammed" and "persistent-NPC" interactions exhibit over/undershooting of target expression levels in iPSCs. Additionally, we identify a subset of "poorly reprogrammed" interactions that do not reconnect in iPSCs and display only partially recovered, ESC-specific CTCF occupancy. 2i/LIF can abrogate persistent-NPC interactions, recover poorly reprogrammed interactions, reinstate CTCF occupancy, and restore expression levels. Our results demonstrate that iPSC genomes can exhibit imperfectly rewired 3D-folding linked to inaccurately reprogrammed gene expression.
Project description:It has been suggested that the transcription factor Nanog is essential for the establishment of pluripotency during the derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, successful reprogramming to pluripotency with a growing list of divergent transcription factors, at ever increasing efficiencies, suggests that there may be many distinct routes to a pluripotent state. Here, we have investigated whether Nanog is necessary for reprogramming murine fibroblasts under highly efficient conditions using the canonical reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc. In agreement with prior results, the efficiency of reprogramming Nanog-/- fibroblasts was significantly lower than that of control fibroblasts. However, in contrast to previous findings, we were able to reproducibly generate iPS cells from Nanog-/- fibroblasts that effectively contributed to chimeric mice. Thus while Nanog may be an important mediator of reprogramming it is not required for establishing pluripotency in the mouse, even under standard conditions. In order to further evaluate the equivalency of Nanog null iPSC to nanog null ESCs, we have performed RNAseq on two independent nanog null iPSC lines, as well as Nanog Null ESC, WT ESC and iPSCs as well as MEFs. As a negativve control for reprogramming we have analyzed a partially reprogrammed iPSC line. 2-4 biological replicates each of 7 conditions (WT MEFs, WT ESC, WT iPSC, WT partially reprogrammed iPSC (piPS), Nanog null ESC, Nanog null iPSC clone G2 and Nanog null iPSC clone G5)
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells, like embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have specialized epigenetic landscapes, which are important for pluripotency maintenance. Transcription factor-mediated generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires global change of somatic cell epigenetic status into an ESC-like state. Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic mechanisms not only play important roles in the iPSC generation process, but also affect the properties of reprogrammed iPSCs. Understanding the roles of various epigenetic factors in iPSC generation contributes to our knowledge of the reprogramming mechanisms.
Project description:Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity. Reprogrammed H103 (Rep-H103) exhibited similar ESCs morphologies with flatten cells and clear borders on feeder layer. Reprogrammed H376 (Rep-H376) did not show ESCs morphologies but grow with a disorganized morphology. Critical pluripotency genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were expressed higher in Rep-H103 against the parental counterpart from passage 5 to passage 10. As for Rep-H376, Nanog expression against its parental counterpart showed a significant decrease at passage 5 and although increased in passage 10, the level of expression was similar to the parental cells. Rep-H103 exhibited pluripotent signals (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Tra-1-60) and could form EB with the presence of three germ layers markers. Rep-H103 displayed differentiation capacity into adipocytes and osteocytes. The OSCC cell line H103 which was able to be reprogrammed into an iPSC like state showed high expression of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog at late passage and may provide a potential iPSC model to study multi-stage oncogenesis in OSCC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To establish a new biological cell model and approach to mimic abnormal lipid metabolism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Epithelial cells from PCOS patients were reprogrammed to pluripotency by retroviral transduction using defined factors. Morphology, growth characteristics, karyotype, gene expression and differentiation in vitro and in vivo were detected by identification protocol of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). PCOS-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were then induced to differentiate into adipocytes. Ability of the adipocytes for glucose consumption was compared with those from non-PCOS-iPSCs. RESULTS:iPSCs were successfully generated from PCOS patients' adult cells. Formed iPSC clones had the same characteristics of human ESCs. PCOS-iPSCs were induced to differentiation into normal karyotype adipocytes. Compared to non-PCOS-iPSCs, PCOS-iPSCs had more glucose consumption ability during adipocyte differentiation and development in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:This protocol provides a new biological cell model and approach for studying pathogenesis of PCOS and discovering potential drugs to treat it.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are usually clonally derived. The selection of fully reprogrammed cells generally involves picking of individual colonies with morphology similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Given that fully reprogrammed cells are highly proliferative and escape from cellular senescence, it is conceivable that they outgrow non-pluripotent and partially reprogrammed cells during culture expansion without the need of clonal selection. In this study, we have reprogrammed human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) with episomal plasmid vectors. Colony frequency was higher and size was larger when using murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as stromal support instead of HDFs or human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We have then compared iPSCs which were either clonally derived by manual selection of a single colony, or derived from bulk-cultures of all initial colonies. After few passages their morphology, expression of pluripotency markers, and gene expression profiles did not reveal any significant differences. Furthermore, clonally-derived and bulk-cultured iPSCs revealed similar in vitro differentiation potential towards the three germ layers. Therefore, manual selection of individual colonies does not appear to be necessary for the generation of iPSCs - this is of relevance for standardization and automation of cell culture procedures.
Project description:Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a hallmark of ideal pluripotent stem cells. Epigenetic reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has not been fully accomplished. iPSC generation is similar to somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in oocytes, and this procedure can be used to generate ESCs (SCNT-ESCs), which suggests the contribution of oocyte-specific constituents. Here, we show that the mammalian oocyte-specific linker histone H1foo has beneficial effects on iPSC generation. Induction of H1foo with Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 significantly enhanced the efficiency of iPSC generation. H1foo promoted in vitro differentiation characteristics with low heterogeneity in iPSCs. H1foo enhanced the generation of germline-competent chimeric mice from iPSCs in a manner similar to that for ESCs. These findings indicate that H1foo contributes to the generation of higher-quality iPSCs.
Project description:Although pluripotent stem cells can generate various types of differentiated cells, it is unclear why lineage-committed stem/progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells are decelerated and why the differentiation-resistant propensity of embryonic stem cell (ESC)/induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells is predominant compared with the in vivo equivalents derived from embryonic/adult tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that iPSCs reprogrammed and maintained with three chemical inhibitors of the fibroblast growth factor 4-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and GSK3β (3i) could be differentiated into all three germ layers more efficiently than the iPSCs reprogrammed without the 3i chemicals, even though they were maintained with 3i chemicals once they were reprogrammed. Although the iPSCs reprogrammed with 3i had increased numbers of Zscan4-positive cells, the Zscan4-positive cells among iPSCs that were reprogrammed without 3i did not have an accelerated differentiation ability. These observations suggest that 3i exposure during the reprogramming period determines the accelerated differentiation/maturation potentials of iPSCs that are stably maintained at the distinct state.
Project description:Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical event in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we determined the DNA methylation profiles of 22 human iPSC lines derived from five different cell types (human endometrium, placental artery endothelium, amnion, fetal lung fibroblast, and menstrual blood cell) and five human embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines, and we followed the aberrant methylation sites in iPSCs for up to 42 weeks. The iPSCs exhibited distinct epigenetic differences from ESCs, which were caused by aberrant methylation at early passages. Multiple appearances and then disappearances of random aberrant methylation were detected throughout iPSC reprogramming. Continuous passaging of the iPSCs diminished the differences between iPSCs and ESCs, implying that iPSCs lose the characteristics inherited from the parent cells and adapt to very closely resemble ESCs over time. Human iPSCs were gradually reprogrammed through the "convergence" of aberrant hyper-methylation events that continuously appeared in a de novo manner. This iPS reprogramming consisted of stochastic de novo methylation and selection/fixation of methylation in an environment suitable for ESCs. Taken together, random methylation and convergence are driving forces for long-term reprogramming of iPSCs to ESCs.